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PHENOMENOLOGY

By
Rachmawati
History
◦ Phainoai  menampak
◦ Phainomenon  yang
menampak
◦ Founder: Edmund Gustav
Albrecht Husserl (1859 –
1938)
◦ Mathematics, astronomy,
physics  philosophy
proper
Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

etc

Edith Stein (1891-1942)Max Scheler (1874-1928)


Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
Phenomenology
 Study of human experience and the way in which things are perceived as
they appear to consciousness
 A phenomenological study describes the common meaning for several
individuals of their lived experiences of a concept or a phenomenon
 This description consists of “what” they experienced and “how” they
experienced it
 Two approaches to phenomenology (Creswell, 2013):
◦ Hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990)  Phenomenology is not
only a description, but it is also an interpretive process in which the researcher
makes an interpretation (i.e., the researcher “mediates” between different
meanings) of the meaning of the lived experiences.
◦ Empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas,
1994)
Fundamental Concept
Intentionality

Noema & Noesis

Epoche

Phenomenological Reduction

Imaginative Variation

Synthesis of Meaning and Essences


INTENTIONALITY

 Whenever we are conscious (aware), it is always to be conscious of something


 There is always an object of consciousness
 The central role of intentionality should become even clearer: noema and noesis
 There is a distinction made between subject and object

Noesis Noema
(Experience) Experiencing Experienced
EPOCHE
 Concern primarly with first person accounts of life experiences
 Process by which we attempt to abstain from our prejudgement,
presuppositions, biases, those preconceived ideas we might have about
the things we are investigating
PHENOMENOLOGICAL REDUCTION
 continues the process initiated with the epoche
 Describing in textural language just what one sees, not only in terms of the
external object but also the internal act of consciousness, the experience as
such, the rhythm and relationship between phenomenon and self.
 Describe the total experience of consciousness in as much detail as possible
“I look and describe”; look again and describe; look again and describe;
always with reference to textural qualities rough and smooth, small and
large, quiet and noisy, hot and cold, colourful and bland, etc)
 Meaningless to meaningfull
 Three key element: description, horizonalizing, and verification
IMAGINATIVE VARIATION
 To seek possible meanings through the utilitization of imagination, varying the
frames of reference, employing polarities and reversals, and approaching
the phenomenon from divergent perspective, different position, roles, or
functions.
 Imaginative variation enables the researcher to derive structural themes from
the textural description that have been obtained through phenomenological
reduction.
 We imagine possible structures of time, space, materiality, causality, and
relationship to self an to others.
SYNTHESIS OF MEANING AND ESSENCES

 The intuitive integration of the fundamental textural and structural


descriptions into a unified statement of the essences of the experience of the
phenomenon as a whole
 concatenation of appearances
Data Analysis
 IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis)
(Langdridge, 2007)
 Hermeneutic phenomenology (Langdridge, 2007)
 Template analysis (Langdridge, 2007)
 Steps of Phenomenological Reduction (Moustakas,
1994)
Steps of Phenomenological
Reduction
◦ Bracketing... Proses dimana peneliti melakukan bracket terhadap fokus penelitian,
sehingga proses penelitian berjalan natural tanpa prasangka awal
◦ Horizonalizing... Setiap pernyataan diperlakukan memiliki nilai sama, pernyataan yang
tidak relevan dengan topik, bersifat repetitif dan tumpang tindih dihilangkan sehingga
yang tersisa hanyalah horison (arti tekstual dan unsur pembentuk fenomena yang tidak
bias)
◦ Clustering the horizons into themes... Menyusun pernyataan-pernyataan menjadi
kelompok dalam tema-tema atau unit-unit yang bermakna
◦ Organizing the horizons and themes into a coherent tekstural description...
Pernyataan yang telah dikelompokkan dalam tema-tema, diorganisasikan dan ditulis
secara deskripsi tekstural sehubungan dengan fenomena kasus yang telah dialami oleh
subjek penelitian
Reference
 Creswell, J. W. (2013). QUALITATIVE INQUIRY & RESEARCH DESIGN: Choosing
Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California SAGE Publications, Inc.
 Langdridge, D. (2007). Phenomenological Psychology. UK: Pearson Prentice
Hall
 Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological Research Methods. Thousand Oaks,
California: SAGE Publications, Inc.