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# SLOPE OF A CURVE,

## TANGENT, and NORMAL LINE

Recall:
DEFINITION
The derivative of y  f (x) at point P on the curve is
equal to the slope of the tangent line at P, thus the
derivative of the function f given by y  f (x) with
respect to x at any x in its domain is defined as:
dy y f ( x  x)  f ( x)
 lim  lim
dx x 0 x x0 x

## provided the limit exists.

• The derivative of a function is equal to the slope
of the tangent line at any point along the curve.
y
tangent line

P( x1 , f ( x1 )) Q( x2 , f ( x2 ))
secant line

y y  f (x)

x  x 2  x1
x 2  x1  x
EXAMPLE:
1. Find the slope of the curve y  3 x 2  2 x  1 at  1, 6  .

Solution :
y'  6 x  2

mtan gent line  6 x  2

at  1, 6  :
mtan gent line  6  1  2   8
x 1
2. At what po int s do the curve y  , x  1 have slope of 2 ?
x 1
dy x  1   x  1 2
 
dx x  1 2
x  12
2 when x  0 , y  1
2
x  12 x  2 , y  3
2 x  1  2 Hence the po int s are
2

## x  12  1 0 ,1 and  2 ,3

x2  2x  1  1
x2  2x  0
xx  2   0
x 0 , x2 0
x  -2
3. Find the equation of the tan gent line and normal
line to the curve y  4 x 2  2 x  1 at - 2, 3.

Solution :
y'  8 x  2
 at - 2, 3
mTL  8 2   2  18

## The equation of the tan gent line at  2 , 3 is

y  y1  mTL ( x  x1 )
y  3  18( x  2 )
y  3  18 x  36
18 x  y  33  0 equation of TL
sin ce the normal line is  to the tangent line
1 1 1
then the mNL    
mTL  18 18
thus , the equation of the normal line at - 2, 3  is
y  y1  mNL  x  x1 

y  3   x   2 
1
18
y  3  x  2 
1
18
18 y  54  x  2
x  18 y  56  0  equation of normal line
8
4. What is the equation of the tan gent line and normal line to y  at 4 ,4  .
x
Solution :
1
-8 
sin ce y   8 x 2 then sin ce NL  TL then mNL  2
x
3 3 and the equation of the normal
 
y'  -
1
 8 x 2
 4x 2
line at 4 ,4  is
2
y  4  2x  4 
y' 4   4 4   4 2 

3
3 4 1
2  
8 2 y  4  2 x  8
therefore mTL 
1 2 x  y  4  0 eq' n of NL
2
and the equation of the tan gent
line at 4,-4  is

y  4  x  4 
1
2
2y  8  x 4
x  2 y  12  0 eq' n of TL
5. Find the equation of the tan gent line to the curve y  2 x 2  3
that is // to the line 8 x  y  3  0 .
Solution :
8x  y  3  0 4 x  8 and y  22   3
2

y  8x  3 x2 y  8  3  11
 and y'  42   8
mL therefore the equation of the
tangent line at 2,11 is
sin ce the tan gent line is // to
y - 11  8x - 2 
8 x  y  3 then mTL  mL  8
y - 11  8x - 16
and by taking the derivative of
8x - y - 5  0 eq' n of TL
the equation of the given curve
y  2x2  3
y'  4 x  mTL , thus 4 x  8
EXAMPLES:

## 1. At what point is 9 the slope of the curve y  x 3  3x 2 ?

2. Find the point where the normal line to y  x  x at 4,6 
crossess the y - axis.
3. Find the tangent line to x 2  2y  8 and parallel 2x - y  4.
4. Find the normal line to the curve x 2  2y  8 and perpendicu lar
to the line x - 2y  4  0.
TIME RATES PROBLEMS
If a particle is moving along a straight line according to the
equation of motions = f (t) , since the velocity may be interpreted
as a rate of change of distance with respect to time, thus we have
shown that the velocity of the particle at time “t” is the derivative
of “s” with respect to “t”.

## There are many problems in which we are concerned with the

rate of change of two or more related variables with respect to
time, in which it is not necessary to express each of these variables
directly as function of time. For example, we are given an equation
involving the variables x and y, and that both x and y are functions
of the third variable t, where t denotes time.
Since the rate of change of x and y with respect to t is
dx dy
given by dt and dt , respectively, we differentiate both
sides of the given equation with respect to t by applying
the chain rule.

## When two or more variables, all functions of t, are related

by an equation, the relation between their rates of
change may be obtained by differentiating the equation
with respect to t.
Example 1
A 17 ft ladder is leaning against a wall. If the bottom of the ladder
is pulled along the ground away from the wall at the constant rate of
5 ft/sec, how fast will the top of the ladder be moving down the wall
when it is 8 ft above the ground?

dy
?
dt y 8 ft
y

x
dx ft
5
dt sec
Example 2
A balloon leaving the ground 60 feet from an observer, rises
vertically at the rate 10 ft/sec . How fast is the balloon receding from
the observer after 8 seconds?

dL
L ?
h dh ft dt t 8 sec
 10
dt sec

Viewer
60 feet
Example3
A man on a wharf of 20 feet above the water pulls in a rope, to
which a boat is attached, at the rate of 4 ft/sec. At what rate is the
boat approaching the wharf when there is 25 feet of rope out?

dR ft
 4
dt sec

R
20ft

x
Example 4
Water is flowing into a conical reservoir 20 feet deep and 10 feet
across the top, at the rate of 15 ft3/min . Find how fast the surface is
rising when the water is 8 feet deep?
10 feet
dV ft 3 5 feet
 15
dt min

r
20 feet

h
Example 5
Water is flowing into a vertical tank at the rate of 24 ft3/min .
If the radius of the tank is 4 feet, how fast is the surface rising?
4 feet

dV ft 3
 24
dt min

h
Example 6
A triangular trough is 10 feet long, 6 feet across the top, and 3
feet deep. If water flows in at the rate of 12 ft3/min, find how fast
the surface is rising when the water is 6 inches deep?

6 feet

ft 3
12
min

x
3 feet

h
Example 7
A train, starting at noon, travels at 40 mph going north.
Another train, starting from the same point at 2:00 pm travels
east at 50 mph . Find how fast the two trains are separating at
3:00 pm.
C
3pm

B
2pm
L

dy mi
 40
80 miles

dt hr

dx mi
 50
dt hr 3pm
A 12pm
2pm D
x
RELATED RATES PROBLEMS
1. A right circular cylinder has a fixed height of 6 units.
Find the rate of change of its volume V with respect
to the radius r of its base.
2. Find the rate of change of TSA in number 1 with
respect to r.
3. Find the rate of change in the area of the circle with
respect to the circumference (C) of the circle.
4. In a right circular cone with radius of the base r and
height h, if the base radius is always one-third of
the height, find the rate of change of the volume
with respect to the height at the instant the radius
is 2 inches.
THE DERIVATIVE IN
GRAPHING AND
APPLICATIONS
ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONS 1:
INCREASING and DECREASING
FUNCTIONS, ROLLE’S THEOREM,
MEAN VALUE THEOREM, CONCAVITY
and POINT OF INFLECTION
INCREASING and DECREASING FUNCTIONS
The term increasing, decreasing, and constant are
used to describe the behavior of a function as we
travel left to right along its graph. An example is
shown below.

## increasing decreasing increasing constant

0 2 4
The following definition, which is illustrated in
Figure 4.1.2, expresses these intuitive ideas precisely.
y y

 

x x
Each tangent line y Each tangent line
has positive slope; has negative slope;
function is increasing function is decreasing
 

x
Each tangent line
has zero slope,
function is constant
EXAMPLE:
1. Find the intervals on which f(x)  x 2  4 x  3 is increa sin g and decrea sin g .
y

f ( x )  x2  4x  3

decreasing
3
increasing
2
x
-1

f ' x   2 x  4  2 x  2 
 f ' x   0 when x  2  f is decreasing on -  ,2
thus 
 f ' x   0 when x  2  f is increasing on 2,
2. Find the intervals on which f(x)  x 3 is increa sin g and decrea sin g .
y
f ( x )  x3
4
increasing

x
-3 3
increasing

-4

f ' x   3 x 2
 f ' x   0 when x  0  f is increasing on -  ,0 
thus 
 f ' x   0 when x  0  f is increasing on 0,
ROLLE’S THEOREM
AND
THE MEAN-VALUE
THEOREM
ROLLE’S THEOREM

## This theorem states the geometrically obvious

fact that if the graph of a differentiable function
intersects the x-axis at two places, a and b there
must be at least one place where the tangent
line is horizontal.
Figure 4.8.1
EXAMPLE:
Find the two x-intercepts of the function f x  x 2  5 x  4
and confirm that f’(c) = 0 at some point between those
intercepts.

Solution:
f x   x 2  5x  4  x  1x  4 , so the x - intercepts are x  1 and
x  4 since the polynomial f is continuous and differentiable
everywhere, the hypotheses of Rolle's Theorem are satisfied on
the interval 1,4. Thus we are guaranteed the existence of at
least one point c in the interval 1,4  such that f' c   0.
5 5
f' x   2x  5  0 ; x  , so c  is a point on the interval
2 2
1,4  at which f' c   0.
y

1
x
1 2 3 4
-1

-2
5
f'   0
2
THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM
Rolle’s Theorem is a special case of a more general
result, called the Mean-value Theorem.
Geometrically, this theorem states that between
any two points A (a,f(a)) and B(b,f(b)) on the graph
of a differentiable function f, there is at least one
place where the tangent line to the graph is
parallel to the secant line joining A and B.(Fig 4.8.5)

Figure 4.8.5
Note that the slope of the secant line joining A(a,f(a)) and B(b,f(b)) is
f b   f a 
m
ba
and that the slope of the tangent line at c in Figure 4.5.8a is f’(c).
Similarly, in Figure 4.5.8b the slopes of the tangent lines at joining
A(a,f(a)) and B(b,f(b)) is c1 and c2 are f' c1  and f' c2 , respective ly .
Since nonvertical parallel lines have the same slope, the Mean-Value
Theorem can be stated precisely as follows
EXAMPLE:
Show that the function f x   1 x 3  1 satisfies the hypotheses
4
of the mean-value theorem over the interval [0,2], and
find all values of c in the interval (0,2) at which the tangent
line to the graph of f is parallel to the secant line joining
the points (0,f(0)) and (2,f(2)).
Solution:
f is continuous and different iable everywhere because it is a polynomial .
In particular f is continuous on 0,2 and differentiable on 0,2 , so the
hypotheses of the Mean - Value Theorem are satisfied with a  0 and b  2.
3x2 3c 2
But f a   f 0   1, f b   f 2   3  f' x   , and f' c  
4 4
f b   f a  3c 2 3  1
Thus f' c      3c 2  4
ba 4 2 0

##  1.15 , only  1.15 lies in the interval 0,2 .

4 2 3
Therefore c   
3 3
y 1 3
y x 1
4
4

1
x
1 2 3 4
-1

-2
CONCAVITY
Although the sign of the derivative of f reveals where
the graph of f is increasing or decreasing , it does not
reveal the direction of the curvature.
Fig. 4.1.8 suggests two ways to characterize the concavity
of a differentiable f on an open interval:
• f is concave up on an open interval if its tangent lines
have increasing slopes on that interval and is concave
down if they have decreasing slopes.
• f is concave up on an open interval if its graph lies above
its tangent lines and concave down if it lies below its
tangent lines.
y
y

  concave
concave down
 up   

x x
increasing slopes decreasing slopes

Figure 4.1.8
Formal definition of the “concave up” and “concave
down”.
Since the slopes of the tangent lines to the graph of a
differentiable function f are the values of its derivative f’,
it follows from Theorem 4.1.2 (applied to f’ rather than f )
that f’ will be increasing on intervals where f’’ is positive
and that f’ will be decreasing on intervals where f’’ is
negative. Thus we have the following theorem.
EXAMPLE 1:
y

f ( x )  x2  4x  3

decreasing
3
increasing
2
x
-1

## The figure above suggests that the function y  x 2  4 x  3

is concave up on the interval -  ,.
f ' x   2 x  4 and f ' ' x   2  f ' ' x   0
EXAMPLE 2:
y
f ( x )  x3
4
increasing
x
-3 3
increasing

-4

## The figure above suggests that the function y  x 3

is concave down on the interval - .0  and concave up
on the interval 0,.
 f ' ' x   0 if x  0 and
f ' x   3 x and f ' ' x   6 x  
2

 f ' ' x   0 if x  0
INFLECTION POINTS
Points where the curve changes from concave up
to concave down or vice-versa are called points of
inflection.
Figure 4.1.9
EXAMPLE 1:
The figure shows the graph of the function f x   x 3  3 x 2  1 .
Use the 1st and 2nd derivatives of f to determine the intervals
on which f is increasing, decreasing, concave up and concave
down. Locate all inflection points and confirm that your
conclusions are consistent with the graph.
y

SOLUTION :
2 f '  x   3 x 2  6 x  3 x x  2 
1 f ' ' x   6 x  6  6 x  1
x
-1
 2 3

-3
INTERVAL (3x)(x-2) f’(x) CONCLUSION
x<0 (-)(-) + f is increasing on  ,0
0<x<2 (+)(-) - f is decreasing on 0 ,2
x>2 (+)(+) + f is increasing on 2,

## INTERVAL (6)(x-1) f’’(x) CONCLUSION

x<1 (-) - f is concave down on  ,1
x>1 (+) + f is concave up on 1,

## The 2nd table shows that there is a point of inflection at x=1,

since f changes from concave up to concave down at that point.
The point of inflection is (1,-1).
EXAMPLE 2:
Find the inflection points, if any, of f x   x 4 .
SOLUTION :
f ' x   4 x 3
 f ' '  x   0 when x  0; concave up
f ' '  x   12 x  
2

##  f ' '  x   0 when x  0; concave up

Thus there is no change in concavity and hence no inflection
point at x  0,even though f' ' 0   0 .
ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONS 2:
RELATIVE EXTREMA; GRAPHING
POLYNOMIALS
EXAMPLE :

1 4 4 3
y  x  x  x2  4 x  1
3 2 3
2 has a relative minima at x  1 and x  2
1 and a relative maximum at x  1
-1
x
-3 1 2 3

-3
Figure 4.2.3
The points x1, x2, x3, x4, and x5 are critical points.
Of these, x1, x2, and x5 are stationary points.
Figure 4.2.3 illustrates that a relative extremum
can also occur at a point where a function is not
differentiable.
In general, we define a critical point for a function
f to be a point in the domain of f at which either
the graph of f has a horizontal tangent line or f is
not differentiable (line is vertical).
To distinguish between the two types of critical
points we call x a stationary point of f if f’(x)=0.
Thus we have the following theorem:
EXAMPLE 1:
Find all critical points of f x   x 3  3 x  1
tangent line
SOLUTION :
f '  x   3 x 2  3  3 x  1 x  1  0
 x  1  0  x  1
thus , 
x  1  0  x  1

## This means that f' x   0 when x  -1

and when x  1
Therefore the critical points
occur at x  1 and x  1 tangent line
FIRST DERIVATIVE TEST

## Theorem 4.2.2 asserts that the relative extrema

must occur at critical points, but it does not say
that a relative extremum occurs at every critical
point.

## A function has a relative extremum at those

critical points where f' changes sign.
•The above theorem simply say that for a continuous
function, relative maxima occur at critical points
where the derivative changes from (+) to (–) and
relative minima where it changes from (–) to (+).
SECOND DERIVATIVE TEST
There is another test for relative extrema that is based on
the following geometric observation:

## • A function f has a relative maximum at stationary point

if the graph of f is concave down on an open interval
containing that point.

## • A function f has a relative minimum at stationary point

if the graph of f is concave up on an open interval
containing that point.
Figure 4.2.7

## Note: The second derivative test is applicable only to stationary

points where the 2nd derivative exists.
EXAMPLE:
1. Find the relative extrema of f x   3 x 5  5 x 3

SOLUTION :

 
f '  x   15x 4 - 15x 2  15x 2 x 2  1  15x 2  x  1 x  1
when f '  x   0  15x 2  x  1 x  1  0
15x 2  0 ;  x  1  0 ; x  1  0
x  0; x  -1; x1

f ' '  x   60x 3 - 30x  30x 2x 2  1
STATIONARY
POINTS

30 x 2 x 1 2
 f’’
2nd DERIVATIVE TEST

## x=-1 -30 - f has a relative maximum

x=0 0 0 inconclusive
x=1 30 + f has a relative minimum

## INTERVAL 15 x 2 x  1x  1 f’(x) Conclusion

x<-1 (+)(-)(-) +
x=-1 f has a relative maximum
-1<x<0 (+)(+)(-) -
x=0 f has neither a relative max nor min
0<x<1 (+)(+)(-) -
x=1 f has a relative minimum
x>1 (+)(+)(+) +
y

 2

x
-1 1 2

-2 
2. Analyze and trace the curve of y  3 x  x 3

SOLUTION :
y  3x  x 3 y' '  6 x
y'  3  3 x 2 6x  0
 
3 1 - x 2  31  x 1  x   0 x0
1  x   0 and 1  x   0
x  -1 and x1
f x  f ' x  f ' ' x 
 
INTERVAL Conclusion
x 3 x 2
31  x 1  x  6x
x<-1 (+)(-)(+)= - + f is decreasing; concave upward
x=-1 -2 0 + f has a relative minimum
-1<x<0 (+)(+)(+)= + + f is increasing; concave upward
x=0 0 3 0 f has a point of inflection
0<x<1 (+)(+)(+)= + - f is increasing; concave downward
x=1 2 0 - f is has a relative maximum
x>1 (+)(+)(-)= - - f is decreasing; concave downward
y

2 
y  3x  3x 3
1

x
-2 -1 1 2

 -2
4x
3. Analyze and trace the curve of y 
4x 2

4x
y
4x 2

y' 
4  x 2 4   4 x2 x 
4  x 2 2
16  4 x 2  8 x 2 16  4 x 2
y'  
4  x 2 2
4  x 2 2
4 4  x 2  42  x 2  x 
y'   0
4  x 
2 2
4  x 
2 2

2  x   0 and 2  x   0
x  -2 and x2
y' ' 
4  x  8 x    4 x  16 2 4  x 2 x 
2 2 2

4  x  2 4

4  x   8 x   4 x4  x  4 x  16   0
2 2 2 2

- 4x4  x 24  x    4 x  16   0
2 2 2

- 4x4  x 8  2 x  4 x  16   0
2 2 2

- 4x4  x  2 x  24   0
2 2

8 x4  x x  12   0
2 2

x  0 and x  2 3
INTERVAL f x  f ' x  f ' ' x  Conclusion

## x  2 3 - - f is decreasing; concave downward

3
x  2 3  -0.125 0 f has a point of inflection
2

## 2x2 3 - - f is decreasing; concave downward

3
x2 3 -0.125 0 f has a point of inflection
2

## x2 3 - + f is decreasing; concave upward

y 4x
y
4  x2

1  
`
x
-4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

-2