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CHAPTER 5

EXOGENIC
PROCESS
.EXOGENIC PROCESS

- ARE PROCESSES THAT TAKE PLACE AT


OR NEAR THE EARTH’S SURFACE THAT
MAKES THE SURFACE WEAR AWAY.
EXOGENIC PROCESSES ARE VERY
DESTRUCTIVE, THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE
FOR DEGRADATION AND SCULPTING
THE EARTH’S SURFACE.
WEATHERING

PHYSICAL
BREAKDOWN OR
CHEMICAL
ALTERATION OF
ROCK’S IN EARTH
SURFACE
WEATHERING
2 TYPES OF WEATHERING

MECHANICAL WEATHERING

 CHEMICAL WEATHERING
. MECHANICAL WEATHERING
-Weathering or disintegration
is the breaking up of large
rocks into smaller fragments
without changing the rock’s
mineral composition.
.CHEMICAL WEATHERING

- Chemical weathering
decomposes rock through
chemical change .
MASS WASTING;
- it is the movement of rock,
soil,and regolith (rock and
mineral fragments from
weathering).

Types of Mass Wasting:


•Rock and Debris falls
•Land Slides
•Flows
2.LAND SLIDES
- are another types of mass
wasting , they are sudden fast
movements of cohesive mass of
soil, rock or regolith.
EROSION
Erosion - is the process of
transporting weathered sediments
by agents of erosion to different
places.
WIND AND LANDFORMS ;
WIND- is considered as a
significant agent in creating
landforms

Two types of windblown deposits :


-LOESS
-SAND DUNES
SAND DUNES- are deposits of coarse
materials in the shape of hill or ridges .
Dune is a general term to describe any
mound or ridge of windblown sand rising
to various heights up to 50m. Dunes are
found in deserts or above low – lying
coasts where sand is constantly renewed
by onshore winds flowing across the
sandy beaches.
CHAPTER 6
ENDOGENIC
PROCECESSES
ENDOGENIC
PROCESS
Are internal processes
that occur beneath earth.
These result in reshaping
of earth’s landforms.
TECTONIC PROCESS THEORIES AND
PLATE BOUNDERIES

•Tectonics is the study of


the processes that
deform earth’s crust
CONTINENTAL DRIFT
AND PLATE TECTONIC
THEORY
 Continental drift theory proposed by
Alfred Wegener

 Alfred Wegener suggested that the


continents were all originally part of a
huge landmass called Pangaea that was
surrounded by a single ocean,
Panthalessa. A few hundred million years
ago, Pangaea was supposed to have
begun to break up and the continents
slowly drifted to their present location.
THE PLATE TECTONIC THEORY IS
SUPPORTED BY THE FOLLOWING
EVIDENCES:

Paleomagnetism or fossil
magnetism - paleomagnetism
refers to fossils (specially rocks)
formed million of years ago and
contain record of the direction of
the magnetic poles at the time of
their formation.
Distribution of earthquakes -
earthquakes often occur along
faults are breaks in a rock mass
where plate movement has
occurred. Faults are associated
with plate boundaries.
Plate Boundaries - a plate boundaries is a
fracture separating one plate from another.
All major interaction and individual plates
occurs along their boundaries.
THREE DISTINCT TYPES OF
BOUNDARIES:

CONVERGENT BOUNDARY

DIVERGENT BOUNDARY

TRANSFORM FAULT BOUNDARY


CONVERGENT BOUNDARY-
occurs when two places moved
towards each other.
TYPES OF CONVERGENT BOUNDARY

• Oceanic-continental convergence –
forms trenches, destructive earthquakes,
and rapid uplift of mountain ranges, as
well as the building of volcanic arc.
• Oceanic-oceanic convergence – also
forms trenches (Marianas Trench) and
volcanic arc
• Continental-continental convergence –
forms mountain range like the Himalayan
range.
DIVERGENT BOUNDARY –
occurs when two plates

TRANSFORM FAULT
BOUNDARY – occurs when
plates slide horizontally past
one another.
Tectonic Forces and
Processes

Rocks may undergo deformation.


Deformation refers to the change in the
original shape and size of a rock. The
Deformation is caused by tectonic
forces. They deform by folding and
faulting.
FOLDING (folds)
- occur when rocks are pushed
towards each other from opposite sides.

FAULTING – is the fracturing and


displacement of brittle rocks strata
along a fault plane. Faults are
fractures along the crust in which
displacement has occurred.
VOLCANISM
 Volcanism is one of the
endogenic processes. It is a
phenomenon in which
materials are erupt.. From
earth’s interior onto the surface
through volcanoes.
Volcanic materials erupted into gases,
lava, and solid particles.
• Gases
Volcanic eruption emits a variety of gases. In addition
to water vapor and carbon dioxide, toxic gases, such
as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen
sulfide, hydrochloric acid are emitted.
• Liquid (Lava)
Lava refers to magma that flows out of Earth’s
surface. Its temperature may be from 500C to over
1400C.
• Solids
The solid particles thrown out in volcanic eruption are
known as pyroclastics (fire- broken fragments)
CHAPTER 7
GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES
AND
HAZARDS
A HOLISTIC, COMPREHENSIVE,
INTEGRATED, AND PROACTIVE
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND
MANAGEMENT APPROACH IS
NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SAFER,
ADAPTIVE, AND DISASTER- RESILIENT
FILIPINO COMMUNITIES TOWARD
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT.
Republic Act 10121

•Is also known as the


Philippine Disaster Risk
Reduction Management Act of
2010.
1.Disaster ~ is a serious disruption of
the functioning of a community or a
society involving widespread human
environmental losses and impacts.

2.Disaster Mitigation ~ is the lessening


or limitation of adverse effects of
hazards and relate disasters.

3.Disaster Preparedness ~ includes the


knowledge and capabilities needed by
an institution and/or an individual to
anticipate and respond to and recover
for the impacts of the hazards.
4.Disaster Response ~ is the provision of
services and assistance during and
immediately after disaster.

5.Hazard ~ a dangerous
phenomenon,substance,human activity or
condition that may cause loss of life,injury
or other health,property damage,and loss
of livelihood.

6.Rehabilitation ~ ensures that the


affected community is able to restore
their normal functioning ability.
6.Rehabilitation ~ ensures that the affected
community is able to restore their normal
functioning ability.

7.Risk ~ is the combination of the probability of


an event and its negative consequences.

8.Risk Management ~ the systematic approach


and practice of managing uncertainly to minimize
potential harm and loss.

9.Vulnerability ~ means the characteristics and


circumstances of a community,system or
asset,that make it susceptible to the damaging
effects of a hazard.
National Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management
Framework(NDRRMF):

The vision of this framework is


toward a safer adaptive and
disaster-resilient Filipino
Communities towards
sustainable development.
The framework defines the
four priority areas which
corresponds to the structure
of the NDRRMC, such as:
1.Disaster Prevention and
Mitigation (DEPARTMENT OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOST) – Avoid hazards and
mitigate their potential impacts
by reducing vulnerabilities and
exposure, and enhancing
capacities of communities
2. Disaster Preparedness
(DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR AND
LOCAL GOVERNMENT) -
Establish and strengthen
capacities of communities to
anticipate, cope, and recover from
the negative impacts of
emergency occurrences and
disaster
3.Disaster Response
(DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL
WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT
DSWD) – Provide life
preservation and meet the basic
subsistence needs of affected
population based on acceptable
standards during or
immediately after a disaster
4.Rehabilitation and Recovery
(NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
NEDA) – Restore and improve
facilities , livehood and living
conditions and organizational
capabilities of affected
communities, and reduce disaster
risk in accordance with the
“building back better principle.
Important terms defined in RA 10121:

There are twenty-one outcomes


from the four priority area’s.
These outcomes are found in the
primer(NDRRMP 2011-28):
Prevention and mitigation:

•Increased resilience of
infrastructure system (DPWH)

•Enhanced monitoring,
forecasting, and hazard
warning (DOST)
Disaster Preparedness:

•Increased level of awareness


and enhanced capacity of the
community to deal threats
and impacts (Philippine
Information Agency or PIA)
• Communities are equipped
with necessary skills and
capability to cope with
impacts of disaster (DILG to
coordinate and OCD to
implement)
Disaster Response:

• Well-established disaster
response operation (DSWD)

• Safe and timely evacuation


of affected communities
(LGU’s)
Rehabilitation and Recovery:

•Damage, losses, and needs


assessment (OCD)

•Disaster and climate change


resilient infrastructure
construction or reconstruction
(DPWH)
GEOLOGIC PROCESSES AND
HAZARDS

>Philippines is a large
archipelago consisting of 7,100
island

>Also part of the circum-pacific


seismic belt and is within the
subduction zones called the
ring of fire.
GEOLOGIC HAZARDS
a.Ground acceleration
b.Ground rupture
c.Liquefaction
d.Differential settlement
e.Landslides
f.Fault creep
Fault- g.Lateral spread
Related/Seismic h.Tsunami
I.Seiches
a.Landslides
•Fall
•Slump
•Slide
•Spread
•Flow
•Topple
Mass Movement b.Creep
c.Subsidence
d.Settlement
a.Lava flow
b.Debris flow
c.Pyroclastic flow
d.Debris avalanche
e.Lahar
f.Ash fall
g.Tsunami
Volcanic
h.Flooding
i.Volcanic earthquakes
PREVENTION AND
MITIGATION,
PREPAREDNESS, RESPONSE
AND REHABILITATION
~In 2015,the UNESCO,in partnership
with the UP NISMED published primer
on Natural Disaster Preparedness and
Copying Mechanisms. The primer is
limited to three natural hazards:
earthquakes,volcanic eruptions,and
tsunamis. Its objective is to equip
students with knowledge and skills
towards disaster preparedness and
hazard mitigation
~In 2018,the DEPED,in partnership with
UNICEF, produced a Disaster Risk
Reduction Manual(Safer Schools
Manual). The manual serves as a guide
to education officials, school
administrations, teachers and students
on what to do before, during, and after
the onslaught.
PREVENTION,
PREPAREDNESS,
AND REPONSE
GUIDELINES
EARTHQUAKES

Refers to the sudden movements or


vibrations of Earth caused by the
release of energy
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Refers to the release of


gases,liquids,and solid from the
volcano's vent
TSUNAMIS
Are enormous waves generated by
seabed disturbance where
earthquakes and tsunamis
originate
LANDSLIDES
Is a sudden fast movement
of cohesive mass of
soil,rocks,or regolith
• If you cannot escape,curl into a tight
ball and protect your head
• Seek refuge behind a sturdy tree
• Stay away from the path of debris
fall

C.WHAT TO DO AFTER?
• Listen to the radio for the latest
information
• Check the site or building
• Stay away from the landslide area
CHAPTER 8
HYDROMETEOROLOG
ICAL AND
COASTAL
PROCESSES AND
HAZARDS
HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL
PHENOMENA CAUSE
HAZARDS AND MAY
ACCELERATE COASTAL
PROCESSES. THE HAZARDS
MAY BE MITIGATED THROUGH
GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE
OR PERSONAL INITIATIVE.
AL PHENOMENA AND
HAZARDS
THE PHILIPPINES IS STRONGLY
AFFECTED BY MONSOON WINDS

MONSOON IS A SEASONAL
REVERSAL OF WINDS

SOUTHWEST MONSOON OR
“HABAGAT” AND NORTHEAST
MONSOON OR “AMIHAN”
HABAGAT
SEASON
- IS CHARACTERIZED BY HOT
AND HUMID WEATHER WITH
FREQUENT RAINFALL. IT USUALLY
STARTS IN MAY AND ENDS IN
OCTOBER.
AMIHAN
- IS CHARACTERIZED BY
MODERATE TEMPERATURE WITH
LITTLE TO NO RAINFALL.IT IS
EXPERIENCED AS COOL
NORTHEAST WIND DRAWING
COLD DRY AIR FROM SIBERIA.IT
USUALLY STARTS IN NOVEMBER
AND ENDS IN FEBRUARY.
CYCLONES - ARE STORMS THAT
FORM IN THE INDIAN OCEAN
AND THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC.

TYPHOONS - FORM IN THE


NORTHWEST PACIFIC

HURRICANES - FORM IN THE


ATLANTIC
• PAGASA ASSIGNS
LOCAL NAMES TO
THESE TROPICAL
STORMS IN
ALPHABETICAL
ORDER.
TORNADO (LOCALLY KNOWN AS IPO-
IPO) - IS A WHIRLING FUNNEL-SHAPED
CLOUD. THE AREA AT THE BOTTOM OF
THIS SWIRLING AIR HAS AN
EXTREMELY LOW AIR PRESSURE.
WHEN THIS LOW-PRESURE POINT
TOUCHES THE GROUND ,IT ACTS LIKE A
GIANT VACUUM CLEANER, TORNADO
LASTS ONLY FOR A FEW MINUTES, BUT
CAUSES MASSIVE DAMAGES AND
INJURIES.
TROPICAL CYCLONES AND
FLOODING ARE OFTEN
CORRELATED. CYCLONES
ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY
HEAVY RAINS,WHICH MAY COMES
WITH LOCALIZED
OR WIDESPREAD FLOODING , AS
WELL AS STORM SURGE IN
COASTAL REGIONS.
THE DAMAGE IS
ENORMOUS IN TERMS OF:
- HUMAN CONSEQUENCES LIKE INJURY AND
DEATH.

- ECONOMICS CONSEQUENCES DUE TO


DESTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS ,BRIDGES, ROADS,
AGRICULTURAL LAND, AN DESRUPTION OF
SERVICES.

- ENVIRONMENTAL DEFRATION AFFECTING


FAUNA , FLORA, MARINE LIFE ,WATER
RESOURCES, AND SOIL.
HYDROMETEOROLOGICA
L DISASTER
MITIGATION
ONE OF THE PRIORITY AREAS OF THE
NATIONAL RISK REDUCTION COUNCIL
(NRRMC) IS A DISASTER
PREVENTION WARNING, WITH THE
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY (DOST) AS THE LEGAL
AGENCY.

AS A RESPONSE, DOST LAUNCHED


PROJECT NOAH WHICH STANDS FOR
NATIONWIDE OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT
OR HAZARDS, A TECHNOLOGICALLY-BASED
SYSTEM INTENDED TO PREVENT AND
MITIGATE DISASTERS ESPECIALLY IN HIGH-
RISK AREAS THROUHOUT THE COUNTRY.
THE PROJECT HAS THE
FOLLOWING COMPONENTS:

1.DISTRIBUTION OF
HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL (HYDROMER)
devices used in hard -hit areas in the country
provides a better picture of the country's
surface in relation to flooding.
2.DISASTER RISK REDUCTION ASSESSMENT
for MITIGATION-LIGHT DETECTION and
RANGING (DREAM LIDAR) PROJECT produces
more accurate flood inundation and 3D maps
for flood prone areas, river, and watersheds.
4. Coastal Hazards and Storm Surge
Assessment Mitigation (CHASSAM)
generates wave surge refraction, and
coastal circulation model to understand
and recommended solutions to coastal
erosion.
5.Flood Information Network (FloodNet)
Project provides timely and accurate
information for flood early warning system.
6.Local Development of Doppler Radar
System (LaDDeRS) develops local capacity
to design, fabricated and operate
7.Landslide Sensors Development
Project develops low-cost season- based
early monitoring and warning system for
landslides, shape failures ,and debris
flow in the local setting.
8.Weather Hazard Information Project
(WHIP) utilizes different platform, such
as TV (DOSTv) and web portal, which
display information to empower LGU's ad
communities to prepare against extreme
natural hazards.
STORM SURGE COLOR-
CODED SYSTEM

A STORM SURGE IS A COASTAL


FLOOD OR TSUNAMI-LIKE PHENOMENA
OF RISING WATER COMMONLY
ASSOCIATED WITH A TROPICAL
CYCLONE. IT IS KNOWN LOCALLY AS
“DALUYONG’.
COLOR –CODED
RAINFALL AND
FLOOD WARNING
A COLOR-CODED STORM
SURGE WARNING I NOW INCLUDED
IN THE TROPICAL STORM
FORECAST AND BULLETIN ISSUED
BY PAGASA.
WEATHER FORECAST AND
WARNING

PAGASA ISSUES PUBLIC WEATHER


FORECAST, SHIPPING FORECAST
,AS WELL AS SPECIAL WEATHER
FORECAST FOR SELECTED LOCAL
AND ASIAN CITIES AND TOURIST
PUBLIC STORM
SIGNAL NO.1
METEORELOGICAL CONDITIONS:
°A tropical cyclone will threaten/ affect an
areas.
°Winds of 30 km/h to 60 km/h are
expected.
PUBLIC STORM
SIGNAL NO.2
Meteorological conditions:

• A tropical cyxlone will affect an


area.
• Winds ogf greater than 60 km/h
and up to 100 km/h may be
expected in at least 24 hours.
PUBLIC STORM
SIGNAL NO.3
Meteorological conditions:
• A tropicak will affect an area.
• Winds of greater than 100 km/h up to
185 km/h may be expected in at least 18
hours.
PUBLIC STORM
SIGNAL NO.4
Meteorological conditions:
• A very intense typhoon will affect the
area.
• Very strong winds of more than 185
km/h may be expected in at least 12
hours.
PUBLIC STORM
SIGNAL NO. 5
Meteorological Conditions :
• A super typhoon will affect the area.
• Very strong winds of more than 220
km/h may be expected in at least 12
hours.
COASTAL
ECOSYSTEM
AND HAZARDS
• Coastline comprise the
natural 6boundary zone
between the land and the
ocean.

• The coastal ecosystem has


significant value.
COASTAL PROCESSES
AND HAZARDS
• COASTAL REGIONS UNDERGO
CHANGES, WHICH INCLUDE EROSION,
SUBMERSION,AND SALT INTRUSION.

• COASTAL EROSION IS THE WEARING


AWAY OF ROCKS AT THE CRUST.THIS IS
CAUSED BY THE WAVE
ACTION,TIDAL,AND WAVE CURRENTS,
WHICH DISSOLVE CHEMICAL IN ROCKS.
TO MITIGATE
EROSION,SUBMERSION,AND
SALT INTRUSION IN COASTAL
AREAS,THE FOLLOWING ARE
SUGGESTED STRATEGIES:
POLITICAL- THROUGH LEGISLATIONS THAT
DEFINE PROPER ZONING BETTER,LAND USE
PLANNING AND CONVERSION,PROPER
WASTES DISPOSAL,AND REGULATED
MINING AND QUARRYING.

STRUCTURAL- THROUGH OF THE USE HARD


AND SOFT STRUCTURES INCLUDE
BREAKWATER,SEAWALL,AND GROYNE.
CHAPTER 9
THE ORIGIN OF
LIFE
ALL LIVING EVOLVED
FROM SIMPLE LIFE FORMS
THE CONCEPT OF LIFE

EARTH IS MUCH OLDER THAN


LIFE. BASED ON RADIOACTIVE
DECAY STUDIES OF ROCKS, IT
WAS REVEALED THAT EARTH IS
AROUND 4.5 BILLION YEARS OLD
– 1 BILLION YEARS OLDER THAN
THE ODLEST FOSSILS.
DIFFERENT POSSIBILITIES ON
HOW LIFE COULD HAVE
BEGUN:

1. EXTRATERRESTRIAL ORIGIN-
THE HYPOTHESIS EXPLAINS THAT
LIFE ORIGINATED ON ANOTHER
PLANET OUTSIDE OUR SOLAR
SYSTEM. LIFE WAS THEN CARRIED
TO EARTH ON A METEORITE OR AN
ASTERIOD AND COLONIZED
EARTH.
2. PANSPERMIA- THE THEORY
PRESUMES THAT THE “SEED” OF
LIFE EXISTS ALL OVER THE
UNIVERSE AND CAN BE
PROPAGATED THROUGH SPACE,
AND THAT LIFE ON EARTH
ORIGINATED FROM THOSE
SEEDS.
3. DIVINE CREATION- MANY
PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT LIFE WAS
PUT ON EARTH BY DIVINE
FORCES. CREATION THEORIES
ARE COMMON TO MANY OF THE
WORLD’S RELIGIOUS AND
CULTURES.
4. ORIGIN FROM NONLIVING
MATTER- SCIENTISTS BELIEVE
THAT LIFE AROSE ON EARTH
FROM INANIMATE MATTER AFTER
EARTH HAD COOLED. THEY
STATED THAT RANDOM EVENTS
PROBABLY PRODUCED STABLE
MOLECULES THAT COULD SELF-
REPLICATED.
-The Miller–Urey experiment was a chemical
experiment that simulated the conditions
thought at the time to be present on the early
Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life
under those conditions. The experiment
supported Alexander Oparin's and J. B. S
EARLY LIFE FORM
- EARTH’’S AGE, AS ESTIMATED BY SEVERAL
INDEPENDENT STUDIES IS ABOUT 4.5
BILLION YEARS. SO FAR, NO FOSSILS HAVE
BEEN FOUND IN THE OLDEST ROCKS, WHICH
ARE ABOUT 3.8 BILLION YEARS OLD. THE
OLDEST FOSSIL THAT HAVE BEEN
DISCOVERED WERE FOUND IN 3.5 BILLION-
YEAR-OLD ROCKS THAT WERE ONCE
SEDIMENTS ON THE OCEAN FLOOR. THE
TINY FOSSILS THAT WERE FOUND IN THESE
ANCIENT ROCKS WERE BACTERIA.
Early Life Form
-Bacteria are believed to be the first life form on
Earth.
-Biologist separate bacteria into two groups.
Eubacteria – also known as true bacteria,
most living bacteria, including those that
causes deases and decays are Eubacteria.
Archaebacteria – or ancient bacteria, are
rare bacteria, they found mainly in hostile
environment Where condition resemble those
of early earth.
CHARACTERISTICS
OF LIFE AND
UNIFYING THEMES
IN LIFE SCIENCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
LIFE
IN THE STUDY OF LIFE, THERE IS AN ARRAY OF
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OR PROPERTIES
AND CERTAIN THEMES ABOUT HOW THE LIVING
WORLD WORKS THAT ARE DISCUSSED. THESE
PROPERTIES ARE SHARED BY ALL LIVING THINGS,
PASSED DOWN OVER BILLIONS OF YEARS FROM
THE FIRST ORGANISMS TO HAVE EVOLVED ON
EARTH.

• CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
• METABOLISM
• HOMEOSTASIS
• REPRODUCTION
• HEREDITY
• CELLULAR ORGANIZATION- ALL
CELLS HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE:
A MEMBRANE THAT ENCLOSES THE
CELL AND CONTROLS MATERIAL
THAT MOVE IN AND OUT; INTERNAL
FLUID KNOWN AS THE CYTOPLASM
WHERE THE ORGANELLES ARE
SUSPENDED; AND A NUCLEUS THAT
CONTAINS THE HEREDITARY GENES
CALLED DNA.
• METABOLISM- THE SUM OF ALL
CHEMICAL PROCESSES THAT
MAINTAIN THE LIVING STATE OF AN
ORGANISM IS CALLED
METABOLISM. ALL ORGANISMS USE
ENERGY TO GROW, AND ALL
ORGANISMS TRANSPORT THIS
ENERGY FROM ONE PLACE TO
ANOTHER WITHIN CELLS USING
SPECIAL ENERGY-CARRYING
MOLECULES CALLED ATP.
• HOMEOSTASIS- ALL LIVING
THINGS MAINTAIN STABLE
INTERNAL CONDITIONS. WHILE
THE ENVIRONMENT OFTEN
VARIES A LOT, ORGANISMS ACT
TO KEEP THEIR INTERIOR
CCONDITIONS RELATIVELY
CONSTANT IN A PROCESS
CALLED HOMEOSTASIS.
• REPRODUCTION- ALL LIVING
THING REPRODUCE.
REPRODUCTION INVOLVES
THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC
INFORMATION FROM
PARENTS TO OFFSPRING.
• HEREDITY- ALL ORGANISMS
POSSESS A GENETIC
SYSTEM THAT IS BASED ON
THE REPLICATION AND
DUPLICATION OF A LONG
MOLECULE CALLED
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
(DNA).
UNIFYING THINGS IN LIFE
SCIENCE
• LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
• THE FLOW OF ENERGY
• EVOLUTION
• INTERACTING SYSTEMS
• STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
• ECOLOGY
• SCIENCE AND SOCIETY
• LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION- THERE
IS A HIERARCHY OF INCREASING
COMPLEXITY WITHIN CELLS, FROM
THE MOLECULAR LEVEL OF DNA
(WHERE THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
OCCURS), TO THE ORGANELLE
LEVEL (WHERE THE CELLULAR
ACTIVITIES ARE ORGANIZED),TO THE
CELLULAR LEVEL (THE SMALLEST
LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION).
• THE FLOW OF ENERGY- ENERGY IS
USED BY ORGANISMS TO GROW AND
DO WORK. WITHOUT IT, LIFE STOPS.
ALMOST ALL THE ENRGY THAT LIVING
THINGS NEED IS OBTAINED FROM THE
SUN.
- THE FLOW
OF ENERGY AMONG ORGANISMS HELPS
DETERMINE HOW ORGANISMS INTERACT
WITHIN THEIR ENVIRONMENT.
• EVOLUTION- IT EXPLAINS WHY ORGANISMS
LOOK THE WAY THEY DO ANG HOW ORGANISMS
OF THE PAST ARE RELATED TO THE ORGANISMS
ALIVE TODAY. IT ALSO EXPLAINS THE
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VARIOUS GROUPS
OFLIVING ORGANISMS.
-LIFE FORMS ARE SLOWLY CHANGING
AND HAVE APPARENTY BEEN CHANGING.
CHARLES ADRWIN PROPOSED THE THEORY OF
EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH
PRESUMES THAT ORGANISMS WITH MORE
FAVORABLE TRAITS WOULD BE MORE LIKELY TO
SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE IN A CERTAIN
ENVIRONMANT.
• INTERACTING SYSTEMS- LIVING
THINGS INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER
AND WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. A
LIVING COMMUNITY IS HIGHLY
STRUCTURED AND INTERDEPENDENT.
• STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION- A
RELATIONSHIP EXISTS
BETWEENSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
AT ALL LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL
ORGANIZATION.
• ECOLOGY- IS THE STUDY OF
COMPLEX COMMUNITIES OF
ORGANISMS IN RELATION TO
THEIR ENVIRONMENT.
ORGANISMS NEED THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT TO SURVIVE.
• SCIENCE AND SOCIETY-
KNOWLEDGE FROM BIOLOGICAL
SCIENCE CAN BE APPLIED TO
SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN THE
SOCIETY TO IMPROVE HUMAN
LIFE.