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TOPIC 1:

CO MPUTER SYSTEM
1.3 : Information Coding Scheme

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Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this topic, students should be able


to:
(a) Describe how computers encode characters
using ASCII , EBCDIC, Unicode

(b) Calculate the total number of bits/bytes in a


given word based on each coding scheme
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1.3 Information Coding Scheme

Computer stores and processes data and


information in binary code

Computer must be able to convert binary


codes into alphanumeric characters for
display or vice versa

Therefore, computer needs a coding


scheme to map between binary codes
and corresponding alphanumeric 3

characters
1.3 Information Coding
Scheme
Definition

A coding system is the patterns of 0s and 1s


combinations used to represent characters.

- Digits / Numbers
- Letters
- Punctuation marks
- Other symbols 4
Information Coding Scheme

Three (3) most popular coding scheme:

(1) ASCII
(2) EBCDIC
(3) Unicode 5
(1) ASCII
Pronounced as ASK-ee
Stands for American Standard Code for
Information Interchange.
ASCII was created in 1963

Coding system traditionally used with personal


computers.
Uses 8 digit code (8 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 256 characters. (28 = 256)
ASCII characters ranging from 0 to 255.
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(1) ASCII

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 1:
Coding

There are 6 characters.


Therefore, 6 characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 48 bits.

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 2:
Coding Scheme

There are 13 characters including space.


Therefore, 13 characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 104 bits.

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 3:
3 Popular Coding Scheme:

There are 24 characters including spaces.


Therefore, 24characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 192 bits.

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(2) EBCDIC

Pronounced as EB-see-dik.
Stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal

Interchange Code.
Developed by IBM (International Business
Machines Corporation), primarily for mainframe.
Uses 8 digit code (8 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 256 characters. (28 = 256)

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(2) EBCDIC

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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 1:
Hexadecimal

There are 11 characters.


Therefore, 11 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
88 bits.
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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 2:
Binary Digit

There are 12 characters including space.


Therefore, 12 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
96 bits.
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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 3:

“Information Processing Cycle”

There are 30 characters including spaces &


symbols.
Therefore, 30 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
240 bits. 15
(3) Unicode

Universal coding standard designed to represent


text-based data written in any ancient or modern
Language.
Replacing ASCII as the primary text-coding
system.
Implemented in several operating system.
(Windows, Mac OS & Linux)
Uses 16 digit code (16 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 65536 characters.
(216 = 65536)
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(3) Unicode

Example of characters that can't be represent by


ASCII and EBCDIC.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 1:
Mobile Computer

There are 15 characters.


Therefore, 15 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation) = 240
bits.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 2:
Information Technology

There are 22 characters including space.


Therefore, 22 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation)
= 352 bits.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 3:
Fundamental_of_Multimedia

There are 25 characters including spaces.


Therefore, 25 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation)
= 400 bits.
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EXERCISE

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(a) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the ASCII code?

1. Computer System.
2. KMM dihatiku
3. Number system and representation
(b) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the EBCDIC code?
1. Mobile computers and devices
2. Storage capacity
3. 1024 Megabytes
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(c) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the Unicode?

1. iPhone 7
2. Mozilla Firefox
3. Metropolitan Area Network

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Criteria ASCII EBCDIC Unicode

Number of bits 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits


to represent a
character

Representation 28 = 256 28 = 256 216 =


of character 65536

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