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TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Kinds of transcendental functions:

1. logarithmic and exponential functions
2. trigonometric and inverse trigonometric
functions
3. hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions

Note:
Each pair of functions above is an inverse to each
other.
DIFFERENTIATION OF
LOGARITHMIC
FUNCTIONS
The LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
A logarithmic function with the base a, a>0 and
a1 is defined by
y  log a x if and only if x  a y
Logarithmic form  y  log a x
Exponential form  x  a y

EXAMPLE:

Logarithmic Form Exponential Form

1 1
log 16 4  4  16 2
2
log 2 8  3 8  23
SOME LOGARITHMS OF KNOWN BASES:
NATURAL LOGARITHMS
Logarithms to the base e = 2.718 are called natural
logarithms (from the Latin word Logarithmic
Naturalis or Napieran logarithms).
log e x  ln x
COMMON LOGARITHMS
Logarithms to the base 10 are called common
logarithms.
log 10 x  log x
CHANGE OF BASE
When the base of a logarithm is other than e or 10,
express its equivalent using the base e or 10 in the
formula
log a x log e x ln x
log b x  or log b x  
log a b log e b ln b

Example :
log 10 x log e x ln x
1. log 2 x  or log 2 x  
log 10 2 log e 2 ln 2

log 10 y log e y ln y
2. log 3 y  or log 3 y  
log 10 3 log e 3 ln 3
For positive numbers M , N , p, and a  1
1. log a MN  log a M  log a N
Note : log a M  N   log a M  log a N not distributive
M
2. log a  log a M  log a N
N
Note : log a
M

log a M
not a quotient of 2 logarithms 
N log a N
3. log a N p  plog a N
1
1
N  log a N  log a N 5. log a 1  0
p p
4. log a
p
6. log a a  1 7. log a a p  p
8. If log a x  log a y , then x  y
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Logarithmic Function
The derivative of the logarithmic function for any
given base and any differentiable function of u
For any given base a :
d 1 du
(log a u )  log a e ; where u  f(x)
dx u dx

For base  e :
d 1 du
(log e u )  log e e but log e e  1 and log e u  ln u
dx u dx
d 1 du
(ln u )  ; where u  f(x)
dx u dx
A. Find the derivative of each of the following natural
logarithmic functions and simplify the result:
1. y  ln4 x  1

2. f ( x )  ln 1  2 x 
3

3. f x   ln  
3 x 2  1  3  5 x 
4
4. h x   ln
x
3 x
ln x 2
5. G x   ln
4x

6. g x  

ln 4 x 2  1 
ln x 3

7. y  ln x 2  ln x 

8. F x   x ln x  1  x 2  1  x 2 
4 2x2  1
1. y'  7. y' 
4x  1 xx 2  ln x 

2. f ' x   
6
1  2x
or f' x  
6
2x  1

8. F' x   ln x  1  x 2 
30 x 2  9 x  5
3. f ' x    2
3x  13  5 x
31  x 
4. h' x  
4 x3  x 
1  ln x
5. G' x  
x ln x

g' x  
8 x 2

ln x  4 x 2  1ln 4 x 2  1
3 x4 x 2  1ln 2 x
6.
B. Differentiate the following logarithmic functions.
1. y  log 2 3x
2. hx   log 2 3  log 2 x 2
3. f  y   log 2 3 y 2
4. g x   log x 3 x 
2

5. F x   log 3 3 x 2  4
4  3z 2
6. H z   log 5
z 1
7. Gt   log
t  32t  3
2

3t 2  1 
C. Find the derivative using implicit differentiation.

1. ln xy  5  x  y

2. ln x  y   ln x  y   1
1 y  x  1
1. y'  log 2 e 1. y' 
x x1  y 
y
2. h' x   2 log 2 e 
1 2. y' 
x x

3. f '  y   2 log 2 e
1
y

4. g' x   2 log x e 
1
x
x 2 
5. F' x    log 3 
e
x 43
2

3z 2  6 z  4  1 
6. H' z   3  log 5 
e
3z  3z  4 z  4  2
2

2t 3  3t 2  20t  3
7. G' t   3 log e
t  32t  33t  1
2
DIFFERENTIATION OF
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
.

The exponentia l function with base a, a  0 and

a  1, is defined by y  a x where x is a real number.
Since the exponentia l function is the inverse of
logarithmi c function, y  a x may also be written as
x  log a y .
Laws of Exponents
.

1. am  an  am  n

a mn , if mn
am 

2.  1 , if mn
an 
1
 , if mn
 a n-m

3. am   amn
n

4. ab n  a nb n
n an
a
5.    n
 b  b
6. a0  1 , provided a  0
 1 n  m  m
1 n
7. a m n  
a   a 
   
8. a loga x  x
9. if a x  a y then x  y
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Exponential Function
The derivative of the exponential function for
any given base and any differentiable function of u.

( a )  a ln a  ; where u  f(x)

d u u du
dx dx

For base  e :
d u du
( e )  eu ; where u  f(x)
dx dx
EXAMPLE:
A. Find the derivative of each of the following
and simplify the result:
3. hx   4 x 2 e1 / x
2
1. f x   e 3 x

f ' x   e 6 x   2 1/ x   1  1/ x 
 
3 x2

h' x   4  x e  2   e 2 x 
f '  x   6 xe 3 x2
 x  
h' x   4e1 / x  1  2 x 
2. g x  e 12 x

2 h' x   4e1 / x 2 x  1
g' x   e 1 2 x

2 1  2x
e 12 x 1  2x
g' x    
1  2x 1  2x
1 2 x
1  2x
g' x   
e
1  2x
x
4. e xy  x 2  2
y

y1  xy' 
e xy xy'  y  1  2 x  0
y 2
y  xy'
xe xy y' e xy y  2 x 
y2
xy 2e xy y'  y 3e xy  2 xy 2  y  xy'

y'  xy 2e xy  x   y  y 3e xy  2 xy 2
 

y 1  2 xy  y 2 e xy 
y'   
x 1  y 2 e xy 
 
5. y  7 3 x 4 x5
2

2 d
dx  

2

y'  23 x  2ln7 7 3 x 4 x5

2

2
6. hx  ln 43x
d  43 x2  2
dx 
 hx  ln 4 3x
h' ( x ) 
43 x2 hx  3x 2 ln 4
4 3 x ln 4   3 x 2 
2 d
h' x   3 ln 4 
d  2
h' x   dx   OR x 
dx  
2
43x
h' x  3 ln 42 x
h' x  ln 46 x
h' x  6 x ln 4 h' x  6 x ln 4
6. Gx  log e x  1 e 2 x  3 
 
  
Gx   log e x  1  log e 2 x  3 
ex e2 x  2
G'  x   x log e  2 x log e
e 1 e 3

e x e 2 x  3  2e 2 x e x  1
G' x  
e  1e  3
x 2x
log e

e 2 x  3  2e 2 x  2e x x
G' x  
e  1e  3
x 2x
e log e

3e 2 x  2e x  3 x
G' x   x
e  1e  3
2x
e log e
7. f x  23 x  5 x
4 2
f x   2 3 x4
5 x2
OR
f ' x   2 3 x
4 d x2
5  5x 
2 d
23 x
4
  ln f x   ln 2  3 x4
5 x2

ln f x   ln 2
dx dx 3 x4
 ln 5 x2

f ' x   2 3 x4
5 x2
ln 52 x 5 x2
2 3 x4
ln 212x3  ln f x   3 x 4 ln 2  x 2 ln 5
f ' x 
f ' x  2 x2 5 ln 5  6 x 2 ln 2
3 x4 x 2
  f x 
 
 3 ln 2  4 x 3  ln 5 2 x

f ' x 
f ' x   2 3 x4 1 x 2

5 ln 5  6 x 2 ln 2 x  f x 

 2 x 6 x 2 ln 2  ln 5 

f ' ( x )  2  5  2 x 6 x2 ln 2  ln 5
3 x4 x2

f ' x   2 3 x4 1 x 2

5 6 x2 ln 2  ln 5 x 
8. 3 x  5 y  x 4  y
3 x ln 3  5 y ln 5y'  4 x 3  y'

 
y' 5 y ln 5  1  4 x 3  3 x ln 3

4 x 3  3 x ln 3
y'  y

5 ln 5  1 
Logarithmic Differentiation
Oftentimes, the derivatives of algebraic functions
which appear complicated in form (involving
products, quotients and powers) can be found
quickly by taking the natural logarithms of both
sides and applying the properties of logarithms
before differentiation. This method is called
logarithmic differentiation.
Steps in applying logarithmic differentiation.
1. Take the natural logarithm of both sides and
apply the properties of logarithms.
2. Differentiate both sides and reduce the right
side to a single fraction.
3. Solve for y’ by multiplying the right side by y.
4. Substitute and simplify the result.

Logarithmic differentiation is also applicable whenever

the base and its power are both functions.
EXAMPLE:

x  3 x  1 
1

using logarithmic differentiation

2
dy 2
1. Find if y 
dx 5x  2
Solution :

 
 3 x  1
1

 
2
 ln x  3  ln x  1  ln 5 x  2 
x 2 1
ln y  ln 2

5x  2 2
y'
 2
1
2 x   1  1 1  1 5
y x 3 2 x 1 5x  2
y' 2 x2x  15 x  2  x 2  35 x  2  52x 2  3x  1

y 2x 2  3x  15 x  2
y' 20 x 3  8 x 2  20 x 2  8 x  5 x 3  2 x 2  15 x  6  10 x 3  10 x 2  30 x  30

y 2x 2  3x  15 x  2
y' 15 x 3  23 x  36

y 2x 2  3x  15 x  2 
15 x 3  23 x  36
y'  y
2x  3x  15 x  2
2

 
x  3  x  1
1
15 x  23 x  36
3 2
2
y'  
 
2 x  3  x  15 x  2 
2
5x  2

15 x 3  23 x  36
y' 
2 x  1 5 x  2 
1
2
2
EXAMPLE:
2. Find
dy
dx
if y  5 x 2  1 4 x 3  3    using logarithmic differentiation
Solution :

     
1
1
ln y  ln x  1 4 x  3
2 3 5  ln x 2  1 4 x 3  3
5
1
 
ln y  ln x 2  1  ln 4 x 3  3
5
  
y' 1  1 2 
  2

y 5  x 1
2 x   3 1
4x  3 12 x 
  

y' 1  2 x 4 x 3  3  12 x 2 x 2  1 
 
  
y 5 
x2  1 4 x3  3

  
y' 1  8 x 4  6 x  12 x 4  12 x 2  1  20 x 4  12 x 2  6 x 
    2
y 5 
x  1 4x  1
2 3
 5  x  1 4x 3
 1

   

1  2x 10x 3  6x  3
y'   2
  y
 
5  x  1 4x 3  3  
y'   2
  
1  2x 10x 3  6x  3 
   3 
1

  
2 3
 x 1 4x 5
5  x  1 4x  3 
3

     
1
1 1
y'  2 x 10 x 3  6 x  3  x 2  1 4 x 3  3 5
5

    
4
2 
y'  x 10 x 3  6 x  3  x 2  1 4 x 3  3 5
5
B. Differentiate each of the following using
implicit differentiation.
1. log xy   log 4 x 3
x 2

2. y ln x  x ln y  ln e2 x

C. Differentiate each of the following using

logarithmic differentiation.
3 x  x 2 4 x3  3
1. y 
2x2  1

 
2. f x   5 x 2  1 4 x 3  3 
Logarithmic differentiation is also applicable whenever
the base and its power are both functions. (Variable
to variable power.)
Example:
dy
1. Find if y  x x
dx
ln y  ln x x
ln y  x ln x

y'  x 1  ln x1

1 1
y x
y'  1  ln x y  but y  x x

 
 y'  1  ln x  x x
if y  2 x  1
dy x 1
2. Find
dx
ln y  ln 2 x  1
x 1

ln y  x  1ln 2 x  1

y'  x  1 2  ln2 x  11

1 1
y 2x  1
2x  1
 ln 2 x  1
1
y' 
y 2x  1
 2 x  1 
y'    ln 2 x  1 y  but y  2x  1
x -1

 2x  1 
 2 x  1  2 x  1ln 2 x  1
y'    2x  1x -1

 2x  1
y'  2x  1  2 x  1ln 2 x  1 2x  1
x -1-1

 y'  2x  1  2 x  1ln 2 x  1 2x  1

x-2
3. y   6x  5 x

ln y  ln 6 x  5  x

ln y  x ln 6 x  5
1  1  6   1 
y'  x     ln 6 x  5  
y  6 x  5  2 6 x  5  2 x 
1 3 x ln 6 x  5
y'  
y 6x 5 2 x
1 6 x  6 x  5 ln 6 x  5
y' 
y 2 x 6 x  5 
 6 x  6 x  5 ln 6 x  5 
y'  
2 x 6 x  5 
  y   but y   6x5  x

 
 6 x  6 x  5 ln 6 x  5 
y'  
2 x 6 x  5 

 6x 5  x

 
 6 x  6 x  5 ln 6 x  5 
 6 x  5  2
x
1
 y'  
 2 x 
4. y  4  3 x 
x 1

ln y  ln 4  3 x 
x 1

ln y  x  1 ln 4  3 x 
1  1
y'  x  1  3  ln4  3 x  1 
y  4  3x   2 x 1 
1  3 x  1 ln 4  3 x 
y'  
y 4  3x 2 x 1
1  6  x  1  4  3 x ln 4  3 x 
y' 
y 24  3 x  x  1
  6 x  1  4  3 x ln4  3 x 
 y   but y  4  3 x 
x 1
y'  
 24  3 x  x  1 
  6 x  1  4  3 x ln4  3 x 
4  3 x 
x 1
y'  
 24  3 x  x  1 
  6 x  1  4  3 x ln 4  3 x 
 y'    4  3 x  x 1 1

 2 x 1 
EXERCISES:
A. Find the derivative and simplify the result.
e4x
1. g x   3 x  3 x 1
3. y  3 x
2

e 2
2. f x   e x 2 ln x 2
4. hx  log 2 x  3
2 2 x3

B. Apply the appropriate formulas to obtain the

derivative of the given function and simplify.
2 x 1
e
1.Gx   5 x 4. y 
2

2x  1
2.ye x  xe y  x 2  y 2  ln 2

5. f x   ln e 2 x  e 2 x 
3.H x   x  1
X2
EXERCISES:
A. Differentiate and simplify each of the following:

1. hx   4 x  3 log 2 x 2  2 

2. f x   log 3 x  3 x
3 2 3

3. g x   log 4 3 x  1 1  x 
3 2

4. F x   ln x  x 4 3 3 x 2  2
3x 2  4 x
5. H x  
log( 3  4 x 3 )
6. y  4 3  x log 6 x  1
3
DIFFERENTIATION OF
TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS
The TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
.
Re call :
Trigonometric Identities
A. Re ciprocal Identities C . Double Angle Formulas
1 1 1. sin 2 x  2sinxcosx
1. sin x   csc x 
csc x sin x 2. cos 2 x  cos 2 x  sin 2 x
1 1
2. cos x   sec x   1  2 sin 2 x
sec x cos x
sin x 1  2 cos 2 x  1
3. tan x  
cos x cot x 2 tan x
3. tan 2 x 
cos x 1 1  tan2 x
4. cot x  
sin x tan x
B. Sum and Difference of Two Angles D. Squared Identities
1. sin x  y   sin x cos y  cos x sin y 1. sin 2 x  cos 2 x  1
2. cosx  y   cos x cos y  sin x sin y 2. 1  tan2 x  sec 2 x
tan x  tan y 3. 1  cot 2 x  csc 2 x
3. tanx  y  
1  tan x tan y
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Trigonometric Function
For the differentiation formulas of the trigonometric
functions, all you need to know is the differentiation
formulas of sin u and cos u. Using these formulas
and the differentiation formulas of the algebraic
functions, the differentiation formulas of the
remaining functions, that is, tan u, cot u, sec u and
csc u may be obtained.
Derivative of sin u where u  f x 
d
sin u   cos u du
dx dx
Derivative of cos u where u  f x 
d
cos u    sin u du
dx dx
Derivative of tan u where u  f x 
d  sin x 
d
tan x    
dx dx  cos x 
U sin g derivative of quotient,

cosx  sin x   sinx  cos x 

d d
d
tan x   dx dx
dx cosx  2

cosx cosx   sinx  sin x 
cos 2 x
cos 2 x  sin 2 x 1
 2

cos x cos 2 x
d
tan x   sec 2 x
dx

d 2 du
Therefore tan u  sec u
dx dx
Derivative of cot u where u  f x 
d  1 
d
cot x    
dx dx  tan x 

U sin g derivative of quotient,

0  1 tan x 
d
0  1 sec 2 x
d
tan x   dx 
dx tanx2
tanx2
1

 sec 2 x cos 2
x 1
 2
 2
 2
  csc 2
x
tan x sin x sin x
cos 2 x
d
cot x   - csc 2 x
dx

d
Therefore cot u  - csc 2u du
dx dx
Derivative of sec u where u  f x 
d  1 
d
sec x    
dx dx  cos x 

U sin g derivative of quotient,

0  1 cos x 
d
0  1 sin x 
d
tan x   dx 
dx cosx 2 cosx 2
 sin x sin x 1
 2
   tan x sec x
cos x cos x cos x

d
sec x   tan x sec x
dx

d
Therefore sec u  tan u sec u du
dx dx
Derivative of csc u where u  f x 
d
csc x   d  1 
dx dx  sin x 

U sin g derivative of quotient,

0  1 sin x 
d
0  1cos x 
d
csc x   dx 
dx sin x 2 sin x 2
 cos x  cos x 1
 2
    cot x csc x
sin x sin x sin x

d
csc x    cot x csc x
dx

d
Therefore csc u  - cot u csc u du
dx dx
SUMMARY:
If u is a differentiable function of x, then the
following are differentiation formulas of the
trigonometric functions

d
sin u   cos u du d
cot u    csc u
2 du
dx dx dx dx
d
cos u    sin u du
d
sec u   tan u sec u du
dx dx dx dx
d
tan u   sec u
2 du d
csc u    cot u csc u du
dx dx dx dx
A. Find the derivative of each of the following
functions and simplify the result:
1. f x   2 sin 3 x 
3. hx   cos 2 1  3 x 2 
f ' x   2cos 3 x 3 
hx   cos1  3 x 2  2

2 2

 6 x2 cos1  3 x sin 1  3 x 

2 2

2. g x  e sin x
from sin 2x  2sinxcosx

g'  x   e sin x d
sin x 
h' x   6 x sin 2 1  3 x 2 
dx
1
 e sin x  cos x 
2 x
e sin x
 cos x x e sin x
 cos x
g' x  
x
 
2 x x 2x
4. y  3 sin 4 x 3 cos 4 x 3

      
y'  3 sin 4 x 3  sin 4 x 3 12 x 2  cos 4 x 3 cos 4 x 3 12 x 2 
from cos 2x  cos 2 x  sin 2 x

  
y'  36 x 2 cos 2 4 x 3

y'  36 x 2 cos 8 x 3
5. f x   2 tan  x
x
2
 x  1 
f ' x   2 sec 2    1
 2  2 

f ' x   sec  1
2x
2

f '  x   tan2
x
2
x
6. hx  log tan
3 1 x
x  1  x 1  x 1
h' x  
1
 log 3 e  sec 2  
tan
x 1 x  1  x 2 
1 x
x
h' x  
log 3 e 1  x  x 

cos
1 x  1
1  x 2 sin
x
cos 2
x
1 x 1 x
log 3 e
h' x  
1 2
 
1  x 2 sin
x
cos
x 2
1 x 1 x

2 log 3 e
h' x  
1

1  x  2 sin
2
x
cos
x
1 x 1 x

2 log 3 e 2 log 3 e  2 x 
h' x    h' x  
1
 csc
1  x 2 sin 2 x 1  x  1  x 
2 

1 x
7. y  sec 2 x 
cos 2 x

Apply ln on both sides

ln y  ln sec 2 x 
cos 2 x

ln y  cos 2 x ln sec 2 x 
By logarithmic differentiation
 1
1
 y'  cos 2 x  sec 2 x tan 2 x 2   ln sec 2 x  sin 2 x2 
y  sec 2 x 
 2 sin 2 x 
 y'  cos 2 x 
1
  2 sin 2 x ln sec 2 x
y  cos 2 x 
 2 sin 2 x1  ln sec 2 x

y'  2 sin 2 x 1  ln sec 2 x sec 2 x 

cos 2 x
8. hx  
2 cot x
1  cot 2 x

h' x  
1  cot x2 csc x1 2 cot x2 cot x csc x1
2 2 2

1  cot x 2 2

2 cot x  1  cot x
2
h' x  
2 csc x 2 2

1  cot x
2 2

cot x  1
2
2 csc x
 2

csc x
2 2

2cot x  1  cos x 
 2 sin x 
2 2
h' x    1
2
 sin 2 x 
csc 2 x  
 cos 2 x  sin 2 x 

h' x   2 sin x 
2
 2

 sin x 

h' x  2 cos 2 x

9. F x   csc x 3  1 

F'  x  
 csc x 3
  
 1 cot x 3  1 3 x 2
2 csc x  1
3

F' x   
3x 2
  
csc x 3  1 cot x 3  1   
csc x 3  1

2 csc x 3  1 
 3 2 

F'  x    x cot x  1  csc x 3  1
3
  
 2 
EXERCISES:
Find the derivative and simplify the result.

1. hx   ln sin 5

4 x3
6. Fx   sinx tan x

2. f x   3 cos ln x 2  7. y  tanx  y 

3. g x  
sin 4 x cot 2 2 x
8. F x  
2  cos 4 x 1  x2
4. F x  2 cos x sin 2 x  2 sin 4 x cos 2 x 9. cot xy  xy  0

sin 3
5. y  10. sec 2 x  csc 2 y 0
1  3 cos x
DIFFERENTIATION OF
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS
The INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Re. call
Definition s and Properties of Inverse Trigonomet ric Functions
 if y is a function of x determined by the relation
sin y  x  y is called the inverse sine function of x
denoted by y  arcsin x or y  sin -1 x
 This also mean y is the angle whose sine is x.
In general, these are the following definitions :
y  sin1x  if sin y  x where : - π/2  y  π/2
y  cos 1x  if cos y  x where : 0  y π
y  tan 1x  if tan y  x where : - π/2  y  π/2
y  cot 1x  if cot y  x where : 0  y π
y  sec -1x  if sec y  x where : 0  y  π/2 if x  1
or π/2  y   if x  -1
y  csc 1x  if csc y  x where : 0  y  π/2 if x  1
π
or -  y 0 if x  -1
2
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Function
In finding the derivative of y  sin -1 x , we use the definition of inverse trigonomet ric
 
function  sin y  x where -  y
2 2
Differentia ting with respect to y :
dx dy 1
cos y  or 
dy dx cos y
from the identity : cos y  1 - sin 2 y  1 - x 2
dy

1
but y  sin x 
-1 
d sin -1 x

1
dx 1 - x2 dx 1 - x2
d 1 du
Therefore
dx
sin -1 u  
1 - u 2 dx

In similar manner we can derive the formulas for the other

trigonomet ric functions.
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Function
Differenti ation formulas for inverse trigonomet ric functions :

1.
d
 
sin 1 u 
1 du
dx 1  u 2 dx
2.
d
 1

cos u  
1 du
dx 1  u 2 dx
3.
d
dx
 
tan 1 u 
1 du
1  u 2 dx
4.
d
 
cot 1 u  
1 du
dx 1  u 2 dx
5.
d
 
sec 1 u 
1 du
dx u u 2  1 dx
6.
d
 
csc 1 u  
1 du
dx u u 2  1 dx
EXAMPLE:
A. Find the derivative of each of the following
functions and simplify the result:

1. f x   sin 1 x 3 2. f x   cos 1 3 x 
1 1
f'(x)  3x 
2
f' x    3 
1  x 
3 2
1  3x  2

3x 2 3
f' x   f' x  
1 x6 1  9x 2

3x 2 1 x6
f' x    f' x  
3

1  9x 2
1 x6 1 x6 1  9x 2
1  9x 2

3x 2 1  x 6  3 1  9x 2
f' x   f' x  
1 x6 1  9x 2
 
3. y  sec 1 2 x 2 4. y  2 cos 1 x
1 1  1 
y'  4x  y'  2   
2x 
 x
2 2
2x 2 1 2
2 x 
1
2
y'  1 1
x 4x 4 1 y'  
1 x  x x 1  x 
2 4x 4 1
y'  
x 4x 1 4
4x 4 1 1 x 1 - x 
y'  
2 4x 4 1 x 1 - x  x 1 - x 
y' 
x 4x 4 1 
 x 1 - x 
y' 
x 1 - x 
5. hx   sin 2e
1 1 x
2
 
2e x ex 1  4e 2 x e x 1  4e 2 x
h' x   
1
  
2 1  2e x   2
1  4e 2x
1  4e 2 x 1  4e 2 x

6. g t   sec 1 5t  csc 1 5t
1 ( 1)
g' t   5   5 
5t 25t 1 2
5t 25t 1 2

g' t   0

2
7. gx   cot 1

x
1 2
 g'  x   2
2
g' x  
2
2  2 

 2   x   1  4   x 2 x 4
1  
 
2
 x x
8. f x   x 2 tan 1 3 x 
 
f x   x 
1
2
 3 
  tan 1
3x  2 x
 1  3 x 
2

 3x 
f  x   x  2 tan 1
3 x 
 1 9x 
2

 
 3 x  2 1  9 x 2 tan1 3 x
f x   x

 2 
 1 9 x 
5
9. y  Sec 1 (csc )
x
5 5 5 
 csc cot  2  2 2
x x x   5  5 5
y'  but ,  csc   1   cot   cot
5  5
2
 x  x x
csc  csc   1
x  x
5
y  2
'

x
EXERCISES:
A. Find the derivative and simplify the result.
1. g x   3 tan 1 3 x 6. y  cos 1 sin x 
1 cot 1 3 x 2
2. y  x sin 2 x  cot 1 x 7. F x  
1

2 9x

3. f x   sin 1
4 
8. y  sin 1 tan 1 3 x 
x3
9. hx   sin 1 3 x  6 x sec 1 x 2
4. y  arc csc 2 x 
4

7 x5
10. y 
cot 1 5 x 2
5. Gx   5 x 2 Cos 1 2 x
B. Find the derivative and simplify the result.
1. g t   t 4  t  4 arcsin
t
6. h y   y 5 arccos y 
2 5
2
 x 
2. y   cos x 1 2
7. y  arcsin  

 x 2
 4 
 1 y 
3. f z   z arc sec 3 z
4
8. F  y   arctan  
 1 y 

4. y  7 cos 1
 2x  1
9. y  tan 4 x  cos 4 x 1

x4
5. y  tan 1 1  7 x  10. H x  
tan 1 4 x
DIFFERENTIATION OF
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
HYPERBOLIC IDENTITIES
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Hyperbolic Function
EXAMPLE:
A. Find the derivative of each of the following functions
and simplify the result:

1. y  sinh x cosh 2 x 4. y  ln sinh x 2

y'  2 sinh x sinh 2x  cosh 2x cosh x 2 x cosh x 2
y'  2
y'  2 sinhx(2 sinhx coshx)  coshx(cosh x  sinh x)
2 2 sinh x
y'  coshx(5 sinh2 x  cosh2 x) y'  2 x coth x 2
2. y  x sec h x 5. y  coth x sec h x
y'  x(  sec h x tanh x )  sec h x y'  coth x(  sec h x tanh x )  sec h x(  csc h 2 x )
y'  sec h x( 1  x tanh x )

y'   sec h x coth x tanh x  csc h x
2

3. y  sec h 2 x y'   sec h x1  csc h x
2

y'  2 sec h x sec h x tanh x y'   sech x coth 2 x

y'  2 sec h 2 x tanh x y '   coth x cschx
6. y  ln coth2 x 7. y  arccos coth x
 2 coth x csc h 2 x  csc h 2 x
y'  y'  
coth2 x 1  coth2 x
2
1 csc h 2 x
y' 
y'  sinh 2 x  csc h 2 x
cosh x
sinh x csc h 2 x   csc h 2 x
y' 
2 2  csc h 2 x   csc h 2 x
y'  
cosh x sinh x 2
y'   csch2x
4
y'  
sinh 2 x

y'  4 csc h 2 x
8. y  arctan(sin h x 2 )

2 x cosh x 2
y' 

1  sinh x 2 2

2 x cosh x 2
y' 
cosh x 2 2

y'  2 x sec h x 2
EXERCISES:
A. Find the derivative and simplify the result.
1. f x   sinh x 2 7. f  y   cothln y 

4. g t   cosh t 3 10. g x   sinh x 

x

5. h x   coth
1

11. g x   sin 1 tanh x 2 
x
6. g x  lntanh x 12. f x   x sinh x , x  0
DIFFERENTIATION OF
INVERSE HYPERBOLIC
FUNCTIONS
DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA
Derivative of Inverse Hyperbolic Function
EXAMPLE:
A. Find the derivative of each of the following functions
and simplify the result:
1. Gx   x sinh 1 x  1  x 2
 1 
1  sinh 1 x 1 
2x
G' x   x  
 1 x  2 1 x2
2

G' x  
x x
 sinh 1 x 
x2  1 1  x2
G' x   sinh 1 x
2. y  x 2 cosh 1 x 2
   1 2 
 
2
x
2 x  cosh x 2 x   2 x 
1
y'  x 
2 1 2
 cosh x 
 x 1   x 1 
4 4

y' 
2 x x4  1 2
x 1
4
x  x 
4
 1 cosh 1 2
x 
3. y  ln x 2  1  x tanh 1 x

y' 
1
x
2x 1
1 x 2
1  tanh 1
x 1  
x 1 2 x 1
2 2

x x 1
y'  2   tanh x
x 1 1 x 2

y'  tanh1 x

4. F x   log 3 coth 1 1  3 x 3 
F x  
1
 
log 3 coth1 1  3 x 3  F' x  
1 1
2 coth 1  3 x 
log e
1
 9 x 2

1  1  3 x 
1 3 3 2
2 3
2
F' x  
9 x log 3 e
 
2 1  1  6 x 3  9 x6 coth1 1  3 x 3 
9 x 2 log 3 e
F' x   
23 x 3 2  3 x 3 coth1 1  3 x 3 

F'  x   
3 log 3 e
  
2 x 2  3 x 3 coth1 1  3 x 3 

5. G x   coth1 coth 4 x  6. y  csc h 1
x2
2
G' x  
1
1  coth2 4 x

 csc h 2
4 
x
4
2 4x
y' 
1

1
2 x 
x 2
x 2

2 2
2 1   
G' x   
2 csc h 4 x 2  2 

4 x  csc h 2 4 x  y'  
2x

4
4  x4 x 4  x4
G' x  
2 x 2
 x
4
2 x x
4 4  x4
y'  

x 4  x4 
EXERCISES:
A. Find the derivative and simplify the result.

1. f x   sinh 1 tan 3 x 2    
7.hx   3 sinh 1  3 x 2 cosh 1  3 x 2 
 1
2.h x   3 cosh 1  csc  8.G x   sinh x 
cosh x

 x
1
3.y  tanh cos e  3 x2
 9.H x  
sinh 3 x  1
1  cosh 3 x  1
4.g x   sec h i sec h6 x 2 
3
 1
10.F  x    cosh 
5.y  sec h x 1 2  x

11. f x   ln tanh 5 x2

6.y  log 5 sinh e 9 x 2
RELATED RATES
RELATED RATES PROBLEMS
1. A right circular cylinder has a fixed height of 6 units.
Find the rate of change of its volume V with respect
to the radius r of its base.
2. Find the rate of change of TSA in number 1 with
respect to r.
3. Find the rate of change in the area of the circle with
respect to the circumference (C) of the circle.
4. In a right circular cone with radius of the base r and
height h, if the base radius is always one-third of
the height, find the rate of change of the volume
with respect to the height at the instant the radius
is 2 inches.
PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS AND THEIR
DERIVATIVES
CHAIN RULE FOR PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

This lesson investigat es the procedure to find the

dy d 2y
derivative s, such as and 2
, for parametri c
dx dx
equations x  f t , y  gt .
THE CHAIN RULE

Suppose a curve is defined by the parametri c equations

x  f t  and y  gt 
dy
The Chain Rule states that the derivative on the parametri c
dx
dy dx
curve is the ratio of to . Higher derivative s are found
dt dt
in a similar manner.
dy d  dy 
 
dy dt d 2 y dt  dx 
In symbols,  and 
dx dx dx 2
dx
dt dt
EXAMPLE :
Find the derivatives of the following parametric
equations :
1. x  cos 3t, y  sin 3t

Solution :
dx dy
 3sin3t and  3cos 3t
dt dt
dy
dy dt 3cos3t
    cot 3t
dx dx - 3sin3t
dt
2. x  8cost  5cos4t, y  8sin t - 5sin4t

Solution :
dx
 8 sint  20 sin4t and
dt
dy
 8 cos t  20 cos 4t
dt
dy
dy dt 8 cos t  20 cos 4t
 
dx dx  8 sint  20 sin4t
dt
42 cos t  5 cos 4t 

4 2 sint  5 sin4t 
2 cos t  5 cos 4t

 2 sint  5 sin4t
d2y
3. If x  t3  1, y  t 2  t, find
dx 2
dy
dy dt 2t  1
 
dx dx 3t2
dt

d2 y d  2t  1  dt
  2 
dx dt  3t  dx
2

d2 y 3t2 2  2t  16t  1

2
 4
 2
dx 9t 3t
d2 y  2t  1
 2 5
dx 9t
d2y
4. If x  2 sin , y  1  4 cos , find
dx 2
dy
dy d 4 sin
   2 tan
dx dx 2 cos 
d
d2 y d d
 2 tan
dx d
2
dx
d2 y 1
 2 sec  
2

dx 2
2 cos 
d2 y
2
 sec 2
  sec 
dx
d2 y
 2  sec 3 
dx
5. Find the tangent line s  to the parametric curve :
x  t5  4t3 and y  t2 at 0,4 .

dy
We have to find the derivative and find , so that
dx
we can get the slope of the tangent line.
dy
dy dt 2t 2t 2
  4  2 2 
dx dx 5t  12t 2
t 5t  12  t 5t 2  12 
dt
Now , at 0 ,4  the parametri c equation of the curve becomes
0  t 5  4t 3  t 3 t 2  4   0
t 3  0, t 2  4  0
t  0, t  2
dy
at t  0, is not defined
dx
dy 2 1
at t  2,  

dx 2 52   12 8
2

1
Therefore the slope of the tangent line at 0,4  is m 
8
1 1
thus the equation of tangent line is  y - 4  x  y  x  4
8 8
dy 2 1
Now , at t  2 ,   

dx  2 5 2 2  12 8
1
Therefore the slope of the tangent line at 0,4  is m  
8
1 1
thus the equation of second tangent line is  y - 4   x  y   x  4
8 8