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EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I

TRANSFORMERS
Transformer:
• Transformer is a static device which transfers power
from one circuit to another circuit at the same
frequency.

• It has two windings, one is primary winding and another


one is secondary winding.

• It works on the principle of mutual induction.


EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS
Construction of Transformer:
According to the construction transformer is classified into
i) Core Type – ie, core is surrounded by winding
ii) Shell Type- ie, winding is surrounded by core

Core Type Shell Type


EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS

Working of Transformer:

• The main principle of operation of a transformer is


mutual inductance between two circuits which is linked
by a common magnetic flux.
• A basic transformer consists of two coils that are
electrically separate and inductive, but are magnetically
linked through a path of reluctance
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS

• When ac supply is given to the primary winding it set up an


main flux in the primary winding.
• This main flux links with primary turns N1 and produces an
emf E1 in the primary side.
• The same flux flows through the core and reaches the
secondary side, now the flux called as mutual flux.
• This mutual flux links the secondary turns N2 and produces E2
in the secondary side.
• If the secondary side circuits is closed then the secondary
current flows to the load.
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS

Three phase Transformer:


• Three phase power is used by electric power
distribution grids and to power large motors and other
large loads.
• Like other types of transformers, three phase
transformers are used to increase or decrease the
voltage from one side of the transformer to the other.
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS
Advantages of three phase transformer over single phase:
• Less cost.
• Less Weight.
• less size.
• Less time require to assembling.
• Require less space.
• Deliver more power.
• Higher efficiency.
• Easier to install.
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS

Transformers in dc supply:
• If we apply dc voltage to the transformer, there won’t
be any varying fluxes linking the coil, so no emf will be
induced in secondary.
• Therefore transformers are not working in dc supply.

Why Transformers Ratings are expressed in KVA and not


in KW? :
• Since core or iron losses depends on voltage(V) and
copper losses depends on current(A), the transformers
are expressed in VA or KVA or MVA.
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS
Cooling of Transformer:
• The losses occurring in the transformer are converted
into heat which increases the temperature of the
windings and the core.
EE8301-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
TRANSFORMERS

Applications of Transformer:
• The transformer used for impedance matching.
• The transformer used for isolate two circuits electrically.
• It is used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages
in electric power applications.
• The transformer used in voltmeter, ammeters, protective
relay etc.
• The transformer used for step up low voltage in case of
measurement.
• The transformer used for step down high voltage for
safety.
• The transformer used in rectifier.
• It is used in voltage regulators, voltage stabilizers, power
supplies etc.