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• Transmission is the mechanism that transmits the

power from the engine crankshaft to the wheels,
providing the variable speed and torque at the road
wheels as per the requirement.
Types of Transmission

• Manual Transmission
• Fully-Automatic Transmission
• Semi-Automatic Transmission
• Continuously Variable Transmission
• Manual Transmission - In case of the manual
transmission system, the vehicle is driven with the
assistance of gearshift and clutch. The other
components, which are used in this process, are
flywheel, pressure plate and ring gears.

• Automatic Transmission - In case of the automatic

transmission system, the gears are changed
automatically corresponding with the vehicle's speed.
The basic components essential for this process are
modulator, torque converter, planetary gears,
governor, computer, seals and hydraulic designs.
• Semi - automatic Transmission – It is an automobile
transmission that does not change gears automatically,
but rather facilitates manual gear changes by
dispensing with the need to press a clutch pedal at the
same time as changing gears.
It removes the need for a clutch pedal which the
driver otherwise needs to press before making a gear
change, since the clutch itself is actuated by electronic
equipment which can synchronize the timing and torque
required to make quick, smooth gear shifts.
Different types of Gear

• Spur Gears - Spur gears or

straight-cut gears are the
simplest type of gear which
have involute type of tooth.

• Helical Gears - It is a type of

gear with slanted teeth.
Helical gears are quieter than
spur gears because of better
• Double Helical - is a special
type of gear which is a side to
side combination of two helical
gears of opposite hands. From
the top the helical grooves of
this gear looks like letter V.

• Bevel Gear - A type of gear

with cone-shaped teeth that are
cut at an angle. Bevel gears are
often used in angular gear
• Rack and Pinion - A pair of gears
used to convert rotary motion into
linear motion. A rack and pinion
consists of a circular gear, or pinion,
that meshes with a flat-toothed bar,
or rack.
• Gear Ratio - It is the ratio of the no. of teeth (Tb) on
the driven wheel to no. of teeth (Ta) on the driver
wheel or the speed of rotation of the driver to the

Radius ra and Angular Velocity Ѡa of Gear A.

Radius rb and Angular Velocity Ѡb of Gear B.
Types of Gearbox

• Constant mesh type

• Synchromesh type
• Sliding mesh type
Constant Mesh Type
Synchromesh Gear Type
Reverse and its Working
• A gear used to make a vehicle or piece of machinery
move or work backwards.

• There will be a small gear in between lay shaft and

output shaft called the idler gear. The inclusion of this
gear causes the last helical gear on the output shaft to
spin in the opposite direction to all the others.
Clutch and its Components
• Clutch - A clutch is a mechanical device that engages
and disengages the power transmission, especially
from driving shaft to driven shaft. It is located
between flywheel and gearbox.
Types of Clutches
• Single Plate Clutch
• Multi - Plate Clutch
• Cone Clutch
• Centrifugal Clutch
• Electromagnetic Clutch
• Differential allows the wheels on the same axle to
turn at different rates, the differential also acts as the
final gear reduction in the driveline.
• Open Differential - They are the most common, and
they supply the same amount of torque to each
• Limited Slip Differential - It is a modification of open
differential and have spring pressure plates and clutch
pack. Better for off-roading. Leads to understeer.
• Locking differential - It is also a derivative of open
differential but with an electronic, pneumatic or
hydraulic actuation system that locks the two drive
pinions together as if they were a solid axle. This is
for use in serious off-roading, where a vehicle will
spend a lot of time with one wheel per axle in the air.
By locking the differential, it behaves like a solid axle
and both wheels are spun together. Leads to
Drive Trains
• 2WD - This is the most common type of drivetrain in
any car today. The engine drives the gearbox which
sends its output to an open differential either on the
front or rear axle, which in turn drives those wheels.

• 4WD - Also known as part-time all-wheel drive, this

system has an open differential on the front and rear
axle and a transfer case on the output from the
• AWD - It stands for All Wheel Drive. It doesn’t have
the option of switching and always run 4×4 drive.
Two types of AWD -
• Traction - Traction, or tractive force, is the force used
to generate motion between a body and a tangential
surface, most generally through the use of dry

Traction control helps limit tire slip in acceleration on

slippery surfaces.
• Types of Tyres -

i. Performance tyres or summer tyres

ii. All-round or all-season tyres
iii. Wet-weather tyres
iv. Snow & mud or ice : special winter tyres
v. All-terrain tyres
vi. Mud tyres