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Fitness for Life



Students will:

1)Define cardiovascular disease (CVD) and describe some of the risk factors for CVD.
2) Define cardiovascular fitness and describe some ways to measure it.
3) Understand how cardiovascular fitness contributes to lower risk of cardiovascular
disease and improved health and wellness.
4) Discuss how the FITT principles can be used to improve cardiovascular fitness.
5) Learn ways to monitor the heart and ways test for heart condition.
6) Learn how to take exercise heart rate.
6) Understand the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
Cardiovascular Fitness is:
The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to
function efficiently when a person exercises the body.
Why Is Cardiovascular Fitness

• It will increase your energy level • Forms more arteries in the heart
• It will help you feel and look good • Clears fats from the bloodstream
• Creates body fat loss • Lowers chance of atherosclerosis
• Helps with stress reduction • Strengthens the heart muscle
• Improves health • Decreases chance of heart disease
• Can extend your lifespan or stroke
• Improves self concept
Regular physical activity
benefits two body systems:
The cardiovascular system, and respiratory system.
Cardiovascular System: consists of
your heart (cardio), blood, and blood
vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries).
A cardiovascular system that works well
consists of :
1. A heart that pumps efficiently (e.g.,
more blood pumped with each heart
2. Blood that carries oxygen to tissues
3. Unclogged blood vessels that allow
for effective delivery of oxygen.
Respiratory System: Your respiratory system includes
your lungs, and the air passages that bring air, including
oxygen, from outside of the body into the lungs. Inside
your lungs, oxygen enters your blood while carbon
dioxide is eliminated.
Cardiac Cycle:
• When you breath in,
oxygen is absorbed from
the lungs and by the
blood stream and
oxygenated blood is sent
to the left side of the
heart (red arrows).
• Heart diagram is shown
as if you were facing a
person’s heart.
• The right side of the heart
(blue) is responsible for
sending blood to the lungs,
where the red blood cells
pick up fresh oxygen.
• This blood is then returned
to the left side of the heart
(red). From here the
oxygenated blood is
pumped to the whole body
supplying the fuel that the
body cells need to
Arteries and Veins
• The left side of the heart
forces oxygenated blood
away from the heart and
into the body through

• The VEINS carry

deoxygenated blood back
into the right side of the
Capillaries serve as bridges
between arteries and veins.
This is where food and oxygen are transported from
the blood to the cells.
Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular Disease includes diseases that affect the
heart. Two common conditions related to cardiovascular
disease include:
Atherosclerosis (plaque build-up around the arteries).
Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
Both of these conditions can lead to a stroke or heart attack.
A heart attack
occurs when the blood supply into or within the heart is cut
off or reduced.
Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Your risk for cardiovascular disease is
affected by non-modifiable and
modifiable risk factors.

•Non-modifiable risk factors (risk

factors you cannot change) including
your age, gender, and heredity.
As you get older, your risk for
heart disease increases.

Additionally, men have higher risk than

women until women reach menopause
(when their menstrual period stops).
•Modifiable risk factors: are the things you can change.
This includes things like smoking, stress, diet and physical
inactivity. Individuals who smoke are at higher risk of
heart disease than non-smokers. People who are
chronically stressed are also at higher risk of heart disease
than those who are less stressed. Lastly, individuals who
are not physically active and/or obese, are at higher risk of
heart disease than those who are active and have a healthy
body fat percentage.
Cholesterol and Blood Pressure
are two risk factors that are
commonly checked at the doctors’
office. Sometimes, students don't
have these tests measured
frequently enough.

For optimal health, you should

have your cholesterol and blood
pressure taken on a regular basis.

Early detection of Cardiovascular

Disease ensures that proper steps
can be taken to help reduce
further risks associated with
Cholesterol is a waxy fat substance in the blood of our
bodies. Our bodies need cholesterol to function. Your
liver makes all the cholesterol it needs to survive. Other
sources of cholesterol come from food. Cholesterol is
found in animal products such as meat, eggs and whole
milk dairy products. If the level of cholesterol gets to
high, it can stick to artery walls and cause serious health
problems. 52% of American adults have high cholesterol.

Optimal values for total cholesterol are below 200

If your values are above 240 mg/dl, you have twice the
risk of a heart attack as someone whose total
cholesterol is below 200 mg/dl.
Cholesterol moves through your
bloodstream via lipoproteins . They are
either low-density (LDL’s) or high-density

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL’s) are

often called the "bad cholesterol" because
they contribute to plaque build up in the
blood vessels (atherosclerosis).

To lower total cholesterol and LDL’s, it is

recommended to lower your intake of
saturated fats and cholesterol and increase
your level of physical activity.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL’s), are often referred to
as the "good cholesterol," are responsible for carrying
excess harmful cholesterol out of the bloodstream and
into the liver for disposal.

HDL’s are typically lower in individuals who smoke,

people who are sedentary, and those who are overweight.

The best way to increase HDL’s is through aerobic

exercise and a healthy diet.
Ways to monitor your heart:

1. Blood Pressure
2. Heart Rate
3. Resting Heart Rate
4. Recovery Heart Rate
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure is the force of blood against the artery walls.
Normal blood pressure is around 120/80.
• The higher # (120) is called Systolic - this is your heart
contracting to pump blood.
• The lower # (80) is called Diastolic – this is your heart
refilling or relaxing between beats.
Heart Rate
Heart Rate or Pulse - The pressure of blood on the artery wall
due to heartbeat. Take pulse at Carotid Artery (neck) or wrist.
On Neck- place first and second fingers on side of jaw.
On Wrist - place 3 inside fingers on thumb side of wrist with
palm facing up. Average Heart Rate is 70 beats per minute.

Count for 60 seconds, or for 6 seconds x 10, or 10 seconds x 6.

Resting Heart Rate

Resting Heart Rate is the number of times your heart beats

per minute while at rest. This # will improve with exercise.
Always take in bed before sitting up.
Recovery Heart Rate
Recovery Heart Rate is your heart rate after exercise.
Your heart should recover to about 120 beats per minute
within 5-6 minutes, and should be below 100 beats per
minute after 10 minutes.
Heart Disease
Heart Disease is the #1 killer in the United States and costs
our Nation more than any other disease. Every 37 seconds
someone in the United States dies from cardiovascular disease.
An estimated 81 million adults in the United States now suffer
from the consequences of these afflictions.
The main cause of
cardiovascular disease
The main cause of CV disease is the build-up of plaque
(fatty deposits) in the arteries. This is usually caused by
lack of exercise and poor diet.
Risk Factors for Developing
Cardiovascular Disease:
• Inactivity
• Smoking
• Obesity
• Poor Diet
• High Stress
• High Blood Pressure
• Age
• Heredity
Training Principles:
The FITT Formula
Frequency - How often should you workout?
Intensity - How hard should you push yourself?
Time - How long should your workouts be?
Type - What type of workout?
Frequency is the number of times per week that you perform
activity. The Surgeon General recommends that to improve
your overall health, you should perform physical activity at a
moderate to vigorous level most days of the week for at least
30 minutes.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that
to improve your physical fitness, you should exercise at a
vigorous level at least 3 days a week.
Intensity is how hard to exercise. Most of the time, exercise
intensity is measured by monitoring your heart rate.
You want to get your heart rate into your Target Zone for full

Target Heart Rate Zone is 60-90% of your Max Heart Rate.

This is about 130-180 beats per minute for someone who is
16-18 years of age.
Maximum Heart Rate
Maximum Heart Rate Should not exceed (220 – Age)
For example a 16 year old should not get their heart rate
over (220-16) = 204 for an extended period of time.
Try to stay in your target heart rate zone (130-180) beats
per minute which is 60-90% of max heart rate for at least
20-30 minutes 3-5 times a week.
Time is your exercise duration or
how long you exercise. This is
dependent upon your fitness
goals. You can choose to exercise
longer which will typically be at a
lower intensity… or you can
exercise for a shorter time at a
higher intensity.

You should exercise at least 30

minutes most days of the week.
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
Anaerobic exercise is
exercise, performed in short
or fast bursts in which the
heart cannot supply oxygen as
fast as muscles use it.
A few examples of an
anaerobic activities are
sprinting, playing volleyball,
weight lifting, or mowing your
Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise: is steady
activity done at an intensity
that raises the heart rate into
the target heart rate zone.

Some examples of aerobic

activities that are effective for
improving cardiovascular
fitness are: running, jogging,
elliptical, brisk walking,
cycling, cross-country skiing,
and swimming.
Training Principles
Training Principles are things you
should consider prior to and during
exercise. Every safe exercise session
should begin with a short warm-up.

Both the muscles and cardiovascular

system should be worked at a light to
moderate level when you start to
prepare the body for a more strenuous
bout of exercise.
Warm-ups are also used to prevent
injury. Once your body is warmed up,
you should stretch muscles before
starting a more strenuous workout.
After a workout session is completed, you should do a cool-
down. A cool-down is a period of time where you slow
down and walk or perform slow, static stretches. Remember
your recovery heart rate should slow to 100 beats per
minute or less within 10 minutes.
The cool-down is a way to gradually slow an exercise bout.
Replenish your fluids during and after exercise. If you are
thirsty you are already starting to get dehydrated.
Key Vocabulary
Aerobic exercise is lower intensity exercise, performed for longer periods of time, with
Anaerobic exercise is high intensity exercise, performed for a short period of time.
Arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is plaque build-up around the arteries.
Blood Pressure is the force of blood against the artery walls.
Cardiovascular Fitness is the body's ability to continuously provide oxygen to the
muscles as they perform work over an extended period of time.
Cardiovascular System consists of your heart, blood, blood vessels (veins, arteries and
Cardiovascular Disease includes diseases that affect the heart (arteriosclerosis and
Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in meats, dairy products, and eggs. It can become
dangerous and block your blood vessels-- if your body does not effectively dispose of it.
Too many deposits can cause a narrowing of the vessel wall which leads to higher blood
Key Vocabulary Cont.
Cool-Down is a period of time where you slow down and walk or perform slow, static
Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure on the artery walls when the heart relaxes.
Heart Rate or Pulse is the pressure of blood on the artery wall due to heartbeat. Take
pulse at Carotid Artery (neck) or wrist.
High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) is often referred to as the "good
cholesterol" because it is responsible for carrying excess harmful cholesterol out of the
bloodstream and into the liver for disposal.
Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) is often called the "bad cholesterol"
because it contributes to plaque build up in the blood vessels.
Resting Heart Rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute while at rest.
Resting heart rate will improve with exercise.
Recovery Heart Rate is your heart rate after exercise. Should be below 100 after 10 min.
Respiratory System includes your lungs, and the air passages.
Systolic blood pressure is the pressure on the artery walls when the heart contracts .
Warm-Up is designed to start blood flow (and thus oxygen delivery) to working muscles.