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OBJECTIVES

Importance to Study Perception

1. Explain how two people can see the same


thing and interpret it differently.
LEARNING

2. Employees expectations
3. Describe how shortcuts can assist in or
distort our judgment of others.
4. Explain how perception affects the decision-
making process.
PERCEPTION

Fire.mp4
Chronological Development of Law
Notion (Idea)

Perception

Conception

Assumption

Theory

Law
Different Perception
1
Different perception
1
1
What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important?

• People’s behavior is
based on their
perception of what
reality is, not on
reality itself.
• The world as it is
perceived is the world
that is behaviorally
important.
Perceptual Process
a

Organizing
Signal Organs receive signal
e.g Tasting, Smelling,
hearing, seeing, touch

Selective Attention
External Factors Internal Factors Creating Figures in
Nature Learning, mind
Location Needs, Age,
Size Interest

Interpreting Response
Attribution, Halo effect, Covert Overt
Projection Attitude Behavior
Feeling
Factors
That
Influence
Perception

• Perceiver
• Situation
• Target
Person Perception: Making Judgments About
Others

Attribution theory
Attribution theory seeks to explain why people behave as
they do. Developed by Fritz Heider HH Kelly.
This theory has been proposed to develop explanations of
the ways in which we judge people differently, depending
on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
Basically, the theory suggests that when we observe an
individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it
was internally or externally caused.
Internally/Externally Caused Behavior

Internally Externally
Believed to be under Seen as resulting from
the personal control of outside causes that is
the individual. the person is seen as
E.g. Late for work having been forced
because of party. into the behavior by
the situation.
E.g. Late for work
because of automobile
accident.
Person Perception: Making Judgments About
Others, Contd.,

Determinants:

1. Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different


situations. E.g. Late coming also a source of complaints by
coworkers - External. If this action is not unusual it will be
judged as internal.
2. Consensus: response is the same as others to same
situation. E.g. Others who followed the same route and were
late - external; some of them were in time – Internal.
3. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. E.g.
Late for 2 to 3 times in week – Internal.
Attribution Theory
Errors and Biases in Attributions
Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d)
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others

1. Selective perception
2. Halo effect
3. Contrast effects
4. Projection
5. Stereotyping
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others

a Example
Why sale went up?
1. Sales Manager:
Because of sales team
efforts.
2. Production manger:
Because of innovative
product.
3. HR Manger: Because
of Training programs.
HALO EFFECT

Whom would you select


for the position of HR
Manager?
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others,
Contd.,
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
Understanding Stereotype
If you believe that a characteristic is more like a typical male, Mark an
M in the space provided. Mark an F if you believe that a characteristic
is more like a female. Mark an N if you believe there is no difference.
1. _______Aggressive
2. _______Dominant
3. _______Excitable in a major crisis
4. _______ Home Oriented
5. _______High Mechanical aptitude
6. _______Feeling easily hurt
7. _______Never cries
8. _______Strong need for security
9. _______Indifferent to others’ approval
10. _______Likes maths and science
11. _______Emotional
12. _______Has difficulty making decisions
Scoring
For 1,2,5,7,9,10 give yourself 1 point
for each M rating and 0 for F or N.
For 3,4,6,8,11,12 give yourself 1
point for each F rating and 0 for M
or N.
Score Indicates
Maximum Points=12
A high score indicates a strong belief in traditional
gender roles and tendency to stereotype sex roles.
Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organization

 Employment Interview
– Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of
applicants.
 Performance Expectations
– Self-fulfilling forecast: The lower or higher performance of employees
reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.
 Performance Evaluations
– Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance.
 Employee Effort
– Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to
perceptual distortion and bias.
 Employee Loyalty
– Employee support towards the organization.
 Whistle-Blowers
– Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders.
 Designing Training Programme: To remove wrong perceptions.
 CRM (Customer relationship Management): To create positive perception.
Exercise
One of the most fundamental concepts of the study of individual and
group behavior in organizations is perception and the effects it has on
judgments, decisions, and behavior.
 Sit Group Wise
 Take position in such a way that no one can see you
 Think about self and write most dominant impression about self
 If you were animal what kind of animal you would be
 Write favorite TV show
 Write favorite food
 Write hobby
While writing don’t share anything with your group members
Students are instructed to remain isolated from group
members and to enter each group member's name at
the top of the remaining columns of the worksheet.
Social Perception Exercise Worksheet
Self Group GM 2 GM 3 GM 4 GM 5
Member
(GM) 1
FIRST THING
TO MIND
(ADJECTIVE)

Animal

TV show

Hobby
Social Perception Exercise Discussion Questions

1. How accurate were your perceptions of others?


2. To what can you attribute these accuracies and
inaccuracies?
3. How accurate were others' perceptions of you?
4. To what can you attribute these accuracies and
inaccuracies?
5. To what extent were your perceptions of others
similar to and different from your perceptions of
yourself?
6. What did you learn about how you perceive others?
7. What did you learn about how others perceive you?
Exercise 2: Perceptual Skills
Identify the number of triangles
Answer Triangles
Total 47 Triangles
ACE FBD AED AEH AEB AFC
AFH AFD AFB FEB FCE FEH
FEJ DEA DEB DEH DEG DEF
DCH DCA DCB ECH ECB ECF
ACH ACD AFC ABG ABH ABD
BCI BCH BCF BGF BHI HID
HJD HJF HFG FRD FHD FBJ
BJD BFH BHD FID FGD