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THE TEACHER’S

PHILOSOPHICAL AND
VALUES FORMATION
EXISTENTIAL QUESTIONS IN LIFE
• WHAT IS LIFE?
• WHO AM I?
• WHY I AM HERE?
• WHAT I AM LIVING FOR?
• WHAT IS REALITY?
• WHAT IS GOOD OR BAD?
THE EXISTENTIAL QUESTION IN SCHOOL
• WHY DO I TEACH?
• WHAT SHOULD I TEACH?
• HOW SHOULD I TEACH?
• WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE LEARNER?
• HOW DO WE LEARN?
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
• ESSENTIALISM
• PROGRESSIVISM
• PERENNIALISM
• EXISTENTIALISM
• BEHAVIORISM
• LINGUISTIC PHILOSOPHY
• CONSTRUCTIVISM
• Why teach.
Teachers teach for learners to
ESSENTIALISM acquire basic knowledge, skills
and values. Teachers teach “not
-mastery of the to radically reshape society “but
subject rather “to transmit the traditional
-basic moral values and intellectual
knowledge that students need to
become model citizens.”
• What to teach.
The emphasis is on academic content for a
students to learn the basic skills or the fundamental
r’s- reading ‘riting, ‘rithmetic, ‘right conduct- these are
essential to the acquisition of higher or more complex
skills needed in preparation for adult life.
• How to teach.
Emphasize mastery of subject matter. Expected
to be intellectual and moral models of their students.
They are seen as “fountain” of information and as
“paragon of virtue”.
PROGRESSIVISM
• Why teach.
Teachers teach to develop learners into becoming
enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society.
They teach learners to live life fully NOW not to prepare
them for adult life.
• What to teach.
Identified with need-based and relevant curriculum.
”Respond to students’ needs and that relates to
students’personal lives and experiences.
PERENNIALISM
• Why teach.
Develop the students ‘ rational and moral’ powers.
ARISTOTLE- “If we neglect the students’ reasoning
skills, we deprive them of the ability to use their
higher faculties to control their passion and appetites.
• What to teach.
Is a universal one on the view that all human beings
possess the same essential nature. Heavy on the
humanities, on general education. It is not a specialist
curriculum but rather a general one.
• How to teach.
“Centered around teachers”. The teachers do
not allow the students’ interests or experiences
to substantially dictate what they teach.
EXTENTIALISM
• Why teach.
To help students understand and appreciate
themselves as a unique individuals who accept
complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and
actions”. Teacher’s role is to help students define their
own essence by exposing them to various paths they
take in life and by creating an environment in which
they freely choose their own preferred way.
• What to teach.
Students are given a wide variety of options from
which to choose.
• How to teach.
Focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self-
directed. It includes a great deal of individual contact
with the teacher, who relates to each student openly
and honestly.
BEHAVIORISM
• Why teach.
Concerned with the modification and shaping of
students’behavior by providing for favorable
environment.
• What to teach.
Teachers teach students to respond favorably to
various stimuli in the environment.
• How to teach.
Teachers “ought to arrange environmental
conditions so that students can make the responses to
stimuli. They ought to provide appropriate incentives
to reinforce positive responses and weaken or
eliminate negatives ones”.
LINGUISTIC PHILOSOPHY
• Why teach.
To develop the communication skills of the learner
because the ability to articulate, to voice out the
meaning and values of things that obtains from his/her
experience of life and the world is the very essence of
man. Teachers teach to develop in the learner the skill
to send messages clearly and receive messages
correctly.
• WHAT TO TEACH.

Learners should be taught to communicate clearly-


how to send clear, concise messages and how to
receive and correctly understand messages sent.
Communication takes place in three (3) ways- verbal,
nonverval, and paraverbal. Verbal component refers to
the content of our message, the choice and
arrangement of our words. This can be oral or written.
Nonverval component refers to the message we
send through our body language while paraverbal
components refers to how we say what we say-the
tone, pacing and volume of our voice.
• How to teach.
The most effective way to teach language,
and communication is the experiential way.
CONTRUCTIVISM
• Why teach.
Sees to develop intrinsically motivated and independent
learners adequately equipped with learning skills for them
to be able to construct knowledge and make meaning of
them.
• What to teach.
The learners are taught how to learn. They are taught
learning processes and skills such as searching critiquing
and evaluating information, relating these piece of
information.
• How to teach.
The teacher provides students with data or
experiences that allow them to hypothesize,
hypothesize, predict, manipulate objects, pose
questions, research, investigate, imagine, and invent.
“PHILOSOPHY IS VITAL ONLY WHEN THE
QUESTION IS MINE AND SO IS THE
STRUGGLE TOWARDS ANSWERS.” W.LUIJPEN
Your philosophy of education is your “window” to the
world and “compass” in life. It reflected in your
dealings with students, colleagues, parents, and
administrators. Your attitude towards problems and
life as a whole has an underlying philosophy.
THANK YOU !!!