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Airport Authority of INDIA was build by an act of Parliament and came into being on 1st April ,1995 by
merging National Airport Authority and International Authority of INDIA

AAI at various airports handled about 5 lakhs aircrafts movements (4 lakh domestic and 1 lakh
international) 40 million passengers (26 million domestic and 14 million international ) and 9 lakh
tones of cargo (3 lakh domestic and 6 lakh international).

AAI manages 126 airports, which include 11 international airports,89 domestic airports and 26 civil
enclaves at defense airfields.
ATC (Air Traffic Control)

Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct
aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to
aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent
collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other
support for pilots.In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the
Air traffic controllers monitor the location of aircraft in their assigned airspace by radar and
communicate with the pilots by radio. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation
rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all
times. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft
operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may
issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories (known as flight information in
some countries) that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard. The pilot in command is the final
authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC
instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft
C.N.S. (Communication navigation surveillance)

Communication Navigation and Surveillance are three main functions which constitute the
foundation of Air Traffic Control.

The following provide further details about relevant domains of CNS:

Communication:- Communication is the exchange of voice and data between the pilot and
air traffic controller or flight information.

Navigation :- Navigation Elements of CNS Systems is meant to provide Accurate,Reliable,and

Seamless position Determination Capability.

Surveillance :- The Surveillance systems can be divided into two main types dependent
surveillance and Independent surveillance systems. Aircrafts position is determined on board
and then transmitted to ATC . Independent surveillance is a system which measures aircrafts
positions from the ground .current surveillance is based on Radar.
Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the
need for human work in the production of goods and services.

Automation system provides the air traffic controller with the information required for
the safe and efficient performance of their duties.

The objective of automation system is as follows:

• Efficiency enhancement of ATC officers:

Automation system enhances the efficiency of the
air traffic controllers.

• Accuracy of overall ATC:

Automation system also takes care of the accuracy of the air traffic controllers as well as
that of the pilot.
• Safety of passengers and aircraft:
Efficiency and accuracy of air traffic controllers directly/indirectly leads to safety of the
passengers as well as the aircraft
VHF (Very High Frequency)

• The range of VHF is about 30 MHz -300 MHz .

• Communication type – line of sight .

• Amplitude Modulation Technique is used .

• It is less noisy than HF.

• It is used for short range communication.

• AAI operates in between (118-136 MHZ) frequency range.

AMSS (Automatic message Switching System)

The process of getting an aircraft safely and efficiently to its destination depends largely on an
efficient communication systems besides navigation and surveillance systems . The
communication system must be able to provide an accurate and speedy exchange of
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION between stations to enable them to control the air space and
movement of air traffic to ensure highest standards of safety and quality in air traffic.
• Data channels are shared among communication devices,improving the use of bandwidth.
• Messages can be stored temporarily at messages switches , when network congestion
becomes problem.

• Priorities may be used to manage network traffic.

• Broadcast addressing uses bandwidth more efficiently because messages are delievered to
multiple destination.
An airport Surviellance radar (ASR) is a radar system used at airport to detect and display the
position of aircraft in the terminal area.

• This system monitors the movement of all the aircrafts within its region of operations

• ASR includes the primary surveillace radar and secondary surveillance radar.

The primary surveillance radar uses a continousaly rotating antenna mounted on a tower to
transmit electromagnetic waves that reflect from the surface of aircraft up to 60 miles from
the radar . The radar system measures the time required for radar to echo to return the
direction of the signal . From this, the system can then measures thr distance of the signal
from the radar antenna and the azimuth, or direction, of the aircraft in relation to the
Power required about 25kw
Frequency range is 2700-2900 MHz.

The secondary radar uses a second radar antenna attached to the top of the primary radar antenna to
transmit and receive area aircraft data for barometric altitude , identification code and emergency

Frequency range : 1030-1090 MHz .

Power range : 160-1500 watts .

A Telephone exchange is a telecommunication system used in the public switched telephones network or in
large enterprises. An exchange consist of electronics components and in older systems also humans
operators that interconnect telephones subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to establish
telephones calls between subscribers.

• EPABX (Electronic Private automation Exchange)

Main features ;-

1. Call transfer
2. Call pickup
3. Call backup
4. Conference
IP Based Telephone Exchange

An IP telephone system uses packet-switched Voice over IP (VoIP), or Internet telephony, to transmit
telephone calls over the Internet as opposed to the circuit-switched telephony used by the traditional
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Also known as VoIP phone systems, IP telephone systems
typically comprise a VoIP private branch exchange (an IP PBX) and desktop VoIP phones (IP Phones) that
connect to a VoIP service provider via a Local Area Network (LAN).
One of the key advantages to IP telephone systems is that whereas long-distance calls on a regular phone
system can be cost prohibitive, the same calls on an IP phone system are free -- there are no fees beyond
the cost of Internet access.


•All channels carried over one Internet connection

•Dedicated Lines
•Compression can result in 10kbps (in each
•Each line is 64kbps (in each direction)
•Features such as call waiting, Caller ID and so on are
•Features such as call waiting, Caller ID and so on are
usually available at an extra cost
usually included free with service
•Can be upgraded or expanded with new equipment
•Upgrades usually requires only bandwidth and
and line provisioning
software upgrades
•Long distance is usually per minute or bundled
•Long distance is often included in regular monthly
minute subscription
•Hardwired landline phones (those without an
•Lose power, lose phone service without power
adapter) usually remain active during power outage
backup in place
•When placing a 911 call it can be traced to your
•911 emergency calls cannot always be traced to a
specific geographic location