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What we cover today in class…

• Why do we need to conduct parking studies

• Types of parking facilities
• Definition of terms related to parking studies
• Steps of parking studies
• Steps of analyzing parking data
Parking Studies

• Any vehicle will at one time be parked short

time or longer time, provision of parking
facilities is essential
• need for parking spaces is usually very great in
areas of business, residential, or commercial
• solution is not simple, Parking studies are
used to determine the demand for and the
supply of parking facilities.
Types of Parking

• On Street Parking Facility:

– Also known as curb facilities. Parking bays are
provided alongside the curb on one or both sides
of the street.
– unrestricted parking
– unlimited and free
– Restricted parking facilities
– As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is
taken as 5 x 2.5 meters and that for a truck is 3.75
x 7.5 meters.
Types of on Street Parking

• Parallel Parking
– The vehicles are
parked along the
length of the road.
– There is no backward
movement involved
while parking or
unparking the
– it is the most safest
parking from the
accident perspective.
Types of on Street Parking

• 300 Parking
– The vehicles are
parked at 300 with
respect to the road
– Delay caused to the
traffic is also
minimum in this type
of parking.
– L=0.58+5N
Types of on Street Parking

• 450 Parking
– As the angle of
parking increases,
more number of
vehicles can be
– L= 3.54 N+1.77
Types of on Street Parking

• 600 Parking
– The vehicles are
parked at 600 to the
direction of road.
– More number of
vehicles can be
accommodated in
this parking type.
– L=2.89N+2.16
Types of on Street Parking

• Right angle parking

– The vehicles are parked
perpendicular to the
direction of the road.
– The vehicles need
complex maneuvering and
this may cause severe
accidents. L=2.5N
– This arrangement causes
obstruction to the road
traffic particularly if the
road width is less.
Off street parking

– some areas are exclusively

allotted for parking which
will be at some distance
away from the main stream
of traffic.
– They may be operated by
either public agencies or
private firms.
Types of off-street parking

– Surface car parks

– Multi storey car parking
– Roof parking
– Mechanical car parking
– Underground car parking
Surface car parks
Multi Storey parking

– One of the alternatives when the land is costly for

surface parking.
– Multi-storey car parks are designed for a capacity
of about 400 to 500 cars.
– Ramp gradient-1 in 10, Clear ht between floors-
– Dimensions-2.5mx5m, curve radius-7m
– Width of traffic lane-3.75m.
– Loading standard-400kg/m2
Multi Storey parking
Roof Parking
– Solving the parking problem by parking the
vehicles on roof.
– To economize many roofs may be linked
together served by a single access ramp.
Mechanical car parks
– Lifting the cars from floor to floor by means
of a lift and transfer of cars from the parking
Definitions of common terms
Parking Accumulation: The total number of
vehicles parked in an area at a specified
Parking Volume: The number of vehicles
parking in a particular area over a given period
of time.
Parking Load: The area under the parking
accumulation curve during specified period.
Parking duration: The length of time spent in a
parking space.
Definitions of common terms
Parking Index: Percentage of parking bays
actually occupied by parked vehicles.
Parking index=Number of bays occupied x100
Theoretical number of bays available
Parking turn-over: Rate of the usage of the
available parking space.
Eg: 10 parking spaces used by 100 vehicles in a
period of 12 hours,
Parking turnover=100/10 vehicles per space in
a period of 12 hr.
Types of Parking Surveys
1. Parking space inventory:
2. Parking usage survey by patrol(License plate)
3. Questionnaire type parking usage survey
4. Cordon Count
5. Photographic methods
1. Parking Space Inventory
1. The first step in a parking survey is to collect
data on the amount, type and location of
space actually available for parking in an
Parking Usage Survey by Patrolling..
Steps in the survey
1. Mapping the street system
2. Frequency of patrol
3. Method of observation
4. Timing of survey
5. Equipment and form of recording
6. Analysis
2. Parking Usage Survey by Patrolling..
Steps in the survey
1. Mapping the street system:
Steps in the survey
1. Frequency: A frequency of 30 minutes is
satisfactory for on street parking.
2. Method of observation: Usually patrols are
by foot or moving car method. Tape
recorder can also be used.
3. Timing of survey: Peak hour usually 10- to
12 hour per day.
4. Equipment and Form of recording: Each
observer will be equipped with a watch, a
pencil, Forms, a map of the street and a
3. Questionnaire Type Parking usage survey
1. Making enquiries among the car owner
living in the vicinity of the survey area or by
making enquiries among the drivers of cars
seen to park in the area at the time of
- Address of orgin& destination of the trip
- Trip purpose
- Time of arrival & departure at the parking
- Type of parking space used
- Type of vehicle.
4. Cordon Count
– Making cordon counts of the selected area.
– Recording the accumulation of vehicles
during the peak hours by subtracting the
outgoing traffic from the traffic volume
entering the cordoned area.

5. Photographic Technique