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ORIENTAL

PHILOSOPHY

DELOS SANTOS LIM MONTIGO MORADA PIKILAN


MORAL TEACHINGS
OF
BUDDHA
LIFE OF BUDDHA
Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha – awakened one
Founded Buddhism
Teacher, Philosopher
Spiritual Leader
Four
Noble
Truths
The truth of suffering (dukkha)
Dukkha
• "incapable of satisfying" or "not able to bear or
withstand anything."
• also refers to anything that is temporary, conditi
onal or compounded of other things.
Skandhas is a dukkha.
• are the components of a living human being: form,
senses, ideas, predilections, and consciousness.
The truth of the cause of suffering
(samudaya)
The three ultimate causes of suffering:
1.Greed and desire, represented in art by a rooster
2.Ignorance or delusion, represented by a pig
3. Hatred and destructive urges, represented by a snake

The Buddha taught that the root of all suffering is


desire, tanhā
Tanhā - "thirst" or "craving."
The truth of the end of suffering
(nirhodha)
Nirhodha
• holds out hope for a cure
• to liberate oneself from attachment.
Nirvana
• means extinguishing.
Attaining nirvana - reaching enlightenment
- means extinguishing the three fires of greed, delusion
and hatred.
The truth of the path that frees us
from suffering (magga)

Magga
• the Buddha prescribes the treatment f
or our illness: The Eightfold Path.
The Noble Eightfold Paths
Right understanding (Samma ditthi)

Right thought (Samma sankappa) Right livelihood (Samma ajiva)

Right speech (Samma vaca) Right effort (Samma vayama)

Right action (Samma kammanta) Right mindfulness (Samma sati)

Right concentration (Samma samadhi)


The eight stages can be grouped into

Wisdom Ethical Meditation


Conduct

RIGHT RIGHT
SPEECH EFFORT
RIGHT
UNDERSTANDING
RIGHT RIGHT
ACTION MINDFULNESS
RIGHT
INTENTION
RIGHT RIGHT
LIVELIHOOD CONCENTRATION
DIFFERENT SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
Theravada
• "Doctrine of the Elders"
• Also called southern buddhism since its teachings spread
mainly through countries in South-East Asia, including Sri
Lanka,Thailand, Cambodia, and Burma.
• One of the key features of this buddhist school is the use
of Pali as the authoritative canon
• The Pali canon is divided into 3 baskets (tipitaka)
Vinaya Pitaka of five books, Sutta Pitaka of five collections
and abhidhamma of seven books

• The ideal is to be arahat who strives to achieve holiness for


his own sake alone.
Mahayana
• Also known as the Great Vehicle
• Known as Northern Budhism since its teachings spread chiefly
through northern Asia – into Japan, Vietnam, China, Tibet,
and Korea
• Adapted the sanskrit usage which is classified into vinaya,
sustra and sastra
• The pursuit is not necessarily to get to nirvana as quickly as
possible. It is to get close to nirvana but then to help others
try to achieve that same state.
• Real goal is to be a bodhisattva.
• Mahayana buddhist believe in Amitabha Buddha who is
viewed as someone revered or is almost a deity-like figure
• By focusing on Amitabha Buddha you get to the pure land of
bliss known as Sukhavati which is a place where it is easier
to achieve nirvana.
COMMONALITIES OF
THERAVADA AND MAHAYANA
• Both have goals that should be to realize that all is thought
to escape from dukkha and eventually obtain nirvana.
CONFUCIUS
Overview of Confucius
A public servant but resigned because Lu's ruler was not about to
follow his proposed reform measures. He then went on to travel
and teach on his ideals of morality and social reform. However,
people were not appreciative of his ideals. Frustrated, he went
home and stayed in Lu until his death. Several centuries later, his
ideals were adopted by the Han dynasty and became the official
ideology of the Chinese empire contained in the Analects of
Confucius.
Tao is a Te or the notion
fundamental Confucian of virtue is a
principle, thought human trait
substance of can be viewed considered to
which all things be a gift or
in two old
are made and endownment
for all things to chinese from Heaven.
conform. ideals

Thus, when Tao acts in man, it becomes Te or virtue.


Chi is a material substance
inclining to do what is right, an
endowment from heaven
or virtue, the innate tendency to
do what is right.

Confucius main point : Pursuit of moral character - to be a good man.

Wen is the nurturing process of


Thus, a moral man
long education consists mainly of
must have the
the study of Chinese
chi and wen.
literature, known as the
Confucian classics.
1. Humaneness (jen) is the love,
A moral man respect, and good will toward
fellowmen.
also must
acquired a. A Chu, a method of humaneness,
means using oneself as an
the three analogy to know what. others like
and dislike. Thus, do not impose on
main virtues others what you yourself do
not desire.
2. Wisdom (chih) is "never of two minds", is able
to distinguish right from wrong. Moreover,
wisdom is possessing both learning (hsueh)
and thinking (ssu).

a. Learning, or the study of ancient literature must


be accompanied by,
a. Thought, or reflecting on the insights of the past.

3. courage (yung) is overcoming fear in the pursuit


of right.
Rightness is the standard of courage, learning
and right.

The question arises, what is rightness it


self based on?
Heaven’s Decree (T’ien Ming)

ancient belief of Chinese tradition

Emperor rules by virtue of T’ien Ming


Heaven’s Decree (T’ien Ming)
In Confucianism
 duty incumbent not only upon the Emperor but upon all
men
 signify a moral command present in all men
 not a religious dimension in man, except in the sense of
some transcendent principle
 source of all moral duty and of all human inclination
toward the right
Heaven’s Decree vs. Way (Tao)

01 Both inherited from tradition

02 Both are of a fundamental nature

03 Both are ground and source of morality


5 Basic Human Relations

Husband Father Elder and Friend Ruler


and Wife and Son Younger Brother and Friend and Subject
Human Community
Family is its Human a moral entity
paradigm Community as a state

Family relations extend to the Politics is the extension of ethics


broader social relations The goal of the state and politics can only
be one thing - it cannot be material gain or
In summary, mankind is power, instead it can only be the good and
one large family governed welfare of the people or community
by the principles of love, The right to govern depends, not on divine
reciprocity and differential ancestry or appointment, but on the posses
functions. sion of moral virtue and the ability required
to serve the good of the people
THANK YOU