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Intro Question

• Use your “Plickers” card to answer the


following.
• On the AP Chemistry Exam, I plan to get
an
• A) 5
• B) 4
• C) 3
• D) donuts
Ionic Equations
Deriving
COMPLETE and NET ionic
equations from molecular equations
Molecular Equations
aka Formula or Overall Equation
• Show all substances as elements or
compounds using appropriate formula
• Identify as solid (s), gas (g), liquid (l) or
dissolved (aq)
• In these equations essential to show states

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) 2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

The term SPECIES refers to any substance in a chemical reaction/equation


(compounds, elements, ions, etc)
Complete Ionic Equations
• For all dissolved (aq) substances show as
constituent ions (except weak acids or other
weak electrolytes)
• All others show as molecular formula

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) 2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net Ionic Equations
• Spectator ions are those ions that do not
undergo a change; they do not participate
in the chemical change and are the same
on both sides of the equation
• Remove all spectator ions from the
equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net Ionic Equations
• Spectator ions are those ions that do not
undergo a change; they do not participate
in the chemical change and are the same
on both sides of the equation
• Remove all spectator ions from the
equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net Ionic Equations
• Spectator ions are those ions that do not
undergo a change; they do not participate
in the chemical change and are the same
on both sides of the equation
• Remove all spectator ions from the
equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net Ionic Equations
• Spectator ions are those ions that do not
undergo a change; they do not participate
in the chemical change and are the same
on both sides of the equation
• Remove all spectator ions from the
equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net Ionic Equations
• Spectator ions are those ions that do not
undergo a change; they do not participate
in the chemical change and are the same
on both sides of the equation
• Remove all spectator ions from the
equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2I-(aq)


2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + PbI2(s)
Net ionic equations

Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) PbI2(s)

• Mass and charge must still balance, although


overall charge may not be neutral in a net ionic
equation
• Practice: Write the net ionic equation for

2NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l)


Chapter 1

• SI prefixes to know (page 9)


• mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro, nano

• How many significant figures are in 0.04060?


• A) 2
• B) 3
Use your Plickers card to answer
• C) 4
• D) 5
Chapter 1
The correct measurement is
• A) 57 mL
• B) 43 mL
• C) 42.99 mL
• D) 43.0 mL
Chapter 1
• Convert 25°C to Kelvin
• A) 25K
• B) 298K
• C) 298.15K
• D) -248K

• Know the Matter chart on page 28 (not


quarks)

• Any questions?
Chapter 2
• Atomic Number - # of protons (p+) in an atom
• Mass Number - # of p+ plus neutrons (n0) in an
atom
• Average Atomic Mass (or usually just atomic
mass) – the weighted average of the mass
numbers of the naturally occurring isotopes of a
given element
• Isotopes – atoms with the same number of p+ but
different number of n0
Chapter 2
• Experiments
• J.J. Thomson – Cathode Ray - Electrons
• Milikan – Oil Drop – Electron charge
• Rutherford – Gold Foil – Positively charged
nucleus
Chapter 2
• Which of the following elements is in the
alkaline earth family?
• Mg
• Cl
• Na
• Ne

• Which of the following name and formula


combination is correct
• MgCl – magnesium chloride
• NaF – sodium fluoride
• Ca2S – calcium sulfur
• They all are correct
Chapter 2
• Which of the following is the correct formula for
copper chloride
• CuCl
• CuCl2
• CoCl
• Can not be determined

• The correct name for Fe(NO2)3 is


• Iron (I) nitrite
• Iron (II) nitrite
• Iron (III) nitrite
• Can not be determined
Chapter 3
• Mole – What is it?
• Molar Mass
• What is the molar mass of CH4?
• 16.04 g/mol
• 16.0 g/mol
• 16 g/mol
• All above are correct
• A, B and C are incorrect

• What is the mass % of carbon in CH4?


• 20.0%
• 75.0%
• 80.0%
• Depends on the amount of CH4 you have
Chapter 3
• Maleic acid is an organic compound composed
of 41.39% C, 3.47% H and the rest oxygen. If
0.129 mol of maleic acid has a mass of 15.0 g,
what are the empirical and molecular formulas
of maleic acid?
Chapter 3
• The reaction between potassium chlorate and
red phosphorus (P4) takes place when you stike
a match on a matchbox. If you were to react
52.9 grams of potassium chlorate with excess
P4, what mass of tetraphosphorus decaoxide
would be produced? (The only other product is
potassium chloride)
• 36.8 g
• 52.9 g
• 89.7 g
• None of the above
Chapter 3
• What is a limiting reagent (reactant)?

• In simplest terms the limiting reactant in the


reactant that could produced the smallest
amount of product (it limits how much product
you can make).

• When given any stoichiometry problem, always


determine the limiting reagent and clearly
identify/label it.
Chapter 3
• To determine limiting reactant, calculate the
amount of product (any product will do, but the
problem will probably point you towards which
one to use) for each reactant. Compare the
results. Whichever reactant produced the
smallest amount of product is the limiting
reactant and that will carry through the rest of
any problem.
• You have 4 mols of H2 and 3 mols of O2, how
much water can be produced?
• Successfully and efficiently doing
stoichiometry is extremely important to your
success is this class
Chapter 4
• Lots of important vocabulary words
• Dilution Equation (M1V1 = M2V2)
• Neutralization
• An acid and base mixture is neutralized when
the moles of acid = the moles of base
• MaVana = MbVbnb
• M = molarity
• V = volume
• na = # ionizable H in the acid
• nb = # of OH- ions in the base
• We will do much more on acids, bases and
titration later in the year
Chapter 4
• Concentration of ions
• A solution of calcium hydroxide is prepared by
dissolving 74.1 g of solid calcium hydroxide in
enough water to make 0.500 L of solution.
What is the concentration of hydroxide ions in
the solution?
A. 0.500 M
B. 1.00 M
C. 2.00 M
D. 4.00 M
Oxidation-Reduction
An oxidation-reduction
(redox) reaction involves the
transfer of electrons (e- ).
Sodium transfers its electrons to chlorine

The oxidation numbers of the atoms will change….one


goes up (oxidation) and one goes down (reduction)

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To determine if we have a
redox reaction OXIDATION
NUMBERS are assigned for
each atom.
If it is a redox reaction, the
oxidation numbers of (some of) the
atoms will change.

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♦ Rules for assigning oxidation number
– Any uncombined element is 0.
– A monatomic ion equals the charge of the ion
– Fluorine is -1
– The more EN element in a binary compound is
assigned the number equal to the charge it
would have as an ion
– Oxygen is -2, unless it is combined with F,
when it is +2, or it is in a peroxide such as H2O2
when it its -1
– Hydrogen is usually +1, unless combined with
a metal, then it is -1

(Continues)
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♦ Rules for assigning oxidation number
– Group 1 is +1, Group 2 is +2, Aluminum is +3
– The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms
in a neutral compound is 0.
– The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms
in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion.

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The sum of the oxidation numbers
of all the atoms in a compound is
zero.
♦ CuO ♦ Na2SO4
Oxygen is -2 – Na is +1 because it is a
group 1 metal
The oxidation number of
copper must be – O is -2
calculated – The oxidation number
of Sulfur must be
X + -2 = 0 calculated
X = +2 2(+1) + X + 4(-2) = 0
(2 ) + X + (-8) =0
X = +6
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The sum of the oxidation numbers
in an ion is equal to the charge of
the ion.
♦ Monatomic ♦ Polyatomic
♦ Cl- -1 ♦ NO3-
♦ Fe3+ +3 – O is -2
– The oxidation number
of nitrogen must be
calculated
X + (3)(-2) = -1
X + (-6) = -1
X = +5
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Practice Question

What is the oxidation number of potassium in


K2Cr2O7 ?
(a) +1
(b) +2
(c) -2
(c) -7

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Practice Question

What is the oxidation number of oxygen in


K2Cr2O7 ?
(a) +1
(b) +2
(c) -2
(d) -7

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Practice Question

What is the oxidation number of chromium in


K2Cr2O7 ?
(a) +12
(b) +2
(c) -3
(d) +6

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Practice Question

In which substance does chlorine have an


oxidation number of +3?
(a) Cl2
(b) HCl
(c) HClO
(d) HClO2

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During redox, one atom is
oxidized while another atom
is reduced. Reduction and
oxidation happen together.
The oxidation numbers of the atoms will change….
one goes up (0 to +1) and one goes down (0 to -2)

Oxidation

0 0 + 2-
2H2 + O2 2H2O
Reduction

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Oxidation numbers (states) can
be assigned to atoms and ions.
Changes in oxidation numbers
indicate that oxidation and
reduction have occurred.
0 2+ 5+ 2- 2+ 5+ 2- 0
Zn + Cu(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 + Cu
Find the oxidation numbers and see which ones change.
Nitrate NO3 is -1

Zn0 Zn2+ + 2e- Oxidation


Cu2+ + 2e- Cu0 Reduction
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Reduction is the gain of
electrons.

Atoms gain electrons to form – ions


The oxidation number goes down
(reduces)

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A half-reaction can be written
to represent reduction.
Cu2+ + 2e- Cu0

In reduction half reactions,


electrons are written on the left
because electrons are gained

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Practice Question

Given the equation:


2 Al + 3 Cu2+ 2 Al3+ + 3Cu
The reduction half-reaction is
(1) Al Al 3+ + 3e –
(2) Cu 2+ + 2e – Cu
(3) Al + 3e – Al 3+
(4) Cu 2+ Cu + 2e –

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Oxidation is the loss of
electrons.

Atoms lose electrons to become + ions


The oxidation numbers go up (increases)
Cr2+ Cr4+ + 2e-
2N3- N20 + 6e-

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A half-reaction can be written
to represent oxidation.

Zn0 Zn2+ + 2e-

In oxidation half reactions,


electrons are written on the right
because electrons are lost

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LEO growls GER

Losing Gaining
Electrons Electrons
Oxidation Reduction
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OIL RIG

Oxidation Reduction
Is Is
Losing Gaining
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Practice Question

Given the reaction:


Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) +
H2(g)
Which species undergoes oxidation?
(a) Mg(s)
(b) H+(aq) LEO growls GER
(c) Cl– (aq)
(d) H2 (g)

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Practice Question

Given the equation:


C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2 (g)
Which species undergoes reduction?
(a) C(s)
(b) H +
(c) C2+
LEO growls GER
(d) H2 (g)

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Practice Question
In any redox reaction, the substance that undergoes
reduction will
(a) lose electrons and have a decrease in oxidation
number
(b) lose electrons and have an increase in oxidation
number
(c) gain electrons and have a decrease in oxidation
number
(d) gain electrons and have an increase in oxidation
number

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Agents
A reducing agent is the element or a compound in a
redox reaction that reduces another species
(element or compound in the equation). In doing
so, it becomes oxidized, and is therefore the
electron donor in the redox.
A reducing agent is oxidized.
An oxidizing agent is the element or a compound in a
redox reaction that oxidizes another species
(element or compound in the equation). In doing
so, it becomes reduced, and is therefore the
electron acceptor in the redox.
An oxidizing agent is reduced.
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Agents
A reducing agent is oxidized
Therefore, if you find the species that was oxidized,
you know it is the reducing agent
Just like a travel agent helps people travel (but doesn’t
travel themselves), a reducing agent helps
something reduce.
Likewise, an oxidizing agent is reduced
Therefore, if you find the species that was reduced,
you know it is the reducing agent

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Oxidation-Reduction

Balancing Redox Equations


A redox equation must be
balanced both by atoms and
by charge.

Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)

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If you put a 2 in front of the I-,
this equation is balanced by
atoms, but not by charge
Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)

To balance, use the half-


reaction method.

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Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)
Write your two half-reactions, the
oxidation and reduction half-reactions
Oxidation: I- → I2
Reduction: Au3+ → Au
Balance the atoms (with the 2 in front of the I-)
Balance the charge by adding e-

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Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)
Write your two half-reactions, the
oxidation and reduction half-reactions
Oxidation: 2I- → I2 + 2e-
Reduction: Au3+ + 3e- → Au
Balance the atoms
Balance the charge by adding e-
Multiply the equations to balance the e-

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Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)
Write your two half-reactions, the
oxidation and reduction half-reactions
Oxidation: 3(2I- → I2 + 2e-)
Reduction: 2(Au3+ + 3e- → Au)
Balance the atoms
Balance the charge by adding e-
Multiply the equations to balance the e-

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Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)
Write your two half-reactions, the
oxidation and reduction half-reactions
Oxidation: 3(2I- → I2 + 2e-)
Reduction: 2(Au3+ + 3e- → Au)
Balance the atoms
Balance the charge by adding e-
Multiply the equations to balance the e-
Then add equations together
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Au3+(aq) + I−(aq) → Au(s) + I2(s)
Write your two half-reactions, the
oxidation and reduction half-reactions
6I- → 3I2 + 6e-
2Au3+ + 6e- → 2Au

6I- + 2Au3+ → 3I2 + 2Au

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Balancing Redox Equations
for Reactions in Acidic
Conditions Using the Half-
reaction Method

Example: Balance the following reaction


in an acidic solution

Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)

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Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in acidic conditions
1. Write the oxidation and reduction half
reactions

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Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in acidic conditions
1. Write the oxidation and reduction half
reactions
2. For each half reaction
a) Balance all elements except H and O
b) Balance O by adding water to the opposite side
c) Balance H by adding H+ ions to the opposite side
d) Balance charge by adding e-

Cr2O72− → Cr3+
HNO2 → NO3−

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Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in acidic conditions
1. Write the oxidation and reduction half reactions
2. For each half reaction
a) Balance all elements except H and O
b) Balance O by adding water to the opposite side
c) Balance H by adding H+ ions to the opposite side
d) Balance charge by adding e-
3. Equalize the number of e- transferred in the
two half-reactions by multiplying one or both
balanced half-reactions by and integer

6e− + Cr2O72− + 14H+ → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O


HNO2 + H2O → NO3− + 3H+ + 2e−

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Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in acidic conditions
1. Write the oxidation and reduction half reactions
2. For each half reaction
a) Balance all elements except H and O
b) Balance O by adding water to the opposite side
c) Balance H by adding H+ ions to the opposite side
d) Balance charge by adding e-
3. Equalize the number of e- transferred in the two half-reactions by
multiplying one or both balanced half-reactions by and integer
4. Add the half-reactions and cancel any
indentical spiecies
6e− + Cr2O72− + 14H+ → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O
3HNO2 + 3H2O → 3NO3− + 9H+ + 6e−

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Cr2O72−(aq) + HNO2(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in acidic conditions
1. Write the oxidation and reduction half reactions
2. For each half reaction
a) Balance all elements except H and O
b) Balance O by adding water to the opposite side
c) Balance H by adding H+ ions to the opposite side
d) Balance charge by adding e-
3. Equalize the number of e- transferred in the two half-reactions by
multiplying one or both balanced half-reactions by and integer
4. Add the half-reactions and cancel any indentical spiecies
5. Check that all elements and charges are
balanced

Cr2O72−(aq) + 3HNO2(aq) + 5H+(aq) →


2Cr3+(aq) + 3NO3− (aq) + 4H2O(l)

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Balancing Redox Equations
for Reactions in BASIC
Conditions Using the Half-
reaction Method

Example: Balance the following reaction


in a basic solution

Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)

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Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in basic conditions
1. Completely balance the equation as if it were
in acidic conditions

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Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in basic conditions
1. Completely balance the equation as if it were
in acidic conditions
2. Add enough OH− ions to each side to cancel
the H+ ions. (Be sure to add the OH− ions to
both sides to keep the charge and atoms
balanced.)

2Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3-(aq) → 2CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq) + H2O(l) + 4H+(aq)

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Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in basic conditions
1. Completely balance the equation as if it were in acidic conditions
2. Add enough OH− ions to each side to cancel the H+ ions. (Be sure to
add the OH− ions to both sides to keep the charge and atoms balanced.)
3. Combine the H+ ions and OH− ions that are on
the same side of the equation to form water.

2Cr(OH)3 + ClO3− + 4OH− → 2CrO42− + Cl− + H2O + 4H+ + 4OH−

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Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in basic conditions
1. Completely balance the equation as if it were in acidic conditions
2. Add enough OH− ions to each side to cancel the H+ ions. (Be sure to
add the OH− ions to both sides to keep the charge and atoms balanced.)
3. Combine the H+ ions and OH− ions that are on the same side of the
equation to form water.
4. Cancel or combine the H2O molecules

2Cr(OH)3 + ClO3− + 4OH- → 2CrO42− + Cl− + H2O + 4H2O

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Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−( aq) → CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq)
♦ Steps for balancing in basic conditions
1. Completely balance the equation as if it were in acidic conditions
2. Add enough OH− ions to each side to cancel the H+ ions. (Be sure to
add the OH− ions to both sides to keep the charge and atoms balanced.)
3. Combine the H+ ions and OH− ions that are on the same side of the
equation to form water.
4. Cancel or combine the H2O molecules
5. Check that all atoms and charges are balanced

2Cr(OH)3(s) + ClO3−(aq) + 4OH−(aq) → 2CrO42−(aq) + Cl−(aq) + 5H2O(l)

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♦ Be aware that sometimes the same element can be
both oxidized and reduced in a reaction

Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + H2SO4(aq)→ PbSO4(s)


♦ Notice the the Pb(s) has an oxidation # of 0, but
the Pb in the PbO2 has an oxidation # of +4.
However, Pb has only one oxidation state in the
products: +2. So Pb is both oxidized and reduced.

♦ The half-reactions would be:


– Oxidation: Pb(s) → PbSO4(s) (0 → +2)
– Reduction: PbO2(s) → PbSO4(s) (+4 → +2)

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