Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

Electrical Fundamentals 1 of 36

         
   
                                                      
                                                      
                                             
Electrical Fundamentals 2 of 36

             

MATTER

Everything in the world is made of matter. Matter is


anything that has mass (weight) and occupies space.
Matter can be made up of a group or series of different
atoms to form a molecule. These groups of atoms
(molecules) are sometimes called compounds. Some
types of matter can be broken down to a single atom
while still maintaining the properties of the original
material. These types of material are called elements.
Matter has three states: Solid, Liquid, and Vapor.
Electrical Fundamentals 3 of 36

MOLECULE EXAMPLE
Imagine a lake. Now imagine taking the
smallest particle or piece of water from the
   lake. You would have a single molecule of
water, H2O, which is made up of two
             
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
             
             
             
Not all materials are made up of molecules.
             
Copper, for example, is made up of a single
             
copper atom. These are called elements.
Each element is a type of matter that has
     
certain individual characteristics.
Electrical Fundamentals 4 of 36

THE ATOM
One of the basic building blocks in the universe for
matter is the atom. All matter - gas, liquid,
            or solid -
       
is made up of molecules or atoms joined together.
These atoms are the smallest particle into which an
element or substance can be divided without losing
         
its property.
         
A single atom consists of three basic components: a
         
proton, a neutron, and an electron.
         
Within the atom there is a Nucleus. The Nucleus
contains the protons and neutrons. Orbiting around
the nucleus are the electrons.
An atom is similar to a miniature solar system. As
with the sun in the center of the universe, the
nucleus is in the center of the atom. Protons and
Neutrons are contained inside the nucleus. Orbiting
around the nucleus are the electrons.
Electrical Fundamentals                 5 of 36 

ATOM CONSTRUCTION
An atom is similar to a
miniature solar system. As the
sun is in the center of the
solar system, so is the nucleus
is in the center of the atom.
Protons and neutrons are
contained
   within the nucleus.
Electrons
   orbit around the
nucleus, which would be
                  
similar to planets orbiting
                  
around the sun.
                  
               
Electrical Fundamentals 6 of 36

 
NUCLEUS   
The Nucleus   is located in the
center of the atom (shown in
                         
red).
                         
The Nucleus contains the
                         
protons and neutrons.
                         
Orbiting    around the nucleus
are the electrons.
Electrical Fundamentals 7 of 36

PROTONS             
Protons are located within the
nucleus  of the atom (shown in blue).
Protons   are positively (+) charged.
                            
                            
NEUTRONS
                            
Neutrons add atomic weight to an
                  
atom (shown in green).
Neutrons have no electrical charge.
Electrical Fundamentals               8 of 36

ELECTRONS
Electrons orbit around the nucleus of the
atom (shown in yellow).
Electrons are negatively (-) charged.
Since electrons are lighter than protons and
are outside the nucleus, they can be easily
moved from atom to atom to form a flow of
electrons. Normally electrons are prevented
from being pulled into the atom by the
forward momentum of their rotation.
  Electrons are also prevented from flying
away because of the magnetic attraction of
             
the protons inside the nucleus, the same
             
type of force that keeps the planets orbiting
             
around the sun.
        
Electrical Fundamentals 9 of 36

                     
ELECTRICAL CHARGES

Opposite electrical charges always attract each


other. So these particles with opposite charges will
tend to move toward each other. Like electrical
charges always repel. So particles with like charges
will move away from each other.
Remember: Opposites charges attract, and like
charges repel.
Atoms always try to remain electrically balanced.
Electrical Fundamentals 10 of 36 
            

BALANCED ATOMS

Atoms normally have an equal number of


electrons and protons.
Atoms have no electrical charge. They are
neither positive nor negative. They are
electrically neutral or BALANCED.The
negative charge of the electrons will
   cancel the positive charge of the protons,
thus balancing the charge of the atom.
  
This cancellation of charges creates a
               
natural attraction or bonding between the
               
positive proton and the negative electron.
               
          
Electrical Fundamentals 11 of 36

                       
ION PARTICLES
    
When an atom loses or gains an
                      
electron, an                      
imbalance occurs.
                      
The atom becomes either a
positively or                       
negatively charged
particle called an ION. These
unbalanced charged ION
particles are responsible for
electron flow (electricity).
IONs will take or release an
electron to become balanced
again.
Electrical Fundamentals 12 of 36 

ION CHARGE                      


A positive (+) ION has one
less  electron    than it has
protons.
                      
                      
A negative (-) ION has one
                      
more electron than it has
                       
protons.
The positive ION attracts a
negative ION to become
balanced. This attraction or
difference in electrical
potential causes electron flow.
Electrical Fundamentals            
13 of 36   

ELECTRON ORBITS

Electrons rotate around the


atom at different orbits called
Rings, Orbits, or Shells.
 
BOUND ELECTRONS orbit the
nucleus on the inner rings.
Bound electrons have a strong
magnetic attraction to the
nucleus.   
                              
FREE ELECTRONS orbit on the
                              
outermost ring which is known
                              
as the VALANCE RING.
             
Electrical 14 of 36 
Fundamentals

FREE ELECTRONS
Only the FREE ELECTRONS in the 
outermost shell (Valance Ring) are free to 
move from atom to atom. This movement 
   is called ELECTRON FLOW.
                                    
                                    
 
                                These FREE ELECTRONS are loosely 
held and can easily be moved to another 
atom or ion. 

Because of their distance from the 
nucleus, free electrons have a weak 
magnetic attraction. Since this attraction is 
not as strong to the nucleus as the bound 
electrons on the inner orbits, the electrons 
move easily from atom to atom. 
Electrical Fundamentals 15 of 36 
  
  INSULATORS
   An INSULATOR is any material that
                       inhibits (stops) the flow of electrons
                       (electricity).
                      
          An insulator is any material with 5 to 8
free electrons in the outer ring.
Because, atoms with 5 to 8 electrons
in the outer ring are held (bound)
tightly to the atom, they CANNOT be
easily moved to another atom nor
make room for more electrons.

Insulator material includes glass,


rubber, and plastic.
16 of 36 
Electrical Fundamentals   
            
CONDUCTORS
A CONDUCTOR is any material that
easily allows electrons (electricity) to
flow.

A CONDUCTOR has 1 to 3 free


  electrons in the outer
ring.Because atoms with 1 to 3
electrons in the outer ring are held
(bound) loosely to the atom, they
can easily move to another atom or
   make room for more electrons.
             
              Conductor material includes copper
              and gold.
      
Electrical Fundamentals 17 of 36 
SEMICONDUCTORS
Any material with exactly 4
free electrons in the   outer orbit   
are called                          
  SEMICONDUCTORS.

A semiconductor is neither a
conductor or insulator.
semiconductor material
includes carbon, silicon, and
germanium.

These materials are be used in


the manufacturer of diodes,
transistors, and integrated
circuit chips.
18 of 36 
Electrical Fundamentals      
                         

Two Current Flow theories exist. The first is:

ELECTRON THEORY
The Electron Theory states that current flows
from NEGATIVE to POSITIVE. Electrons move
from atom to atom as they move through the
conductor
  towards positive.
 

  
                                                                          
                                                                          
                   
19 of 36 
Electrical Fundamentals      
                         
The second Current Flow theory is:

CONVENTIONAL THEORY
Conventional theory, also known as HOLE THEORY,
states that current flows from POSITIVE to NEGATIVE.
Protons or the lack of electrons (the holes) move
towards the negative. (Current flow direction in Hole
Theory is the opposite of that in Electron Theory.)
Electrical Fundamentals 20 of 36 

VOLTAGE
Voltage is the electrical force that moves electrons
through a conductor. Voltage is electrical pressure
also known as EMF (Electro Motive Force) that
pushes electrons.
 
The greater the difference in electrical potential
push (difference between positive and negative),
the greater the voltage force potential.

  
                                                                           
                                                                           
Electrical Fundamentals
21 of 36 

MEASUREMENT
A VOLTMETER measures the
voltage potential across or
parallel to the circuit.

The Voltmeter measures the


  amount of electrical pressure
   difference between two points
                             being measured.
                             Voltage can exist between
                             two points without electron
                    flow.
22 of 36 
Electrical Fundamentals   
            
VOLTAGE UNITS
Voltage is measured in units called VOLTS.
Voltage measurements can use different value
prefixes  such as millivolt, volt, Kilovolt, and
Megavolt.

VOLTAGE LESS THAN BASIC UNIT  LARGER THAN


BASE UNIT  BASE UNIT 
Symbol  mV  V  kV 
Pronounced  millivolt  Volt  Kilovolt 
Multiplier  0.001  1  1,000 
Electrical Fundamentals 23 of 36 

CURRENT (AMPERES)

CURRENT is the quantity or flow rate of electrons


moving past a point within one second. Current flow is
also known as amperage, or amps for short.
Higher voltage will produce higher current flow, and
lower voltage will produce lower current flow.
24 of 36 
Electrical Fundamentals

MEASUREMENT
An AMMETER measures the quantity of current flow. 
Ammeters are placed in series (inline) to count the
electrons passing through it.

Example: A water meter counts the gallons of water


flowing through it.
Electrical Fundamentals
25 of 36 

AMPERAGE UNITS
Current flow is measured in units called Amperes or
AMPS.
Amperage measurements can use different value
prefixes, such as microamp, milliamp, and Amp.

AMPERAGE LESS THAN LESS THAN BASIC UNIT


BASE UNIT BASE UNIT

Symbol µA mA A
Pronounced Microamp milliamp Amp
Multiplier 0.000001 0.001 1
Electrical Fundamentals 26 of 36 

AFFECTS OF CURRENT FLOW

Two common effects of current flow are Heat Generation and


Electromagnetism.

HEAT: When current flows, heat will be generated. The higher


the current flow the greater the heat generated. An example
would be a light bulb. If enough current flows across the
filament, it will glow white hot and illuminate to produce light.

ELECTROMAGNETISM: When current flows, a small magnetic


field is created. The higher the current flow, the stronger the
magnetic field. An example: Electromagnetism principles are
used in alternators, ignition systems, and other electronic
devices.
Electrical Fundamentals    27 of 36 
            

RESISTANCE
Resistance is the force that reduces or stops the
flow of electrons. It opposes voltage.
Higher resistance will decrease the flow of electrons and
lower resistance will allow more electrons to flow.
 
Electrical Fundamentals 28 of 36 
MEASUREMENT
An OHMMETER measures the resistance of an electrical
circuit or component. No voltage can be applied while the
ohmmeter is connected, or damage to the meter will
occur.
Example: Water flows through a garden hose, and
someone steps on the hose. The greater the pressure
placed on the hose, the greater the hose restriction and
the less  water flows.

  
                      
                      
                       
Electrical Fundamentals 29 of 36 

RESISTANCE UNITS
Resistance is measured in units called OHMS.
Resistance measurements can use different value
prefixes, such as Kilo ohm and Megaohms.

AMPERAGE BASIC UNIT MORE THAN MORE THAN


BASE UNIT BASE UNIT
Symbol K M
Pronounced Ohm Kilo ohm Mega ohm
Multiplier 1 1,000 1,000,000
Electrical Fundamentals
30 of 36 

RESISTANCE FACTORS
Various factors can affect the resistance. These    include:   
LENGTH of the conductor. The longer the conductor,
             the
            
higher the resistance.

DIAMETER of the conductor. The narrower the


conductor, the higher the resistance.
TEMPERATURE of the material. Depending on the
material, most will increase resistance as temperature
increases.

PHYSICAL CONDITION (DAMAGE) to the material.


Any damage will increase resistance.
TYPE of MATERIAL used. Various materials have a wide
range of resistances.
Electrical Fundamentals 31 of 36 

TYPES OF ELECTRICITY
Two basic types of Electricity classifications:

STATIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is standing still.


Voltage potential with NO electron flow.

DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is in motion.


Voltage potential WITH electron flow. Two types of
Dynamic electricity exist:

Direct Current (DC) Electron Flow is in only one


direction.

Alternating Current (AC) Electron flow alternates and


flows in both directions (back and forth).
Electrical 32 of 36 
Fundamentals

STATIC ELECTRICITY
Voltage potential with NO electron flow.
Example: By rubbing a silk cloth on a glass rod, you
physically remove electrons from the glass rod and place
them on the cloth. The cloth now has a surplus of
electrons (negatively charged), and the rod now has a
deficiency of electrons (positively charged).
Another example: Rub your shoes on a rug and then
touch a metal table or chair .... Zap!! The shock you felt
was the static electricity dissipating through your body.

  
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                    
Electrical Fundamentals 33 of 36 

DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY
is electricity in motion, meaning you have electrons
flowing, in other words voltage potential WITH electron
flow.
Two types of dynamic electricity exists:
 
Direct Current (DC)
Alternating Current (AC)

 
  
                         
                         
                         
Electrical Fundamentals 34 of 35 

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)


Electricity with electrons flowing in only one direction
is called Direct Current or DC.
DC electrical systems are used in cars.

  
                                                                       
                                                                       
                                                                    
Electrical Fundamentals                          
35 of 36 

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)


Electricity with electrons flowing back and forth,
negative - positive- negative, is called Alternating
Current, or AC.

The electrical appliances in your home use AC power.

  
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                        
Electrical Fundamentals 36 of 36 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY
Electricity can be created by several means: Friction, Heat, Light, 
Pressure, Chemical Action, or Magnetic Action.
Only a few of these sources of energy are used in the 
automobile. The battery produces electricity through chemical 
action, and the alternator produces electricity through magnetic 
action.
Friction creates static electricity.
Heat can act upon a device called a thermo couple to create DC.
Light applied to photoelectric materials will produce DC 
electricity.
Pressure applied to a piezoelectric material will produce DC 
electricity.
Chemical Action of certain chemicals will create electricity.