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The Spiritual Self

Belief – It sets the foundation for one’s action and not readily

Practice – It is the action which manifests the belief of the person

and is observable.

Religion – An organized group who believes and performs the same

religious and spiritual rituals.

The spiritual self will be cohesive in its belief and practices that one’s
belief is echoed by one’s acts.
Free PPT _ Click to add title
Does religion matter to
you when finding a life
partner or when migrating
to other place?
Center of religion and worship
Man is created in the image of God.
God is the all-knowing, all-good, Alpha and Omega.
He is also God the Father, God the Son, and
the Holy Spirit.
Roman Catholic – Saint worshipping is a common
Center of religion and worship
The word means one who submits and surrenders to Allah (God) and his
Allah was the one who showed the founding Prophet, Mohammed,
the message (Torah).
Jesus is not considered the Messiah.
Halal – permissible meat, foods, and drinks under Muslim law
Islam is the second largest religion in the Philippines.
Center of religion and worship
It was believed to have found its way in the
Philippines during the 6th and 7th century by the
Chinese Traders.
There is no personal God but one should follow the
path of Buddha – The Enlightened One.
Worship is sign of respect than veneration (honor).
Center of religion and worship
Buddhism and Hinduism

Man’s goal is to reach Nirvana

(removal of desires and sufferings.)
Center of religion and worship
It was introduced by the Americans.
Salvation through Christ Jesus was
deeply emphasized and one must
be born again and accept Jesus
Christ as the Lord and the Savior.
Center of religion and worship
Iglesia ni Cristo
It believes that God is not the Holy Trinity
but a singular being.
Christ is the son of God and salvation is
their goal.
It is a general practice in almost all reli
Share of Filipino
Rank Belief System
1 Roman Catholic Christianity 80.60%
2 Islam 5.60%
3 Protestant 2.70%
4 Iglesia ni Cristo 2.50%
Buddhists, Indigenous
Beliefs, Atheists, and Others
Cult of Death
The members of Peoples Temple at Jones
town, Guyana committed a mass suicide
after they have been ordered by the Ameri
can Preacher Jim Jones to drink poison.
Over 900 people were killed during this
event last November 1978.
The belief that inanimate objects
may be worshipped, like trees,
plants, sun, sea, or all of them at
the same time.

This was the belief before the

Spaniards came.
Hanging coffins along mountain’s cr
evices would bring the dead closer to
gods. (Sagada)
Spiritual or Faith Healers
Alternative healing, but sometimes the
main go-to.
They use the spirit to diagnose and
cure the sick.
Tawo of Bicol
They are invisible creatures that are th
ought to cause a wide range of illness
es and the only person to communicat
e with them are the faith healers or
Belief in supernatural beings
Aswang, Mangkukulam, Tikbalang, Tik
tik, Kapre, Duwende, etc.
It is not unusual to see people with
strong faith adhering to superstitious
Our spiritual beliefs affect our decision
politically and economically.
Example: RH Bill
Catholic Church has been a strong critic of this
Business practices
The Practice of Religion
Examples are:
1. Worship 7. Celebration
2. Rites 8. Meditation
3. Rituals 9. Dances
4. Sacrifices 10. Matrimonial
5. Fiestas 11. Funeral
6. Trances 12. Baptismal
These acts become religious when th
ey are considered sacred by the practi
tioners depending on their belief.

Example: Wine, Incense, Flowers

Article 33 of the RPC (Revised Penal Code)
One can be imprisoned for committing the crime
of Offending the Religious Feelings.
Example: - Group of Students in Cebu –
Jehovah’s Witnesses
- INC employees
- Holidays
Our Constitutional provisions ensure religious freedom.
The Concept of Dungan
Strip man of everything, the body and all physical facult
ies and the only thing left would be his soul.

In Hinduism, the atman is the universal, eternal self.

The cycle of death and rebirth goes on until the time th
e soul has attained its karmic perfection and becomes
one with brahman - the ultimate reality (permanent hom
The Concept of Dungan
In Muslim, the soul existed at the same time as the body but it will
survive bodily death which will then have life of its own.

In ethnic groups (animism), our soul can exist outside the body
in dreams or visions (eg. ghosts). It may also reincarnate in the
next life in another form like human, animals, or plants.

For babaylan, inside a person’s body dwells the dungan – a comp

anion that co-exists, gives life, animation, and sensibilities. It can
temporarily leave the body during sleep.
The Concept of Dungan

In indigenous concept, soul is a separate e

ntity. It is the life force, an energy, as well as
ethereal entity, a spirit with a will of its own
that resides in the human body and provide
s the essence of life.
Rituals and Ceremonies

Archeologists have found presence of rituals exis

ting since 100,000 years ago acknowledging that
all known communities have their rituals and
some form of religion.

The main benefit of religion is the promotion of co

operation as an effective social mechanism.
Rituals and Ceremonies

Rituals or patterned behavior are forms

of communications which signify commi
tment to other members of the group. It
is done publicly as it is the manifestatio
n of the belief, values, and basic ideals.
Rituals and Ceremonies

It also gives assurance that the person will

do their fair share of the “work.” This create
s a deeper bonding with other members an
d the community.
Example: fasting of Muslims, Jews stan
ding under the scorching sun
Rituals and Ceremonies

When members make sacrifices to meet th

e higher demands of the religion, the higher
the commitment. The higher the commitme
nt, the greater the cooperation.
The more cooperation, the longer the surviv
al of the religion.
Religion, Magic, & Witchcraft

Magic refers to methods that some

how interface with the supernatural
and by which people can bring abo
ut particular outcomes.
Religion, Magic, & Witchcraft

For Edward Tyler, magic is not part of religi

on as this has no spirit involved.

For James Frazer, magic is the initial s

tep before it becomes a religion, which
will evolve into science.
Religion, Magic, & Witchcraft

For Emile Durkham, religious rituals involv

e the community while magic gravitates on
the needs and wants of an individual only.

How does magic affect our spiritual self?

Religion, Magic, & Witchcraft
In Malleus Maleficarum, a book published by the
Catholic Church in 1486,
Witches were the people who renounced Catholic fa
ith and devoted themselves, their body and soul, to
the service of evil. They offered unbaptized children
to the Devil and engaged in orgies that included havi
ng intercourse with the Devil himself.
Religion, Magic, & Witchcraft
Witches generally associated with immoral and anti
social behavior such as greed, vengeance, and
envy. It involves connivance with the evil.

But these three were mixed in the Filipino’s

concept of spiritual self.
Finding the Meaning of Life
Victor Frankl
He is a psychiatrist who was imprisoned for three
years in a concentration camp during World War II.

He was able write a book entitled, “Man’s Search for

Meaning” where he discussed the Logotherapy
(ways in finding the meaning of life.) This varies from
time to time, as well as from person to person.
1. By creating a work or doing a deed

Whenever we find value in who we are through the

things we do, then we create meaning in our lives.

Examples: Scientist, Book seller, Father

2. By experiencing something or encountering some

Whenever we experience goodness, truth, beauty, or

being loved.

Examples: You are accepted for your uniqueness, or

Being encouraged to become the best person you
can be
3. By the attitude we take toward unavoidable sufferi

Even in suffering, we can turn it into triumph. Sufferi

ng ceases to be suffering the moment it finds a mea

Examples: Finding lesson in suffering, Nick Vujicic

Whatever we believe in religiously, as long as we do
not harm others or their rights, we are not doing any
thing wrong.

And lastly, it is not finding the meaning of life but how

you give meaning to your life.