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PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM

PERNAPASAN

FUNGSI PERNAPASAN

MENYALURKAN OKSIGEN KE SEL


DAN MENGELUARKAN
KARBONDIOKSIDA DARI SEL
(PERTUKARAN GAS).
ADEQUASI OKSIGENISASI DAN
VENTILASI DIUKUR DENGAN Pa
OKSIGEN DAN Pa KARBONDIOKSIDA
Human Respiratory System

Figure 10.1
Organs in the Respiratory System
STRUCTURE FUNCTION

warms, moistens, & filters air as it is


nose / nasal cavity
inhaled

pharynx (throat) passageway for air, leads to trachea

the voice box, where vocal chords are


larynx
located

keeps the windpipe "open"


trachea is lined with fine hairs called
trachea (windpipe)
cilia which filter air before it reaches the
lungs

two branches at the end of the trachea,


bronchi
each lead to a lung

a network of smaller branches leading from


bronchioles the bronchi into the lung tissue &
ultimately to air sacs

the functional respiratory units in the lung


alveoli
where gases are exchanged
Components of the Upper
Respiratory Tract

Figure 10.2
Upper Respiratory Tract
Functions

 Passageway for respiration


 Receptors for smell
 Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign
material
 Moistens and warms incoming air
 Resonating chambers for voice
Components of the Lower
Respiratory Tract

Figure 10.3
Lower Respiratory Tract

 Functions:
 Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food
and air appropriately, assists in sound production
 Trachea: transports air to and from lungs

 Bronchi: branch into lungs

 Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange


Gas Exchange Between the Blood
and Alveoli

Figure 10.8A
Respiratory Cycle

Figure 10.9
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

ALVEOLUS (KANTUNG UDARA TEMPAT


PERTUKARAN GAS TERJADI)
APEX (BAGIAN ATAS LOBUS ATAS PARU)
BASE (BAGIAN BAWAH DARI LOBUS
BAWAH, TERLETAK DIATAS DIAPHRAGMA
BRONKHUS ( JALAN NAPAS BESAR, YG
MEMBAGI PARU MENJADI BRONKHUS KIRI
DAN KANAN)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN

TERMINOLOGI

SIRKULASI BRONKHIAL (SIRKULASI PARU)


SISTEM SIRKULASI YG MENSUPLY DARAH
TEROKSIGENISASI KE SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
BRONKHOKONSTRIKSI (KONSTRIKSI OTOT
HA LUS DISEKITAR BRONKHIOLUS)
CARINA (LOKASI PERCABANGAN KE KIRI
DAN KANAN CABANG UTAMA BRONKHI
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

CILIA (RAMBUT HALUS PADA PERMUKAAN


TRAKHEOBRONKHIAL, YG MEMBANTU
PENGELUARAN SEKRESI)
COMPLIANCE (KEMAMPUAN PARU UNTUK
MENGEMBANG; EMPHISEMA PARU SANGAN
MENGEMBANG, FIBROSIS : PARU TIDAK
MENGEMBANG
DEAD SPACE (VENTILASI YG TIDAK BERPERAN
DAN PERTUKARAN GAS, SECARA FISIOLOGIS
RONGGA MATI/DEAD SPACE TERJADI BILA
VENTILASI ADEQUAT TETAPI TIDAK ADA PERFUSI
SEPERTI PADA EMBOLI PARU
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN

TERMINOLOGI

DIAPHRAGMA (OTOT PRIMER YG


DIGUNAKAN UNTUK PERNAPASAN
BERLOKASI DI DIBAWAH DASAR PARU)
DIFUSI GAS (PERGERAKAN GAS DARI
KONSENTRASI TINGGI KE KONSENTRASI
RENDAH
DYSPNEA (KESULITAN BERNAPAS, NAPAS
PENDEK)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN

TERMINOLOGI

HEMOPTYSIS (PERDARAHAN DARI PARU


DENGAN GEJALA BATUK DARAH)
HYPOKSEMIA ( Pa OKSIGEN KURANG DARI
NORMAL. Pa O2 NORMAL 80 – 100 mmHg.
HYPOXIA ( INSUFISIENSI OKSIGENISASI
PADA TINGKAT SELULER AKIBAT
KETIDAKSEIMBANGAN ANTARA
PENYALURAN DAN KONSUMSI OKSIGEN
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

MEDIASTINUM (RONGGA ANTARA PARU YG


BERISI LYMP DENGAN JARINGAN VASKULER
YG MENYEBAR DARI PARU KIRI DAN KANAN
ORTHOPNEA (NAPAS PENDEK PADA SAAT
POSISI BERBARING)
PAROKSIMAL NOKTURNAL DYSPNEA
(NAPAS PENDEK MENDADAK SETELAH
TIDUR DENGAN POSSISI
REKUMBEN/TELENTANG)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

PERFUSI (ALIRAN DARAH YG MEMBAWA


OKSIGEN DAN CO2 YG MELELUI ALVEOLI)
PLEURA (MEMBRAN YG MENUTUPI SISI
LUAR PARU (PLEURA VICERALIS) DAN SISI
THORAKS (PLEURA PARIETALIS) YG
MEMBENTUK SUATU RONGGA POTENSIAL
RESPIRASI ( PERTUKARAN GAS DARI
UDARA KE DARAH DAN DARAH KE SEL
TUBUH
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

SHUNT (PERFUSI ADEQUAT TANPA


VENTILASI SPT PADA EDEMA PARU,
ATELEKTASIS, PPOM)
SURFAKTANT (SUBSTANSI YG DILEPASKAN
SEL DIDALAM PARU; MEMELIHARA
TEGANGAN PERMUKAAN DAN
MEMPERTAHANKAN TERBUKANYA ALVEOLI
GUNA MEMUDAHKAN PERTUKARAN GAS
VENTILASI (PERGERAKAN UDARA KEDALAM
DAN KELUAR PARU)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TERMINOLOGI

KETIDAKSEIMBANGAN VENTILASI – PERFUSI


(V/Q) – KETIDAKCOCOKAN VENTILASI
DAN PERFUSI AKIBAT HYPOKSEMIA.
V/Q MISMATCH DAPAT DISEBABKAN:
1. PERFUSI DARAH DI AREA PARU TEMPAT
VENTILASI BERKURANG/ ABSEN
2. KELEBIHAN ALIRAN DARAH TERHADAP
SEJUMLAH VENTILASI
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN

DYSPNEA
1. KARAKTERISTIK → APAKAH DYSPNE
KRONIS , AKUT ?. APAKAH TERJADI TIBA-
TIBA ATAU BERTAHAP ?. APAKAH
MENGGUNAKAN 1 ATAU LEBIH BANTAL
SAAT TIDUR ?. APAKAH DYSPNEA
PROGRESIF REKUREN ATAU
PAROKSIMAL ?. BERJALAN BERAPA JAUH
TIMBUL SESAK NAPAS.
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
DYSPNEA
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN; APAKAH
BATUK BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN
DYSPNEA, APAKAH BATUK PRODUKTIF ?,
APAKAH AKTIVITAS MENCETUSKAN
DYSPNEA ?, APAKAH BERTAMBAH
PARAH BILA KAGET ?. APAKAH
DIPENGARUHI OLEH WAKTU HARI DAN
CUACA ?, APAKAH TERJADI SAAT
ISTIRAHAT ATAU LATIHAN ?, ADAKAH
DEMAM, MENGGIGIL, BERKERINGAT
MALAM, & PERUBAHAN BERAT BADAN.
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
DYSPNEA
3. RIWAYAT →APAKAH RIWAYAT
KELUARGA DAN PASIEN MENDERITA
PENYAKIT PARU KRONIS ?, APAKAH ADA
RIWAYAT MEROKOK ?
4. KEMAKNAAN → DYSPNEA MENDADAK
DAPAT MEMBERI INDIKASI EMBOLI
PARU, PNEUMOTHORAKS, INFARK
MYOKARD, GAGAL VENTRIKEL AKUT,
ATAU GAGAL NAPAS AKUT.
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
DYSPNEA
4. PADA PASIEN POST OP ATAU PASIEN
POSTPARTUM DYSPNEA DAPAT
MEMBERI INDIKASI EMBOLUS PARU
ATAU EDEMA.
5. ORTHOPNEA DAPAT MEMBERI INDIKASI
PENYAKIT JANTUNG ATAU PPOM. JIKA
DYSPNEA BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN
WHEEZING PERLU DIPERTIMBANGKAN
ASTHMA ATAU PPOM.
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
CHEST PAIN (NYERI DADA)
1. KARAKTERISTIK NYERI DADA APAKAH
TAJAM, TUMPUL, MENUSUK ?, APAKAH
INTERMITEN ATAU PERSISTEN ?,
APAKAH TERLOKALISIR ATAU
MENYEBAR ?, JIKA MENYEBAR KEMANA
?, BAGAIMANA INTENSITAS NYERINYA ?
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN → APAKAH
NYERI BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN
INSPIRASI DAN EKSPIRASI ?, APAKAH
TERLIHAT FAKTOR YG MENCETUSKAN
NYERI ?
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
CHEST PAIN (NYERI DADA)
3. RIWAYAT → APAKAH ADA RIWAYAT MEROKOK
ATAU TERPAPAR LINGKUNGAN ?, APAKAH
NYERI PERNAH DIALAMI SEBELUMNYA ?, APA
PENYEBABNYA DULU ?, APAKAH PERNAH
TERDIAGNOSA PENYAKIT JANTUNG ATAU
PARU ?
4. KEMAKNAAN → NYERI DADA BERHUBUNGAN
DENGAN PENYEBAB PARU BIASANYA
DIRASAKAN PADA SISI DIMANA MUNCULNYA
FATOLOGIS. NYERI PERSISTEN DAPAT
MEMBERI INDIKASI KARSINOMA PARU, NYERI
MENUSUK TAJAM BIASANYA DARI AREA
PLEURA
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
BATUK (COUGHT)
1. KARAKTERISTIK →APAKAH BATUK
KERING ?, HACKING, SPT ALAT MUSIK
ATAU WHEEZING ? APAKAH KUAT ATAU
LEMAH ?.
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN → APAKAH
BATUK PRODUKTIF ? BAGAIMANA
KONSTITENSINYA, BAU, JUMLAH DAN
WARNA SPUTUM ? APAKAH TERDAPAT
WAKTU KHUSUS TIMBULNYA BATUK ?
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
BATUK (COUGHT)
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN → APAKAH
ONSETNYA MENDADAK ATAU
BERTAHAP? APAKAH BERHUBUNGAN
DENGAN MAKANAN
3. RIWAYAT → APAKAH TERDAPAT
PAPARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN
PEKERJAAN (DEBU, GAS) ?. APAKAH
ADA RIWAYAT MEROKOK ? APAKAH ADA
TERDIAGNOSIS PENYAKIT ?
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
BATUK (COUGHT)
4. KEMAKNAAN → BATUK KERING,
BATUK IRITASI MENUNJUKAN
INFEKSI VIRUS . BATUK MALAM
HARI HARUS DIWASPADAI GAGAL
JANTUNG KIRI ATAU ASTHMA .
BATUK PAGI HARI DENGAN
SPUTUM MUNGKIN BRONKHITIS.
PNEUMONIA BAKTERI SPUTUM
COKLAT KUNING TUA (BERKARAT)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
BATUK (COUGHT)
4. KEMAKNAAN → SPUTUM PINK
BERBUSA INDIKASI EDEMA PARU,
BATUK BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN
MAKAN KEMUNGKINAN ASPIRASI
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
HEMOPTYSIS
1. KARAKTERISTIK → APAKAH DARAH DARI
PARU, APAKAH DARI SISTEM
PENCERNAAN (HEMATEMESIS) ATAU
JALAN NAPAS ATAS (EPITAKSIS) ?.
APAKAH MERAH MENYALA DAN
BERBUSA, BERAPA BANYAKNYA
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN (APAKAH
ONSET BERHUBUNGAN DGN AKTIVITAS,
APAKAH ONSET MENDADAK, HILANG
TIMBUL, TERUS MENERUS ?
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
HEMOPTYSIS
2. FAKTOR YG BERHUBUNGAN
(APAKAH ADA SENSASI GATAL DI
TENGGOROKAN, RASA ASIN,
PANAS, SENSASI GELEMBUNG
DIDADA SEBELUM PERDARAHAN ?)
3. RIWAYAT ( APAKAH ADA TRAUMA
DADA TERKINI, ATAU TERAFI DADA
(CHEST PERCUSSION)
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
DATA SUBJEKTIF PENGKAJIAN
HEMOPTYSIS
4. KEMAKNAAN (HEMOPTYSIS DAPAT
BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN INFEKSI
PARU, KARSINOMA PARU,
KELAINAN JANTUNG DAN PEMB
DARAH, ARTERI ATAU VENA PARU
ATAU EMBOLI DAN INFARK

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
Equipment Needed

• A Stethoscope
• A Peak Flow Meter
Surface markings of the lobes of the lung:
(a) anterior, (b) posterior, (c) right lateral and (d) left lateral.
(UL, upper lobe; ML, middle lobe; LL, lower lobe).

ul
ll Ul
ml

a
ul
ml
ll

b ll
Position/Lighting/Draping

• Position –
• patient should sit upright on the examination table.
• The patient's hands should remain at their sides.
• When the back is examined the patient is usually asked
to move their arms forward( hug themself position )so
that the scapulae are not in the way of examining the
upper lung fields.
• Lighting - adjusted so that it is ideal.
• Draping - the chest should be fully exposed. Exposure
time should be minimized.
The basic steps of the examination

• can be remembered with the


nemonic IPPA:
• Inspection
• Palpation
• Percussion
• Auscultation
Health History

• Any risk factors for respiratory disease


• smoking
– pack years ppd X # years
– exposure to smoke
– history of attempts to quit, methods, results
• sedentary lifestyle, immobilization
• age
• environmental exposure
– Dust, chemicals, asbestos, air pollution
• obesity
• family history
Cough
• Type
– dry, moist, wet, productive, hoarse, hacking, barking, whooping
• Onset
• Duration
• Pattern
– activities, time of day, weather
• Severity
– effect on ADLs
• Wheezing
• Associated symptoms
• Treatment and effectiveness
sputum
• amount
• color
• presence of blood (hemoptysis)
• odor
• consistency
• pattern of production
Past Health History

• Respiratory infections or diseases (URI)


• Trauma
• Surgery
• Chronic conditions of other systems
• Family Health History
• Tuberculosis
• Emphysema
• Lung Cancer
• Allergies
• Asthma
Inspection

• Tracheal deviation (can suggest of tension pneumothorax


• Chest wall deformities [
• Kyphosis - curvature of the spine - anterior-posterior
• Scoliosis - curvature of the spine - lateral
• Barrel chest - chest wall increased anterior-posterior; normal
in children; typical of hyperinflation seen in COPD
• Pectus excavatum
• Pectus carinatum
Thoracoplasty Kyphosis
with secondary
changes in the
spine.
Pectus exacavatum
Signs of respiratory distress

• Cyanosis - person turns blue


• Pursed-lip breathing - seen in COPD (used to
increase end expiratory pressure )
• Accessory muscle use( scalene muscles )
• Diaphragmatic paradox - the diaphragm moves
opposite of the normal direction on inspiration;
suspect flail segment in trauma
• Intercostal indrawing
‘blue bloater’
‘pink puffer’. Note the
showing ascites
pursed-lip
from marked cor
breathing
pulmonale.
.
Inspection
1. Respiratory movement
– Abdominal breathing: male adult and child
– Thoracic breathing: female adult
2. Respiratory rate: 16-18 f/min
– Tachypnea: >20 f/min
– Bradypnea: <12 f/min
– Shallow and fast
• respiratory muscular paralysis, elevated intraabdominal
pressure, pneumonia, pleurisy
– Deep and fast
• Agitation, intension
– Deep and slow
• Severe metabolic acidosis (Kussmaul’s breathing)
Inspection
3. Respiratory rhythm
• Cheyne-Stokes’ breathing
• Biot’s breathing
_____Decreased excitability of respiratory center
• Inhibited breathing
– Sudden cessation of breathing due to chest pain
• Pleurisy, thoracic trauma
• Sighing breathing
– Depression, intension
Palpation
• Thoracic expansion
– Massive hydrothorax,
pneumonia, pleural thickening,
atelectasis
• Vocal fremitus (tactil fremitus)
• Pleural friction fremitus
– Cellulose exudation in pleura due to
pleurisy
– Holding breathing disappeared
– Tuberculous pleurisy, uremia, pulmo
embolism
Assessing chest expansion in expiration (left) and inspiration (right).

Percussion over the anterior chest. Direct percussion of the clavicles for
disease in the lung apices
Palpation

• Tactile fremitus
is vibration felt by palpation. Place your open palms against the
upper portion of the anterior chest, making sure that the
fingers do not touch the chest. Ask the patient to repeat the
phrase “ninety-nine” or another resonant phrase while you
systematically move your palms over the chest from the
central airways to each lung’s periphery.You should feel
vibration of equally intensity on both sides of the chest.
Examine the posterior thorax in a similar manner. The
fremitus should be felt more strongly in the upper chest with
little or no fremitus being felt in the lower chest
Tactile Fremitus
Tactile Fremitus

• Ask the patient to say "ninety-nine" several times


in a normal voice.
• Palpate using the ball of your hand .
• You should feel the vibrations transmitted through
the airways to the lung .
• Increased tactile fremitus suggests consolidation
of the underlying lung tissues
Auscultation

• To assess breath sounds, ask the


patient to breathe in and out slowly and
deeply through the mouth.
• Begin at the apex of each lung and
zigzag downward between
intercostal spaces . Listen with the
diaphragm portion of the
stethoscope.
• Normal breath sounds
• Note
• Pitch
• Intensity
• Quality
• Duration
Normal Breath Sounds
• Bronchial :Heard over the trachea and mainstem bronchi (2nd-4th
intercostal spaces either side of the sternum anteriorly and 3rd-6th
intercostal spaces along the vertebrae posteriorly). The sounds are
described as tubular and harsh. Also known as tracheal breath sounds.
• Bronchovesicular :Heard over the major bronchi below the clavicles in the
upper of the chest anteriorly. Bronchovesicular sounds heard over the
peripheral lung denote pathology. The sounds are described as medium-
pitched and continuous throughout inspiration and expiration.
• Vesicular :Heard over the peripheral lung. Described as soft and low-
pitched. Best heard on inspiration.
• Diminished :Heard with shallow breathing; normal in obese patients with
excessive adipose tissue and during pregnancy. Can also indicate an
obstructed airway, partial or total lung collapse, or chronic lung disease.
Normal auscultatory
sound
Percussion
1. Method

– Mediate
• Pleximeter: distal inter-phalangeal joint of left middle
finger
• Plexor: right middle finger tip
– Immediate
– Order
• Up to down, anterior to posterior
Percussion
Rational
• To determine if
underlying tissue is
filled with air or solid
material
Procedure
• Pt sitting
• Tap starting at shoulder
• compare rt to lf
Percussion: results
• Resonance – drum like
– Normal
• Hyper-resonance
– Too much air
– Emphysema
• Flatness / dull
– Fluid or solid
– Pleural effusion
– Pneumonia
– Tumor
2. Affected factors
– Thickness of thoracic wall
– Calcification of costal cartilage
– Hydrothorax
– Containing gas in alveoli
– Alveolar tension
– Alveolar elasticity
3. Classification
– Resonance
• Normal
– Hyperresonance
• Emphysema
– Tympany
• Cavity or pneumothorax
– Dullness
• Hydrothorax, atelectasis
– Flatness
• Massive Hydrothorax
4. Normal sound

• Lung’s sound in percussion


• Resonance
• Slight dullness in some areas (upper, right,
back) due to thickness of muscles and
skeletons
4. Normal sound
Border of lungs in percussion
• Apex of lungs
– Kronig’s isthmus: 5cm in width
– Narrow: TB, fibrosis
– wider: emphysema
• Anterior border
– absolute cardiac dullness area
• Lower border
– 6th, 8th, 10th intercostal space in midclavicular line,
midaxillary line, scapular line, respectively
– Down: emphysema
– Up: atelectasis, intraabdominal pressure goes up
4. Normal sound
Shifting range of bottom of lung
Along the scapular line
s
Percussing bottom of lung, marking
Shifting range of
bottom of lung
Asking the pat. to inspire deeply and hold

Percussing bottom of lung, marking 6-8 cm

Asking the pat. to expire deeply and hold

Percussing bottom of lung, marking


 Decreased: emphysema, atelactasis,
Measuring the dist. between upper and lower linesfibrosis, pulmo. edema, pneumonia
 Detected impossibly: pleura adhesion,
massive hydrothorax, pneumothorax,
diaphragmatic paralysis
5. Abnormal sound
• Dullness, flatness, hyperresonance or
tympany appear in the area of supposed
resonance.

• Unchanged sound (resonance)


– The depth of the lesion > 5 cm
– The diameter of the lesion  3 cm
– Mild hydrothorax
5. Abnormal sound
Dullness or flatness
• Decreased containing gas in alveoli
– Pneumonia
– Atelectasis?
– TB
– Pulmo. embolism
– Pulmo. edema
– Pulmo. fibrosis
• No gas in alveoli
– Tumor
– Pulmo. Hydatid (肺包虫)
– Pneumocystis (肺囊虫)
– Non-liquefied lung abscess
• Others
– Hydrothorax
– Pleural thickness
5. Abnormal sound
• Hyperresonance
– Emphysema
• Tympany
– Pneumothorax
– Large cavity (TB, lung abscess, lung cyst)
• Amphorophony (空瓮音)
– Large and shallow cavity with smooth wall
– Tension pneumothorax
• Tympanitic dullness (浊鼓音)
– Decreased tension and gas in alveoli
• Atelectasis
• Congestive or resolution stage of pneumonia
• Pulmo. edema
5. Abnormal sound

Garland’s triangle area


• Special (tympanitic dullness)

areas on Damoiseau’s curve


percussion in
moderate
hydrothorax

Grocco’s triangle area


(dullness)
Auscultation
Auscultation
Purpose
• Asses air flow
through bronchial
tree
Procedure
• Diaphragm of
stethoscope
• Superior  inferior
• Compare rt to lf
Auscultation: Results
Normal
• Vesicular
– Lung field
– Soft and low
• Bronchial
– Trachea & bronchi
– Hollow
• Bronchovesicular
– Mixed
– Between scapulae
– Side of sternum
– 1st & 2nd intercostal space
Auscultation: Results
Adventitious
• Crackles • Fine crackles
– Rales – Air  suddenly
reinflated
– air  bronchi with
secretions • Course Crackles
– Moist
Auscultation: Results
• Wheezes – Sibilant Wheezes
– Sonorous wheezes • High pitched
• Whistle-like
• Deep low pitched
• I&E
• Snoring
• Caused by air 
• >E
narrowed passages
• Caused by air 
• D/t constriction
narrowed passages
– Asthma
• D/t h secretions
Normal auscultatory
sound
Auscultation: Results
• Pleural friction rub
– D/t inflammation of
pleural membranes
– Grating, creaking
– I&E
– Best heard
• Anterior, Lower,
lateral area
Auscultation: Results
• Stridor
– Crowing
– Partial obstruction of
the larynx or trachea
Order of auscultation
Sound of auscultation
1. Normal breath sound
2. Abnormal breath sound
3. Adventitious sound
4. Vocal resonance (语音共振)
1. Normal breath sound
• Tracheal breath sound Bronchial
• Bronchial breath sound
– Larynx, suprasternal fossa,
around 6th, 7th cervical Bronchovesicular
vertebra, 1st, 2nd thoracic
vertebra
• Bronchovesicular breath
sound
– 1st, 2nd intercostal space Bronchial
beside of sternum, the level of
3rd, 4th thoracic vertebra in
interscaplar area, apex of lung Bronchovesicular
• Vesicular breath sound
– Most area of lungs
2. Abnormal breath sound

• Abnormal vesicular breath sound

• Abnormal bronchial breath sound

• Abnormal bronchovesicular breath sound


Abnormal vesicular breath
sound(1)
1) Decreased or disappeared
• Movement of thoracic wall
• Respiratory muscle weakness
• Obstruction of airway
• Hydrothorax or pneumothorax
• Abdominal diseases: ascites, large tumor
2) Increased
• Movement of respiration
Abnormal vesicular breath sound (2)

3) Prolonged expiration
• Bronchitis
• Asthma
• emphysema
4) Cogwheel breath sound
• TB
• Pneumonia
5) Coarse breath sound
• Early stage of bronchitis or pneumonia
Abnormal bronchial breath
sound
(tubular breath sound)

 Bronchial breath sound appears in supposed


vesicular breath sound area

• Consolidation: lobar pneumonia (consolidation


stage)
• Large cavity: TB, lung abscess
• Compressed atelectasis: hydrothorax,
pneumothorax
Abnormal bronchovesicular
breath sound
• Bronchovesicular breath sound appears in
supposed vesicular breath sound area

– The lesion is relatively smaller or mixed with


normal lung tissue
3. Adventitious sound

• (moist) Crackles

• Rhonchi (wheezes)

• Pleural friction rub


Moist crackles

Mechanism
During inspiration, air flow passes thin
secretion in the airway to rupture the
bubbles, or to open the collapse of
bronchioli due to adhesion by secretion.
Characteristics of crackles
1. Adventitious sound
2. Intermittent
3. Appeared in phase of inspiration or early
expiration
4. Constant in site
5. Unchanged in character
6. Medium and fine crackles exist
meantime
7. Less or disappeared after cough
Classification of crackles
• According to intensity of the sound
1. Loud moist crackles
2. Slight moist crackles
• According to diameter of the airway crackles appeared
1. Coarse: trachea, main bronchi, or cavity
• Bronchiectasis, pulmo. edema, TB, lung abscess,
coma
2. Medium: bronchi
• bronchitis, pneumonia
3. Fine: bronchioli
• pneumonia
4. Crepitus:
• Bronchiolitis, alveolitis, early pneumonia (pulmo.
Congestion), elder subject, pat. bed rest for long
Site of crackles
1. Local: local lesion
– Pneumonia, TB, bronchiectasis
2. Both bases
– Pulmo. edema, bronchopneumonia,
chronic bronchitis
3. Full fields
– Acute pulmo. edema, severe
bronchopneumonia, chronic bronchitis with
severe infection
Rhonchi (wheezes)
Mechanism
The turbulent flow is formed in trachea, bronchi or
bronchioli due to airway narrow or incomplete
obstruction.
Causes
– Congestion
– Secretion
– Spasma
– Tumor
– Foreign subject
– Compression
Characteristics of rhonchi
1. Adventitious sound
2. High pitch
3. Dominance in phase of expiration
4. Variable intensity of character or site
5. Wheezing
Classification of rhonchi

1. Sibilant (高调)
– Bonchioli, bronchi

2. Sonorous (低调)
– Trachea, main bronchi
Site of rhonchi

1. Both fields
– Asthma
– Chronic bronchitis
– Acute left heart failure
2. Local site
– Tumor
– Endobronchial TB
Pleural friction rub
1. Cellulose exudation in pleurisy (rough pleura)
2. Area of auscultation
– Anterolateral thoracic wall (maximal shifting area of lung)
3. Friction rub disappeared if holding breath
4. Friction rub appeared both breath and heart beat:
mediastinal pleurisy
5. Causes
– Tuberculous pleurisy
– Pulmo. embolism
– Uremia
– Pleural mesothelioma
Vocal resonance

• Bronchophony (支气管语音)
– Consolidation
• Pectoriloqny (胸语音)
– Massive consolidation
• Egophony (羊语音)
– Upper area of hydrothorax
• Whispered (耳语音)
– Consolidation
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TES DIAGNOSTIK
1. ABGs (ARTERRIAL BLOOD GAS
ANALYSIS
2. PEMERIKSAAN SPUTUM
3. ANALYSIS CAIRAN PLEURA
4. CHEST X-RAY
5. COMPUTERIZED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY
(CAT, CT)
6. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
7. PULMONARY ANGIOGRAPHY
PENGKAJIAN ASKEP SISTEM
PERNAPASAN
TES DIAGNOSTIK
8. VENTILATION-PERFUSION (V/Q)
SCAN
9. BRONCHOSCOPY
10.LUNG BIOPSY
11.PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS
(PFTs)
12.PULSE OXIMETRY
13.CAPNOGRAPHY