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Foundations of Group Behaviour

What is a Group?
• two or more individuals, interacting and
interdependent, who have come together to
achieve particular objectives

-formal group , we mean one -informal groups are natural

defined by the organization’s formations in the work environment
structure, with designated work that appear in response to the need
assignments establishing tasks for social contact
WHY do people form Groups?
● Similarity


● Status

● Uncertainty reduction
WHY do people join Groups?
• Security mirrors strength in numbers.
• Self-esteem transmits people's feelings of
• Affiliation with groups can meet one's social
• Groups represent power.
• People may join a group for goal
The Five-Stage Model of Group Development

Forming Stage
characterized by a great deal of uncertainty
about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership

Storming Stage
The second stage in group development,
characterized by intragroup conflict.

Norming Stage
The third stage in group development,
characterized by close relationships and
…Group Development (cont’d)
Performing Stage
The fourth stage in group development, when the
group is fully functional.

Adjourning Stage
The final stage in group development for temporary
groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up
activities and preparing to disband
An Alternative Model for Temporary
Groups with Deadlines
(1) their first meeting sets the group’s direction,
(2) this first phase of group activity is one of inertia,
(3) a transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its allotted
(4) this transition initiates major changes,
(5) a second phase of inertia follows the transition, and
(6) thegroup’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity.
A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to
someone occupying a given position in a social unit.

Role Perception
An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to
act in a given situation.

Role Expectations
How others believe a person should act in a given
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)
Role Conflict
A situation in which an individual is confronted by
divergent role expectations.

Psychological Contract
An unwritten agreement that sets out what
management expects from the employee and vice
acceptable standards of behaviour shared by their
members that express what they ought and ought
not to do under certain circumstances

•• Performance
•• Appearance
•• Social
•• Allocation
The Hawthorne Studies
• A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at
Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in
Chicago between 1924 and 1932.
• Research Conclusions:
– Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related.
– Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting
individual behavior.
– Group standards (norms) were highly effective in
establishing individual worker output.
– Money was less a factor in determining worker output
than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)
Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of
the group.

Reference Groups
Important groups to which individuals belong or
hope to belong and with whose norms individuals
are likely to conform.