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R.R.

INSTITUTE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY

DESIGN

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TENSILE STRUCTURE

SUBMITTED TO-
AR.JUNAID AHAMAD

SUBMITTED BY-
POOJA YADAV
SURYAKANT NIRAJ
ANAMIKA GAUTAM
DIKSHA SINGH
B.ARCH VTH SEM
TENSILE STRUCTURE
DEFINITION
The term tensile structures describes the category of buildings in
which the load bearing capacity is achieved through tension stress
in the majority of the components, such as cables, technical
fabrics or foils. It can also be defined as a structure where the
exterior shell is a fabric material spread over a framework. The
fabric is maintained in tension in all directions to provide stability.
The only exception is represented by rigid boundaries and
structural members which are generally subjected to compression
and bending. Tension structures are commonly subdivided in
boundary tensioned membranes, pneumatic structures and pre-
stressed cable nets and beams (Lewis 2003).
CHICAGO’S NAVY PIER

DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTCHICAGO’S

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
Fabric structures cannot take heavy weather conditions is an incorrect
statement.
FABRIC IS ELASTIC AND STRETCHES. Fabric has a strong tensile
strength and will creep (stretch very slightly) only a few percent over
20 years of use.
EXAMPLE IN INDIA

APPOLO HOSPITAL NDLS


COMBINATIONS

 Combination of several support types


COMPONENTS
BASE PLATE

 Connection to concrete foundation pillar

MEMBRANES

Forms the enclosure of the structure. Connections can be glued or


heat welded

 PVC coated polyester (polyvinylchloride


 Silicon coated glass
 Teflon coated glass P.T.F.E (polyterafluroethylene)
BALE RING/ MEMBRANE PLATE
Provide a link between the membrane and structural elements..
 Bale rings are used at the top of conical shapes
 Membrane plates accept centenary cables and pin
connection hardware.

MEMBRANE PLATE
TYPE OF FABRIC MEMBRANE

 PVC : Less expensive


15 to 20 year life span
Easy to erect
 SILICON GLASS: Higher tensile strength
Brittle, subject to damage from
flexing
30+ year life span
 TEFLON GLASS: Similar to silicon glass, less
brittle.
SPECIALIZED HARDWARE
CABLE CLAMPS

 Edge cable with clamps. Used mainly for PTFE


coated fiber glass fabric , but also for PVC coated
polyester fabric when edge spans are longer than
20 m.
 Bale rings are a good way to control stresses in fabric roof at high or
low points. Used at high points they must be covered to make the
structure watertight.If used at low points, they can be used to gather
rainwater and snow for redistribution on site.
 Channel (with grommets)and lacing. Used with PVC coated
polyester fabric where the edge has grommets spaced at frequent
intervals.
 Rope is laced thro ugh the grommets and to a tie rod within the
channel.
WHY TENSILE ARE SHAPE THEY ARE?

• Large flat pieces of fabric are very poor at resisting loads.

• Imagine four of you each pooling on the strings laced through tennis ball. A fifth person pushing
the down on the ball can deflect its easily.

• Imagine a flappy marquee roof .try lifting two opposite strings and lowering the other two. The
ball is now locked in space .apply this principal to fabric and you have created’ anticlastic’
double curvature .
TYPES OF FABRIC STRUCTURES

 Saddle roof

 Mast support

 Arch support

 combination
SADDLE ROOF

Four or more points system when the fabric is stretched between a set of
alternative high and low points
A roof plan, taken directly from the structural engineering working drawing ,
illustrates the roof configuration and its components.

Section through the project showing the stage roof tucked under the
auditorium roof.
The saddle-shaped roof of the stage cover nestles under the auditorium
roof of the project . The leaning A – frames and the stay cables which hold
them back are clearly visible, along with the radial cables which shape the
tent units. The corner tripots , each consisting of a vertical mast and two
sloping cable , are connected to concrete anchors rising from the water.
MAST SUPPORTED

 Tent-like in appearance , mast supported structure typically have


one or sometimes several peaks that are supported by either
interior or perimeter masts.

 The fabric is attached to the interior mast by special connection ,


usually a bale ring or cable loop

 Mast- supported structure can also be supported by adjacent


building. The peak of a mast supported structure are determined by
the design and how the fabric is attached.

 Opening are typically ovoid or elliptical . The fabric that extends


from the top of the opening is seamed and can necessitate
patterning.

 Mast supported systems are suitable for long span roofs.


ARCH SUPPORTED ROOF

 Curved compression members are used as the main supporting element and cross
arches are used for lateral stability.

 In a plane arch , large difference between the thrust lines and the main geometry will
produce large bending moments that in turn product large changes in shape and high
stresses in the arch chord section . One method to significantly reduce these effects is
to tie or restrain point along the arch chord to reduce the initial large deformation of the
chord .

 The buckling length of arch chord can also be reduced by discretely or continuously
supporting the chord with tension element or system comprised of cables or
membranes
SOLAR BEHAVIOUR

SOLER BEHAVIOUR
ADVANTAGES

 Longer life cycle of materials.

 Material can be re-used in form.

 Most material are completely recyclable.

 Less impact on site.

 Less construction debris after demolition.

 Unique designs.

 Lightweight and flexible.

 Environmentally sensitive.

 High strength weight ratio.


DISADVANTAGES

 Little to no rigidity

 Loss of tension is dangerous for stability

 Thermal values limit use


HISTORY

 Tensile fabric structure have been with us since the Mongolians swept down from the
plains, with their yurts as their transportable overnight accommodation

 And their’s evidence that the romans even covered the colosseum with massive
canopies, hoisted by an intricate system of pulleys, to protect the audience from the
elements

 But they really came into their own in the last half of the 20 th century , when design like
this by Germany’s frei otto

APPLO HOSPITAL ILBS HOSPITAL COLOSSEUM ROOF