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Ideal Gas Law

Boyle's Law
If the temperature of a given quantity of
gas is held constant, the volume of the gas
varies inversely with the absolute pressure
during a change of state.

pV = C or p1V1 = p2V2

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Charle's Law
(1) If the pressure on a particular of gas is
held constant, then, with any change of state,
the volume will vary directly as the absolute
temperature.

V/T = C or V1/T1 = V2/T2

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Charle's Law
(2) If the volume of a particular quantity of
gas is held constant, then, with any change of
state, the pressure will vary directly as the
absolute temperature.

P/T = C or p1/T1 = p2/T2

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Characteristic Equation of a Perfect Gas
Combining Boyle's and Charle's Laws

p1V1/T1 = p2V2/T2 = C
pV = mR
pV = mRT
pv = RT (unit mass)

where p =absolute pressure


V = volume
v = specific volume
m = mass
T = absolute Temperature
R = specific gas constant or simply gas constant
Units p V m T R

English Units lbf/ft2 ft3 lbm oR ft.lbf/lbm.oR

SI Units N/m2 m3 kg K N.m/kg.K


Specific Heat
The specific heat of a substance is defined
as the quantity of heat required to change the
temperature of unit mass through one degree.

In dimensional form,

c = heat (energy units)/(mass)(change of


temperature)
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Specific Heat
In differential quantities,
c = dQ/mdT of dQ = mcdT

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Constant Volume Specific Heat (cv)
Qv = ΔU
Qv = mcv (T2 - T1)

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Constant Pressure Specific Heat (cp)
Qp = mcp(T2 - T1)
Qp = ΔU + W = ΔU + p(V2 - V1)
Qp = H2 - H1 = ΔH

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Ratio of Specific Heats
k = cp/cv > 1

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Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
Joule's law states that “the change of
internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of
only the temperature change”. Therefore,

ΔU = mcv(T2 - T1)

whether the volume remains constant or not.


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Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas
The change of enthalpy of an ideal gas is
given by the formula,
ΔH = mcp(T2 - T1)
whether the pressure remains constant or not.

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Relation Between cp and cv
From h = u + pv and pv = RT
dh = du +Rdt
cpdT = cvdT + RdT
cp = c v + R
cv = R/k-1
cp = kR/k-1

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Entropy (S, s)
Entropy is that property of a substance
which remains constant if no heat enters or
leaves the substance, while it does work or
alters its volume, but which increases or
diminishes should a small amount of heat
enter or leave.

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The change of entropy of a substance
receiving (or delivering) heat is defined by

dS = dQ/T or ΔS = ꭍ12 dQ/T

where: dQ = heat transferred at the


temperature T
ΔS = total change of entropy
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