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Ethical Climate, Job Satisfaction and Employees’

Organizational Commitment in Hospitality Industry


Statement of the Problem
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.) How may the Socio Demographic


Profile of the manager/supervisor be
described in terms of:
 Age
 Gender
 Civil Status
 Educational Attainment
 Position/Designation
 Number of years in the company
 Monthly Income
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

2.) How may the Socio Demographic


Profile of the rank and file employees
be described in terms of:

 Age
 Gender
 Civil Status
 Educational Attainment
 Position/Designation
 Number of years in the company
 Monthly Income
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

3.) How may the respondents’ assessment on the


ethical climate be described in terms of::

• Personal morality;
• Social responsibility;
• rules and standard operating procedures;
and
• laws and professional codes?
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

4.) How may the respondents’ assessment


on employees’ job satisfaction be
described in terms of:

• Business philosophy and objectives;


• work aspect;
• salary;
• promotion and advancement;
• supervision and management; and
• co-workers?
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

5.) How may the respondents’ assessment on


employees’ organizational commitment be
described in terms of:

• Affective Commitment;
• Continuance Commitment;
and
• Normative Commitment?
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

6.) Is there a significant relationship


between:

• Socio demographic profile,


ethical climate, job satisfaction
and organizational commitment
• Ethical Climate, job satisfaction
and organizational commitment;
• Job satisfaction and
organizational commitment;
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

7.) Is there a significant difference


between the assessment of the
respondents on ethical, job satisfaction
and organizational commitment
Scope and Delimitation
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

• The study focused on full service


hotel and restaurant in Nueva Ecija.
• Respondents were composed of
manager/supervisor and rank and
file employees
Conceptual Framework
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


Research Methodology
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Descriptive correlational method


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Locale

This study were conducted in selected towns in


the province of Nueva Ecija:

• Cabanatuan
• San Jose City
• Gapan City
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The Respondents

Regular Employees of Hotel and


Restaurant (at least 6 months
tenure)

• Manager/Supervisor
• Rank and File employee
The Respondents
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Sampling Procedure

The researcher will use purposive


sampling for hotel and restaurants
establishment:
- at least five (5) years in operation
- have at least five (5) minimum regular
employees.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Instrument

Item checklist questionnaire (Likert)

• Socio Demographic profile of the


respondents
• Ethical Climate Scale

• Job Satisfaction scale

• Organizational commitment
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIN AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Findings

Socio-Demographic Profile of the


Manager/Supervisor Respondents
Age f % No. of Manager / Type
of Establishment f %
19 - 26 11 44.00 Hotel 10 40.00
27 - 34 7 28.00 Restaurant 15 60.00
35 - 42 3 12.00 Total 25 100.00
43 - 50 4 16.00 Monthly Salary f %
Total 25 100.00 5501 - 8000 6 24.00
Mean of Age = 30.6 8001 - 10500 6 24.00
Gender f % 10501 - 13000 4 16.00
Male 9 36.00 13001 - 15000 2 8.00
Female 16 64.00 No data given 7 28.00
Total 25 100.00
Civil Status f % Total 25 100.00
Mean of Monthly Salary =
Single 14 56.00 6,828.64
Number of Years in the
Married 11 44.00 Company f %
Total 25 100.00 less than 1 year 1 4.00
Highest Educational
Attainment f % 1 - 5 years 20 80.00
Bachelor's degree 13 52.00 6 - 11 years 2 8.00
Associate degree 6 24.00 12 - 17 years 1 4.00
High School Graduate 6 24.00 18 - 23 years 1 4.00
Total 25 100.00 Total 25 100.00
Relevant
Training/Seminars Mean of No. of Years in the
Attended f % Company = 4.82
Seminar on Food and
Safety 1 4.00
PRC Training 1 4.00
On-the-job Training 3 12.00
No data given 20 80.00
Total 25 100.00
Findings

Socio-demographic Profile of the Rank and


File respondents
Findings

Ethical Climate as Assessed by both Sets of


Respondents

Manager Rank
ETHICAL CLIMATE / and
Supervis File
or (N =
(N = 25) 77)
WM VI WM VI
Personal Morality 2.85 A 2.88 A
Social Responsibility 3.37 SA 3.36 SA
Rules And Standard Operating Procedures 3.42 SA 3.41 SA
Laws, Professional Codes 3.16 A 3.21 A
OWM 3.20 A 3.23 A

Legend: 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)


2.50 – 3.24 Agree (A)
1.75 – 2.49 Disagree (D)
1.00 – 1.74 Strongly Disagree (SD)
Findings

Employees’ Job Satisfaction as Assessed by


both Sets of Respondents
Manager/ Rank
JOB SATISFACTION Supervisor and File
(N = 25) (N = 77)
WM VI WM VI
Philosophy And Objectives 3.16 A 3.26 SA
Work Aspect 3.25 SA 3.35 SA
Salary 3.11 A 3.04 A
Promotion And Advancement 3.08 A 3.08 A
Supervision And Management 3.11 A 3.06 A
Co-Workers 2.83 A 3.03 A
OWM 3.09 A 3.14 A

Legend: 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)


2.50 – 3.24 Agree (A)
1.75 – 2.49 Disagree (D)
1.00 – 1.74 Strongly Disagree (SD)
Findings

Employees’ Organizational Commitment as


Assessed by both Sets of Respondents

Manager/ Rank
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Supervisor and File
(N = 25) (N =77)
WM VI WM VI
Affective Commitment 2.96 A 2.87 A
Continuance Commitment 2.49 A 2.46 A
Normative Commitment 3.01 A 3.05 A
OWM 2.85 A 2.83 A

Legend: 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)


2.50 – 3.24 Agree (A)
1.75 – 2.49 Disagree (D)
1.00 – 1.74 Strongly Disagree (SD)
Findings
Relationship between Socio Demographic Profile,
Ethical Climate, Job Satisfaction and Organization
Commitment
Ethical Job Organizational
Climate Satisfaction Commitment
Variables (r value) VI (r value) VI (r value) VI
Age 0.021 NS 0.131 NS 0.213* S
Gender -0.145 NS -0.020 NS -0.067 NS
Civil Status 0.077 NS 0.212* S 0.170 NS
Highest Educational Attainment -0.066 NS 0.100 NS 0.086 NS
Type of Establishment 0.125 NS 0.327** S 0.125 NS
Present Position in the
Organization 0.038 NS 0.057 NS -0.024 NS
Monthly Salary -0.022 NS 0.153 NS 0.226* S
Number of Years in the
Organization 0.118 NS 0.229* S 0.211* S

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Findings
Relationship between Ethical Climate, Job
Satisfaction and Organizational commitment as
Perceived by Both Sets Respondents

Variable Job Satisfaction Organizational


Climate
(r value) VI (r value) VI
Ethical Climate 0.569** S 0.421** S

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Findings

Significant relationship between Job Satisfaction


and Organizational Commitment

Variable Organizational Climate


(r value) VI
Job Satisfaction 0.506** S

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Findings

Difference between the assessment on Ethical Climate, Job Satisfaction and


Organization Commitment as perceived by both sets of respondents.
Summary, Conclusions and
Recommendations
Conclusions

1. Majority of the manager/supervisor-respondents belonged to early


adulthood, dominated by female, single, degree holder, no relevant
formal trainings with minimum monthly basic salary and tenure for
less than 5 years
2. Majority of the rank and file employees also belonged to early
adulthood dominated by female, single, degree holder, no relevant
formal trainings with below minimum monthly basic salary and
tenure for less than 5 years.
3. Both the manager/supervisor respondents and rank and file
employees positively perceived their establishment as ethical.
4. Both set of respondents exhibit satisfaction on their jobs.
Predominantly, both set of respondents were highly satisfied on
the work aspect and the business philosophy- However, nearly
dissatisfied with co-workers.
Conclusions

5. Both set of respondents shows commitment toward their respective


organization. Normative commitment got the highest average
weighted mean from both managers and rank and file employees.
6. Results reveal that there were no significant correlations between
the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the ethical
climate of the organization. Civil status, type of establishment and
the number of years in the organization is significantly related to job
satisfaction. Further, age, monthly salary and number of years in the
organization is significantly related organizational commitment.
7. Results reveal that ethical climate is significantly related to job
satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Conclusions

8. Results reveal that job satisfaction is significantly related to


organizational commitment. The correlation coefficients for these
variables were significant.
9. The result implies that there was no significant difference between
the assessment of both set of respondents on ethical climate.
Correspondingly, as to job satisfaction, there was also no significant
difference on the assessment of both set of respondents except on
the items philosophy and objectives, work aspect and co-workers.
Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the
assessment of both sets of respondents and organizational
commitment except on the item affective commitment or the
emotional attachment to the organization.
Recommendations

1. Managers and supervisors must be encouraged to attend skills and management


trainings and seminars which also covers the topics of ethics to keep pace with
modern and more effective management trends and practices and to be more
open and understanding about business ethics in their working environment

2. Rank and file employees should be provided with trainings to improve their
abilities and skills toward performing their jobs.

1. Teambuilding activities are also encouraged to enhance their interpersonal


relationships since this is one important factor that contributes to employees’
satisfaction.

2. Hospitality employers should provide fair salary, rewards, incentives and benefits
to the employees.

3. Employers and Managers should realize that research studies like this are
intended to assist hotels in order to solve managerial problems and provide
effective solutions so they can become more respected and profitable
organizations.