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Elements, Compounds, and

Mixtures
3 KINDS OF MATTER

Elements
Compounds
Mixtures
Elements
All (living and nonliving) of the different
kinds of matter in the universe is made
from about 100 different substances,
called elements.
Elements are called the building blocks of
matter because all matter is composed of
elements.
Each element is made up of the same type
of atoms.
Compounds
 A compound is a substance made of two or
more different kinds of elements chemically
combined in a specific ratio.
 Each compound is represented by a formula that
uses symbols to identify which elements are
present.
 A formula shows the ratio of elements in the
compound.
 H2O – ratio of Hydrogen is 2:1 Oxygen
The symbols make up the formula. A
formula is just chemical shorthand for the
compound.
 The subscript lets us know how many
atoms are present.
 The coefficient lets us know how many
molecules are present.
Compounds
Molecules

A molecule is formed when two or more


atoms join together chemically.

Diatomic molecules are made of two


atoms of the same element.

Hydrogen – H2
Oxygen – O2
What is the difference between a
compound and a molecule?
A molecule is formed when two or more
atoms join together chemically.

A compound is a molecule that contains at


least two different elements.
All compounds are molecules but not all
molecules are compounds.
Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular
oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2)
are not compounds because each is
composed of a single element.
Water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and
methane (CH4) are compounds because
each is made from more than one
element.
Molecule

The smallest bit of each of these


substances would be referred to as a
molecule. For example, a single molecule
of molecular hydrogen is made from two
atoms of hydrogen.
A single molecule of water is made from
two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of
oxygen.
Mixtures
 Most matter in the
universe is found in
mixtures.
 A mixture is made
from two or more
substances either
elements, compounds
or both - that are not
chemically combined.
Mixtures and
compounds differ
in two ways…
Substances in a mixture keep
their individual properties.
Parts of a mixture are not
necessarily present in specific
ratios.
Compound

A compound has properties different than


the elements that make it up.

The parts of a compound are present in


specific ratio’s.
Compounds and Mixtures

Most of the matter around you is in the


form of compounds or mixtures.

Water, carbon dioxide, salt, vinegar,


baking soda, lye, sugar, gasoline, and
bleach are all chemical compounds.
Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture in which different materials can


be easily distinguished.

Pizza, dry soup, chex mix, trail mix are all


examples.
Solutions

Homogeneous mixture: is a substance in


which two or more substances are
uniformly spread out. For example salt
water.
Solution is another term for homogeneous
mixture.
Solutions

Solute is the substance being dissolved.

Solvent is the substance that dissolves a


solute.

Solubility is the amount of a substance


(solute) that will dissolve in a solvent.
Example

Salt water:

The water is the solvent

NaCl is the solute


Colloids and Suspensions
A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture that
like a solution never settles. Milk and
smoke are examples.

One way to tell a colloid from a solution is


because milk is appears white because its
particles scatter light. Called the Tyndall
Effect.
suspension

A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture


containing a liquid in which visible particles
settle.

River water
NaCl is the formula for salt
Water is H2O
An oxygen atom can bond
with two hydrogen atoms to
make a molecule we call
water. Water is an example of
a compound, because it
contains more than one kind
of atom. The formula for
water is H2O, meaning there
are two hydrogen atoms for
each oxygen atom.
Carbon Dioxide CO2

Carbon dioxide molecules are made from


one carbon and two oxygen atoms joined
together by covalent bonds. The chemical
symbol is CO2.
Glucose - C6H12O6
Molecule
 When a compound is broken down into its’
smallest piece it is called a molecule. You should
be able to write the formula for the following:

 Water

 Oxygen

 Carbon Dioxide
DNA

Is a large molecule made up of carbon,


hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and
phosphorous.
Kinetic theory of matter

The idea that all matter is made up of


constantly moving tiny particles.
Elements form compounds to try to fill their
outer energy level with valence electrons.

 This is called chemically stable. If the


atom is not chemically stable it will lose,
share, or gain electrons.

 A chemical bond is the force that holds


together the atoms in a substance.
Ion

 An Ion is an atom or group of atoms


that has become electrically charged.
 A When an atom loses an electron it
loses a negative charge and becomes a
positive ion.
 When an atom gains an electron, it
gains a negative charge and becomes a
negative ion.
Forming an Ionic Bond:

. Sodium has one valence electron and


transfers that electron to chlorine
Na + Cl- the negative and positive
electrical charges attract each other so the
oppositely charged ions come together
and form sodium chloride (salt).
 An ionic bond is the attraction
between two oppositely charged ions.
This attraction is similar to the attraction
between opposite poles of two magnets.
 .
When two ions come together the
opposite charges cancel out.
Compounds are electrically neutral. When
the ions come together they do so in a
way that balances out the charges on the
ions
Molecules and Covalent Bonds

 The attraction that forms between


atoms when they share electrons is
known as a covalent bond.