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# TOPIC 1:

CO MPUTER SYSTEM
1.3 : Information Coding Scheme

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Learning Outcomes:

## At the end of this topic, students should be able

to:
(a) Describe how computers encode characters
using ASCII , EBCDIC, Unicode

## (b) Calculate the total number of bits/bytes in a

given word based on each coding scheme
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1.3 Information Coding Scheme

## Computer stores and processes data and

information in binary code

## Computer must be able to convert binary

codes into alphanumeric characters for
display or vice versa

## Therefore, computer needs a coding

scheme to map between binary codes
and corresponding alphanumeric 3

characters
1.3 Information Coding
Scheme
Definition

## A coding system is the patterns of 0s and 1s

combinations used to represent characters.

- Digits / Numbers
- Letters
- Punctuation marks
- Other symbols 4
Information Coding Scheme

## Three (3) most popular coding scheme:

(1) ASCII
(2) EBCDIC
(3) Unicode 5
(1) ASCII
Stands for American Standard Code for
Information Interchange.
ASCII was created in 1963

## Coding system traditionally used with personal

computers.
Uses 8 digit code (8 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 256 characters. (28 = 256)
ASCII characters ranging from 0 to 255.
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(1) ASCII

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 1:
Coding

## There are 6 characters.

Therefore, 6 characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 48 bits.

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 2:
Coding Scheme

## There are 13 characters including space.

Therefore, 13 characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 104 bits.

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(1) ASCII
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the ASCII code?

Example 3:
3 Popular Coding Scheme:

## There are 24 characters including spaces.

Therefore, 24characters x 8 bits (since ASCII
code is using 8 digit representation) = 192 bits.

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(2) EBCDIC

Pronounced as EB-see-dik.
Stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal

Interchange Code.
Machines Corporation), primarily for mainframe.
Uses 8 digit code (8 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 256 characters. (28 = 256)

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(2) EBCDIC

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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 1:

## There are 11 characters.

Therefore, 11 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
88 bits.
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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 2:
Binary Digit

## There are 12 characters including space.

Therefore, 12 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
96 bits.
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(2) EBCDIC
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the EBCDIC code?

Example 3:

## There are 30 characters including spaces &

symbols.
Therefore, 30 characters x 8 bits (since
EBCDIC code is using 8 digit representation) =
240 bits. 15
(3) Unicode

## Universal coding standard designed to represent

text-based data written in any ancient or modern
Language.
Replacing ASCII as the primary text-coding
system.
Implemented in several operating system.
(Windows, Mac OS & Linux)
Uses 16 digit code (16 bits) for 1 character.
Can represent up to 65536 characters.
(216 = 65536)
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(3) Unicode

## Example of characters that can't be represent by

ASCII and EBCDIC.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 1:
Mobile Computer

## There are 15 characters.

Therefore, 15 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation) = 240
bits.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 2:
Information Technology

## There are 22 characters including space.

Therefore, 22 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation)
= 352 bits.
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(3) Unicode
How to calculate number of bits that represent
word/phrase by using the Unicode?

Example 3:
Fundamental_of_Multimedia

## There are 25 characters including spaces.

Therefore, 25 characters x 16 bits (since
Unicode is using 16 digit representation)
= 400 bits.
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EXERCISE

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(a) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the ASCII code?

1. Computer System.
2. KMM dihatiku
3. Number system and representation
(b) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the EBCDIC code?
1. Mobile computers and devices
2. Storage capacity
3. 1024 Megabytes
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(c) How many bits would it take to represent
the following phrase using the Unicode?

1. iPhone 7
2. Mozilla Firefox
3. Metropolitan Area Network

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Criteria ASCII EBCDIC Unicode

to represent a
character

## Representation 28 = 256 28 = 256 216 =

of character 65536

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