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Piping Codes

February 4, 2016
Outline

 What is Pipe?
 ASME Piping Codes
 Where Do Codes Apply
 Hoop Stress
 Code Wall Thickness Formula
 Code Calculation Comparison
 Other Code Components
 Questions
What is Pipe??? The basics…

 made of a long hole, surrounded by metal


 hollow throughout its entire length
 lengths over 500 feet have ‘Long Pipe’ clearly
painted on each end so you know it is long pipe
 supplied with no rust, so that this can be put on
at the jobsite
 fittings are made of the same stuff as the pipe
 outer diameter must exceed the inner diameter,
or else the hole will be on the outside of the pipe
Piping Codes
ASME B31.3

Process Piping

ASME B31.4

Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries

ASME B31.8

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems


Why Use Piping Codes

“sets forth engineering requirements deemed


necessary for safe design and construction of
pressure piping”

Years of research (by many smart people) have


been done for you

They are not that hard to read


Where Do Codes Apply at OXY
ES-10.400.519: Carbon Steel Facility Piping Systems
LOCATION / FACILITY TYPE12 PIPING CODE
Appropriate to
Remote Headers & Production Satellites
service conditions
Central Tank Batteries / Gas Treating Plants / Gas processing
B31.3
Plants / Plant Compression / NGL/LPG/LNG Facilities
Field Compression B31.8 or B31.3
Liquid Pipelines / CO2 Pipelines (Dense Phase) B31.4
Gas Pipelines / Multi-Phase Pipelines B31.8
Gas Pipelines (DOT/PHMSA) 49 CFR 192
Water Injection / Disposal Facilities (Sour Service) B31.3
Water Injection / Disposal Facilities (Sweet Service) B31.4

12 If a facility is located within a larger facility, the more stringent Piping Code shall apply.
Hoop Stress

𝜎𝐻 = ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 (𝑝𝑠𝑖)


𝑃∗𝐷 P= Internal pressure of pipe (psi)
𝜎𝐻 = t= wall thickness of pipe (inches)
2𝑡
D = diameter of pipe (inches)

 Calculation Similar to Code Calculations


ASME Piping Codes Calculations
B31.3 B31.4 & B31.8
𝐏𝐃 𝑷𝐃
𝐭= 𝐭=
𝟐(𝐒𝐄𝐖+𝐏𝐘) 𝟐𝐅𝐄𝐒𝐲 𝐓
𝐭 𝐦 = 𝐭 + 𝐂 + 𝐓𝐚 𝐭 𝐦 = 𝐭 + 𝐂 + 𝐓𝐚
𝒕𝒎
𝐓𝐦 =
𝟏−𝐌𝐓
t Minimum required pressure design wall thickness with no added allowances
tm Minimum required pressure design with added allowances
D Outer Diameter
Ta Thread allowance
C Corrosion / erosion allowance
P Internal pressure
Longitudinal weld joint factor (0.85 ERW, 1 Longitudinal weld joint factor (1 for
E E
for SMLS) ERW and SMLS in grades we utilize)
Y Temperature coefficient (0.40) T Temp derating factor above 250°
Tm Min required nominal pipe wall thickness n/a Mill under thickness in Design Factor
MT Mill negative wall tolerance (12.5%) F Design Factor (location, mill tolerance)
S Stress Value for Material Sy Specified Minimum Yield Strength
W Weld Joint Strength Factor (1 for all CS and 3__SS ≤900°F)
ASME B31.8 Class Locations (~ DOT 49CFR192)
Location Class 1: Any 1-mile section that has 10 or fewer buildings
intended for human occupancy: wasteland, deserts, mountains, grazing
land, farmland, and sparsely populated areas
 Location Class 2: Any 1-mile section that has more than 10 but fewer
than 46 buildings intended for human occupancy: fringe areas around
cities and towns, industrial areas, ranch or country estates, etc.
Location Class 3: Any 1-mile section that has 46 or more buildings
intended for human occupancy except when a Location Class 4 prevails:
suburban housing developments, shopping centers, residential areas,
industrial areas, and other populated areas not meeting Location Class 4
requirements.
Location Class 4: Includes areas where multistory buildings are
prevalent, where traffic is heavy or dense, and where there may be
numerous other utilities underground
𝐏𝐃 𝑷𝐃
𝐭=
𝟐(𝐒𝐄𝐖+𝐏𝐘)
Design Factors 𝐭=
𝟐𝐅𝐄𝐒𝐲 𝐓
LOCATION CLASS
B31.8 1
FACILITY Div. 1 Div. 2 2 3 4
Pipelines 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Crossings of roads, railroads without casing
Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Unimproved public roads 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Roads, highways, or streets, with hard surfaces and railroads 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.40
Crossings of roads, railroads with casing
Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Unimproved public roads 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Roads, highways, or streets, with hard surfaces and railroads 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Parallel encroachments of pipelines and mains on roads
and railroads
Private roads / Unimproved public roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Roads, highways, or streets, with hard surfaces and railroads 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Fabricated assemblies / Pipelines on Bridges 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Pressure/Flow control and Metering facilities 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Compressor station piping 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40
Near concentrations of people in Location Class 1 and 2 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40

B31.4: F can be no greater than 0.72, users may elect to use F < 0.72
Note: OXY SFRM requires F=0.5 in many Tier 2 & 3 applications
Corrosion Allowance 𝐭 𝐦 = 𝐭 + 𝐂 + 𝐓𝐚

 ES-10.400.519: For piping in corrosive service, piping design


shall include a corrosion allowance, and this allowance
should be based on the process fluid and conditions,
operating experience, and anticipated system life for the
application, but shall be a minimum of 1/16” (0.0625”).
 Determined with measured corrosion rate, life of facility
 Permian EOR
 1/8” for B31.3 Carbon Steel Piping
 1/16” for B31.4 / 8 Carbon Steel Piping
 0” for all Stainless Steel Piping
 All corrosive carbon steel services are internally coated /
protected
𝐏𝐃 𝑷𝐃
𝐭= ASME Piping Codes 𝐭=
𝟐(𝐒𝐄𝐖+𝐏𝐘) 𝟐𝐅𝐄𝐒𝐲 𝐓

 Sy - B31.4 /8 uses Specified Minimum Yield Strength


 S - B31.3 based on metal type
 % of SMYS or
 % of Specified Minimum Tensile Strength
If you do not know what grade of pipe you have: Gr. B

Material Description S (B31.3) Sy (B31.4 / B31.8)


API 5L Gr B, A-106 Gr B, A333 Gr 6 20,000 35,000
API 5L X-42 20,000 42,000
API 5L X-52 22,000 52,000
API 5L X-60 25,000 60,000
A312 TP 316 / 316L SS (dual stamp) 20,000 30,000
ASME Piping Codes – Calculation Comparison

B31.4/8

Grade of Pipe Can Make a BIG Difference


Cannot just say “I need schedule 80 pipe”
a grade must be specified

B31.4/8 8” 2200 psi Corr. Allowance = 0.0625" D.F.=0.72


Pipe Material Thickness Required Schedule Required
API 5L Gr. B 0.439 XS / 80
API 5L X-42 0.376 60
API 5L X-52 0.316 STD / 40
ASME Piping Codes – Calculation Comparison

B31.3
Little ‘Credit’ for Higher Strength Pipe
‘Dings’ for ERW

B31.3 8” 2200 psi Corr. Allowance = 0.0625"


Pipe Material Thickness Required Schedule Required
API 5L Gr. B SMLS
0.591 100
ASTM A106 Gr B SMLS
API 5L X-52 SMLS 0.546 100

API 5L X-56 ERW 0.587 100


ASME Piping Codes – Calculation Comparison

B31.3 versus B31.4/8

8” 2200 psi Corr. Allowance = 0.0625”


B31.4 / 8 B31.3 B31.4 / 8
Pipe Material Design Thickness Thickness Difference
Factor Required Required
API 5L Gr. B SMLS 0.72 0.591 0.439 -26%

API 5L Gr. B SMLS 0.5 0.591 0.605 -2.4%

API 5L X-52 SMLS 0.72 0.546 0.316 -42%

API 5L X-52 SMLS 0.5 0.546 0.428 -22%


What Else Is In the Code

Minimum Required Weld X-Ray

Required Pressure Test(s)

Minimum Cover Required


ASME Piping Codes – Required Weld X-Ray

Code Conditions X-Ray


Category D Fluid Service (nonflammable, nontoxic,<150 psig, -20 to 366°F 0%
Normal Fluid Service 5%
B31.3
Category M Fluid (highly toxic) 20%
Severe Cyclic Conditions and High Pressure Piping (excess of ASME 2500) 100%
Operating at 𝜎𝐻 < 20% SMYS 0%
Operating at 𝜎𝐻 > 20% SMYS
B31.4 Normal Circumstances 10%
Populated Areas : River, Lakes, Stream Areas; RR, Public Highway Areas;
100%
Tie-Ins Not Subject to Pressure Test
Operating at 𝜎𝐻 < 20% SMYS 0%
Operating at 𝜎𝐻 > 20% SMYS
Location Class 1 10%
Location Class 2 15%
B31.8
Location Class 3 40%
Location Class 4 75%
Sour Gas in Class 3 & 4: Compressor Stations : Major Rivers, Highways, RR
100%
Crossings : Tie-Ins Not Subject to Pressure Test
Weld X-Ray Example – Permian EOR
Remote Areas Populated Areas
LINE TYPE Code Sweet Sour Sweet Sour
Gas < 1000 psi potential B31.8 10% 20% 15-40% 100%

Gas > 1000 psi potential B31.8 10% 20% 100% 100%
Pipelines
DOT governed Gas Line < 1000 psi 49CFR192 10% 20% 15-100% 100%

Liquid Lines B31.4 10% 20% 100% 100%

Inj Headers & Skids All Lines (all > 1000 psig) B31.4 10% 20% 100% 100%

Low Pressure Gas or Liquid < 1000psig B31.3 10% 20% 10% 100%

High Pressure Gas or Liquid > 1000psig B31.3 10% 100% 100% 100%
Facilities Glycol / Hot Oil lines / Refrigerant /
B31.3 10% 20% 10% 20%
Instrument Air / Jacket Water / Drains
Flare / VRU Piping / Atmospheric Vent B31.3 10% 20% 10% 100%
The following REQUIRE 100% Weld X-Ray
 Severe Cyclic and Category M • All tie-ins not hydrotested / leak tested
 Public road areas (non-lease roads) • Compressor Stations
 River, lake, stream crossings, and river, lake and stream crossings on bridges
ASME Piping Codes – Required Pressure Testing

ASME Hydrotest Required


Location
Code Pressure Duration
B31.3 All 1.5 x DP 10 minutes
B31.4 All 1.25 x DP 4 hours(1)
Class 1 & 2 1.25 x MOP 2 hours
B31.8
Class 3 & 4 1.5 x MOP 2 hours
(1) Ifnot visually inspected during test, must be followed by a leak test at
1.1 x D.P. for 4 hours
(2) Requirements may be less/more stringent depending on the hoop stress or

service that a pipe line will be operating at and the code it is under
(3) Test pressures shall be maintained for a sufficient length of time to permit

visual examination to be made of all surfaces, welds and connections


ASME Piping Codes – Minimum Cover Requirements

Location Required Depth (feet)


Class 1 24”
B31.8 Class 2 30”
Class 3 & 4 30”
Drainage Ditch at Public Roads and RR
36”
Crossings
Cultivated, Agricultural Area : Industrial ,
Commercial, and Residential Areas :
48”
B31.4 River and Stream Crossings, Drainage
Ditches at Roadways and Railroads
All other areas 36”

Must keep in mind erosion that can / will take place


And Even More Information
 Charpy Impact Testing (to low design temperature)
 B31.4: CS Pipe unless operating at 𝝈𝑯 ≤20% SMYS
 B31.8: CS Pipe ≥ 16” operating at 𝝈𝑯 over 40% to 80% SMYS &
≤ 14” operating at 𝝈𝑯 over 72% to 80% SMYS
 B31.3: Varies

 Welding Code to Follow

 Pipe Bend Requirements

 Plastic Pipe Information

 Compressor Station Design

 MUCH, MUCH MORE!!!


What Do You Do With The Code
 You probably do not want to read the code for each design
 Create Piping Specs!!!
Take into account Appropriate Piping Code, NACE MR0175, DOT…
Know pipe is sized correctly
GO READ (or skim) THE CODE

 Go to Worldwide Engineering SharePoint and find:

OOG Standards and Guidelines


Piping Codes: IHS Standards Expert
https://teamsites.oxy.com/OilAndGas/OpProdEng/FacEngConst/sitepages/pspgs.aspx

Read the Codes….


Questions?