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Dear Lord and Father of all,

Thank you for today.


Thank you for ways in which you
provide for us all. For Your protection
and love we thank you.
Help us to focus our hearts and minds
now on what we are about to learn.
Inspire us by Your Holy Spirit as we
listen and write.
Guide us by your eternal light as we
discover more about the world
around us.
We ask all this in the name of Jesus.
Amen.
“Critical reading is an active
process of discovery”
-Gary Goshgarian
 because you are not just receiving
information but also making an
interaction with the writer.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Explain what is critical reading is;
2. Annotate, outline, summarize, and question
the writer’s claim in a text;
3. Define fallacy and identify the kinds of
fallacy;
4. Evaluate whether an argument is
sound/logical or not;
5. Analyze a text by applying the different ways
in reading critically; and
6. Critique a text by pointing out the different
logical fallacies.
What is critical
reading?
Critical Reading
• involves scrutinizing any information that
you read or hear. Critical reading means
not easily believing information offered to
you by a text.
• is an active process of discovery because
when you read critically, you are not just
receiving information but also making an
interaction with the writer. The interaction
happens when you question the writer’s
claims and assertions and when you
comment on the writer’s ideas.
Ramage, Bean, and
Johnson (2006) identified
the following requirements
in critical thinking:
The following requirements in critical
thinking:
• The ability to pose problematic
questions
• The ability to analyze a problem in all its
dimensions- to define its key terms,
determine causes, understand its
history, appreciate its human dimension
and its connection to one’s own
personal experience, and appreciate
what makes it problematic or complex.
The following requirements in critical
thinking:
• The ability to find, gather, and
interpret data, facts, and other
information relevant to the
problem.
• The ability to imagine alternative
solutions to the problem, to see
different ways in which the question
might be answered and different
perspectives for viewing it.
The following requirements in critical
thinking:
• The ability to analyze competing
approaches and answer, to construct
arguments for and against alternatives,
and to choose the best solution in the light
values, objectives, and other criteria that
you determine and articulate.
• The ability to write an effective argument
justifying your choice while acknowledging
counter-arguments.
The following are some suggested ways to help become a
critical reader:

1. Annotate what you read. One


ways to interact with the
writer where you underline
circle or highlights words,
phrases, or sentences that
contain important details.
Why Do They Say That Our
English Is Bad?
(An Excerpt)
Grace M. Saqueton

Who wrote this essay?


What is the writer’s stand
on the subject matter?
What accounts
for these errors?
English teachers in the Philippines often find themselves in a very
frustrating situation – no matter how hard they try to teach the
rules of written English to their students, the students still
commit errors in word order, word choice, subject-verb
agreement, tenses prepositions, articles, punctuations and the
like. Teachers get frustrated when they hear or read sentences
such as “They decided to got married”, “What did the students
watched?” or “Ana go to the canteen”. It is also alarming because
the rules that apply to these sentences are supposedly simple
rules that the students should have learned in grade school. Yet,
here they are in college, still committing those same errors.
I also notice that these are
common errors.
What is the strategy that
they are using now?

Teachers and linguists alike have sought and (probably) are


still seeking for ways and strategies to teach English
effectively especially in the light of teaching English as a
second language or as a foreign language. Different research
studies have been conducted and different theories have
been used to address the situation. One of the topics that
there searchers have explored is the recurring errors in
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and discourse of
second language learners. They believe that studying these
recurring errors is necessary to address the supposed
Look these
grammar problems of the Filipino college students.
terms up
The following are some suggested ways to help become a critical
reader:

2. Outline the text. Another way


to become a critical reader
where you identify the main
points of the writer in either a
bullet form or in number form.
OUTLINE THE TEXT
Thesis Statement:

Supporting details:
Point 1:
Point 2:
Point 3:
“Why Do They Say That Our English Is Bad?”

Thesis Statement: The concept of Standard English is


problematic because there is no clear definitions of what
standard is.
Supporting details:
Point 1: The gives a scenario in the Philippines classrooms in
which English teachers get frustrated because of students’
grammatical errors.
Point 2: The author mentioned that research studies are
being conducted in order to improve teaching English as a
second language but failed to mention what those specific
studies are.
Point 3: The common errors that Filipino students commit
in their writings are mentioned.
The following are some suggested ways to help become a critical
reader:

3. Summarize the text. A way to


become a critical reader where
you also get the main points of
the text and write its gist in your
own words. it is usually a one
paragraph long.
The following are some suggested ways to help become a critical
reader:

4. Evaluate the text. It is the


most challenging part in
critical reading where you
question the author's purpose,
intention, assumptions in the
claim, as well as the evidences.
Video Presentation
Love is a Fallacy
Max Shulman
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eK_tb7ob8Kg
Love is a Fallacy
Max Shulman
• Fallacy: A mistaken or illogical
idea; error in reason
• Logic: The science of thinking
• Logical Fallacy- An error in
reasoning that renders an
argument invalid.
Fallacies
• Dicto Simpliciter: an argument based on an
unqualified generalization. “Exercise is good.
Therefore, everyone should exercise.” (Heart
patients shouldn’t exercise)
• Hasty Generalization: too few instances to support
the conclusion. (Denielle can't speak German.
Daniel can't also speak German. Therefore,
everybody in Nickel can't speak in German)
• Post Hoc: “Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Every
time we take him it rains. Bill has no connection to
the weather.
Fallacies
• Contradictory Premesis: “If God can do
anything, can he make a stone so heavy he
can’t lift it?” there can be no argument when
the premises contradict each other.
• Ad Misericordian: Appeal to someone’s
sympathy or pity to avoid the question. (My
wife is a ripple, the children are hungry…)
• False Analogy: Comparing two different
situations and making an analogy. The
situations must be comparable
Fallacies
• Hypothesis Contrary to Fact: Starting with a
false hypotheses and drawing conclusions.
“Madam Curie’s discovery of radium would
not have happened if she hadn’t left the
photographic plate with pitch blende out.”
• Poisoning the Well: Tainting an argument
before it has begun.. (First man calls a
second man a liar before he gets to say
anything.)
Comprehensive Questions
(Partner)
1. How would you describe the narrator in the story?
2. How was peter bellows described in the story? How about
Polly? Do you think that they are really as dumb as they
were described?
3. From whose point of view is the story told? Is the telling of
the story logical? Why or why not?
4. In which parts of the story did the narrator commit
fallacies?
5. Using your annotation and summary, identify the
following:
a. Purpose/intention of the author
b. Assumptions of the author
c. Claims of the author
Ponder on this:
(1/2 sheet of paper)

• Give at least 5 examples of fallacy


and provide your own examples
for each fallacy.
Carry this out:
1. With the same partner, evaluate two
advertisement (on print or on TV). Find out
if there are fallacies that are used in those
advertisements.
2. Choose a news about a recent national
issue (an issue that has made it to the news
headlines in the past two weeks or so). As
a critical reader, evaluate the news article
and find out if there are flaws in the way
the article is presented.
Carry this out
3. Use the following criteria for your
evaluation:
a. Purpose of the advertisements/news
b. Execution of the message: how was the
message conveyed? What are some interesting
claims that catch your attention? Did they
present evidence and/or credible sources to
vouch for the text’s credibility.
c. Critical value of the text: Are there fallacies?
d. Effectiveness and/or truthfulness of the text.
Answer each following questions in one
paragraph. Each paragraph is worth 5 points.
1. What does it mean and take to be a critical reader?
2. Why is critical reading considered an active
process of discovery?
3. Why is critical reading important? In what way is
critical reading related to critical writing?
4. What are different ways to become a critical
reader? Do you agree with them? Why or why not?
5. What is logical fallacy?
6. Give at least five logical fallacies and give an
example for each.