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ENG2016: ENGINEERING

MECHANICS

By: Engr. Kevin Lester B. Lobo


Mechanics

Mechanics
is a branch of
the physical sciences
that is concerned with
the state of rest or motion of bodies
that are subjected to
the action of forces.
Mechanics

Statics
of Rigid-bodies

Dynamics • Kinematics
of Rigid-bodies • Kinetics
Engineering
Mechanics Mechanics
of Deformable-bodies

Fluid Mechanics
Fundamental Concepts
Basic Quantities
Length
Is used to locate the position of a point in space and thereby describe the size of a physical
system. Once a standard unit of length is defined, one can then use it to define distances and
geometric properties of a body as multiples of this unit.

Time
Is conceived as a succession of events. Although the principles of statics are time independent,
this quantity plays an important role in the study of dynamics.

Mass
Is a measure of a quantity of matter that is used to compare the action of one body with that of
another. This property manifests itself as a gravitational attraction between two bodies and
provides a measure of the resistance of matter to a change in velocity.

Force
In general, it is considered as the “push” or “pull” exerted by one body on another. This
interaction can occur when there is direct contact between the bodies, such as a person pushing
on a wall, or it can occur through a distance when the bodies are physically separated. Examples
of the latter type include gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces. In any case, a force is
completely characterized by its magnitude, direction, and point of application.
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
Conversion of Units

Length: Mass: Force:

1 𝑖𝑛 = 2.54 𝑐𝑚 1 𝑙𝑏𝑚 = 0.45359237 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑙𝑏 = 16 𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑧


1 𝑓𝑡 = 12 𝑖𝑛 1 𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 2,000 𝑙𝑏𝑚 1 𝑁 = 100,000 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑒
1 𝑦𝑎𝑟𝑑 = 3 𝑓𝑡 1 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒 = 1,000 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑘𝑖𝑝 = 1,000 𝑙𝑏
1 𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = 660 𝑓𝑡
1 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 5,280 𝑓𝑡
1 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 1,609.344 𝑚
1 𝑛𝑎𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 1,852 𝑚
The International System of Units
Prefixes
The International System of Units
Rules for Use
• Quantities defined by several units which are multiples of one another are separated by a
dot to avoid confusion with prefix notation, as indicated by 𝑁 = 𝑘𝑔 · 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 .
Also, 𝑚 · 𝑠 (meter-second), whereas 𝑚𝑠 (milli-second).

• The exponential power on a unit having a prefix refers to both the unit and its prefix.
For example, μ𝑁 2 = μ𝑁 2 = μ𝑁 · μ𝑁. Likewise, 𝑚𝑚2 represents 𝑚𝑚 2 = 𝑚𝑚 · 𝑚𝑚.

• With the exception of the base unit the kilogram, in general avoid the use of a prefix in the
denominator of composite units.
For example, do not write 𝑁Τ𝑚𝑚, but rather 𝑘𝑁Τ𝑚;
also, 𝑚Τ𝑚𝑔 should be written as 𝑀𝑚Τ𝑘𝑔.

• When performing calculations, represent the numbers in terms of their base or derived
units by converting all prefixes to powers of 10. The final result should then be expressed
using a single prefix. Also, after calculation, it is best to keep numerical values between 0.1
and 1000; otherwise, a suitable prefix should be chosen.
For example,
50 𝑘𝑁 60 𝑛𝑚 = 50 103 𝑁 60 10−9 𝑚
= 3000 10−6 𝑁 · 𝑚 = 3 10−3 𝑁 · 𝑚
= 3 𝑚𝑁 · 𝑚
Numerical Calculations
Dimensional Homogeneity
Each term must be expressed in the same units.
Example:
1
𝑆 = 𝑉0 𝑡 + 𝑎 𝑡2
2
𝐿 1 𝐿
𝐿 = 𝑇 + 2 𝑇2
𝑇 2 𝑇

Significant Figures
The number of significant figures contained in any number determines the accuracy of the
number.

Rounding Off Numbers


As a general rule,
any numerical figure
ending in five or greater is rounded up
and a number less than five is rounded down.

Calculations
Do not round off calculations until expressing the final result.
This procedure maintains precision throughout the series of steps to the final solution.
General Procedure for Analysis
The most effective way of learning the principles of engineering mechanics
is to solve problems.
To be successful at this,
it is important to always present the work
in a logical and orderly manner,
as suggested by the following sequence of steps:

• Read the problem carefully and try to correlate the actual physical situation with
the theory studied.

• Tabulate the problem data and draw any necessary diagrams.

• Apply the relevant principles, generally in mathematical form. When writing any
equations, be sure they are dimensionally homogeneous.

• Solve the necessary equations, and report the answer with no more than four
significant figures.

• Study the answer with technical judgment and common sense to determine
whether or not it seems reasonable.
Example 1.1

Convert 2 𝑘𝑚Τℎ to (a) 𝑚Τ𝑠, (b) 𝑓𝑡Τ𝑠

SOLUTION
(a) Since 1 𝑘𝑚 = 1000 𝑚 and 1 ℎ = 3600 𝑠, the factors of conversion are arranged in
the following order, so that a cancellation of the units can be applied:
2 𝑘𝑚 1000 𝑚 1ℎ
2 𝑘𝑚Τℎ =
ℎ 𝑘𝑚 3600 𝑠
2000 𝑚
=
3600 𝑠
= 𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟔 𝒎Τ𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

(b) Recall, 1 𝑓𝑡 = 0.3048 𝑚


0.556 𝑚 1 𝑓𝑡
0.556 𝑚Τ𝑠 =
𝑠 0.3048 𝑚
= 𝟏. 𝟖𝟐 𝒇𝒕Τ𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 1.2

Convert the quantities 300 𝑙𝑏 · 𝑠 and 52 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔Τ𝑓𝑡 3 to appropriate SI


units.

SOLUTION
Recall, 1 𝑙𝑏 = 4.448 𝑁
4.448 𝑁
300 𝑙𝑏 · 𝑠 = 300 𝑙𝑏 · 𝑠
𝑙𝑏
= 1334.5 𝑁 · 𝑠
= 𝟏. 𝟑𝟑 𝒌𝑵 · 𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Since 1 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 = 14.59388 𝑘𝑔 and 1 𝑓𝑡 = 0.3048 𝑚, then


3
3
52 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 14.59 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑓𝑡
Τ
52 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 =
𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 0.3048 𝑚
= 26,800 𝑘𝑔Τ𝑚3
= 𝟐𝟔. 𝟖 𝑴𝒈Τ𝒎𝟑 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 1.3

Evaluate each of the following and express with SI units having an


appropriate prefix: a 50 𝑚𝑁 ∗ 6 𝐺𝑁 , b 400 𝑚𝑚 ∗ 0.6 𝑀𝑁 2 ,
c 45𝑀𝑁 3 Τ900𝐺𝑔.

SOLUTION
𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒂

50 𝑚𝑁 6 𝐺𝑁 = 50 ∗ 10−3 𝑁 6 ∗ 109 𝑁
= 300 ∗ 106 𝑁 2
2
6 2
1 𝑘𝑁
= 300 ∗ 10 𝑁 ∗
103 𝑁
= 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒌𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 1.3

SOLUTION
𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒃

400 𝑚𝑚 0.6 𝑀𝑁 2 = 400 ∗ 10−3 𝑚 0.6 ∗ 106 𝑁 2


= 400 ∗ 10−3 𝑚 0.36 ∗ 1012 𝑁 2
= 144 ∗ 109 𝑚 · 𝑁 2
= 𝟏𝟒𝟒 𝑮𝒎 · 𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
We can also write
2
1 𝑀𝑁
144 109 𝑚 · 𝑁 2 = 9
144 ∗ 10 𝑚 · 𝑁 ∗2
106 𝑁
= 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟒 𝒎 · 𝑴𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 1.3

SOLUTION
𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒄

45 𝑀𝑁 3 45 106 𝑁 3
=
900 𝐺𝑔 900 106 𝑘𝑔
= 50 109 𝑁 3 Τ𝑘𝑔
3
1 𝑘𝑁 1
= 50 109 𝑁 3
103 𝑁 𝑘𝑔
= 𝟓𝟎 𝒌𝑵𝟑 Τ𝒌𝒈 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Scalars and Vectors
Scalar

A scalar
is any positive or negative
physical quantity
that can be completely specified
by its magnitude.

Examples of scalar quantities:


length,
mass,
time,
temperature.
Scalars and Vectors
Vector

A vector
is any physical quantity
that requires both a magnitude and a direction
for its complete description.

Some examples of vectors are:


force,
position,
velocity,
moment.

A vector is shown graphically by an arrow.


Scalars and Vectors
Vector

The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector, and
the angle between the vector and a fixed axis defines the direction of its
line of action.
The head or tip of the arrow indicates the sense of direction of the
vector.

In print, vector quantities are represented by bold face letters such as 𝐀


and the magnitude of the vector is italicized, 𝐴.
For handwritten work, it is often convenient to denote a vector quantity
by simply drawing an arrow on top of it, 𝐴Ԧ
Resultant of Vector
Parallelogram Law
• Two “component” forces 𝐅1 and 𝐅2 add
according to the parallelogram law, yielding
a resultant force 𝐅𝑅 that forms the diagonal
of the parallelogram.

• If a force 𝐅 is to be resolved into


components along two axes 𝑢 and 𝑣, then
start at the head of force 𝐅 and construct
lines parallel to the axes, thereby forming
the parallelogram. The sides of the
parallelogram represent the components,
𝐅𝑢 and 𝐅𝑣 .

• Label all the known and unknown force


magnitudes and the angles on the sketch
and identify the two unknowns as the
magnitude and direction of 𝐅𝑅 , or the
magnitudes of its components.
Resultant of Vector
Trigonometry

• Redraw a half portion of the


parallelogram to illustrate the
triangular head-to-tail addition
of the components.

• From this triangle, the


magnitude of the resultant force
can be determined using
the Law of cosines, and its
direction is determined from the
Law of sines. The magnitudes of
the other two force components
are determined from the Law of
sines.
Resultant of Multiple Vector
Component Method
If more than two forces are to be added,
successive applications of the parallelogram law can be carried out
in order to obtain the resultant force.

For example, if three forces 𝐅1 , 𝐅2 , 𝐅3 act at a point O,


the resultant of any two of the forces is found, say, 𝐅1 + 𝐅2
—and then this resultant is added to the third force,
yielding the resultant of all three forces; i.e., 𝐅𝑅 = 𝐅1 + 𝐅2 + 𝐅3 .
--OR--
Resultant of Multiple Vector
Component Method
If more than two forces are to be added,
successive applications of the parallelogram law can be carried out
in order to obtain the resultant force.

Problems of this type are easily solved by using the “Rectangular Component
Method”.

𝟐
𝐅𝑹 = 𝚺𝑭𝒙 𝟐 + 𝚺𝑭𝒚
Example 1
The screw eye is subjected to two forces, 𝐅1 and 𝐅2 .
Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force.
Example 1
SOLUTION:
Apply Parallelogram Law:

The parallelogram is formed by drawing a line from the head of 𝐅1 that is parallel to 𝐅2 , and
another line from the head of 𝐅2 that is parallel to 𝐅1 . The resultant force 𝐅𝑅 extends to where
these lines intersect at point A.

The two unknowns are the magnitude of 𝐅𝑅 and the angle θ (theta).
Example 1
SOLUTION:
Then apply Trigonometry:

From the parallelogram, the vector triangle is constructed.


Using the law of cosines
𝐹𝑅 = 100 𝑁 2 + 150 𝑁 2 − 2 100 𝑁 150 𝑁 cos 115°
= 10,000 𝑁 2 + 22,500 𝑁 2 − 30,000 𝑁 2 −0.4226
𝐹𝑅 = 𝟐𝟏𝟑 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 1
SOLUTION:
Applying the law of sine to determine θ,
150 𝑁 212.6 𝑁 150 𝑁
= sin θ = sin 115°
sin θ sin 115° 212.6 𝑁
𝜽 = 𝟑𝟗. 𝟖° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Thus the direction φ (phi) of 𝐅𝑅 , measured from the horizontal, is


𝝋 = 39.8° + 15.0° = 𝟓𝟒. 𝟖° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Example 2
Resolve the horizontal 600-lb force into components
acting along the 𝑢 and 𝑣 axes
and determine the magnitudes of these components.
Example 2
SOLUTION:
The vector addition using the triangle rule is shown.
The two unknowns are the magnitudes of 𝐹𝑢 and 𝐹𝑣 .
Applying the law of sine,

𝐹𝑢 600 𝑙𝑏
=
sin 120° sin 30°

𝐹𝑢 = 1,039 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

𝐹𝑣 600 𝑙𝑏
=
sin 30° sin 30°

𝐹𝑣 = 600 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.
Example 3
Determine the magnitude of the component force 𝐅 in and the
magnitude of the resultant force, 𝐅𝑅 if it is directed along the
positive y-axis.
SOLUTION
• The parallelogram law of addition.
• The triangle rule.

The magnitudes of 𝐅𝑅 and 𝐅 are the two unknowns. They can


be determined by applying the law of sine.

𝐹 200 𝑙𝑏
=
sin 60° sin 45°

𝐹 = 245 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

𝐹𝑅 200 𝑙𝑏
=
sin 75° sin 45°

𝐹𝑅 = 273 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.
Example 5
It is required that the resultant force acting on the eyebolt
be directed along the positive x axis
and that 𝐅2 have a minimum magnitude.

Determine this magnitude, the angle θ,


and the corresponding resultant force.
SOLUTION
The triangle rule for is shown.

Since the magnitudes (lengths) of 𝐅𝑅 and 𝐅2 are not


specified, then 𝐅2 can actually be any vector that has its
head touching the line of action of 𝐅𝑅 . However, as
shown, the magnitude of 𝐅2 is a minimum or the shortest
length when its line of action is perpendicular to the line
of action of 𝐅𝑅 , that is, when
𝜽 = 𝟗𝟎° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Since the vector addition forms a right triangle, the two


unknown magnitudes can be obtained by trigonometry.
𝐹𝑅 = 800 𝑁 cos 60° = 𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
𝐹2 = 800 𝑁 sin 60° = 𝟔𝟗𝟑 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
Cartesian Vectors
Rectangular Components of a Vector
𝐀 = 𝐀𝑥 + 𝐀𝑦 + 𝐀𝑧
Cartesian Vectors
Cartesian Unit Vectors
In three dimensions, the set of Cartesian unit vectors, i, j, k, is used to
designate the directions of the x, y and z axes, respectively.
Cartesian Vectors
Rectangular Components of a Vector
𝐀 = 𝐴𝑥 𝐢 + 𝐴 𝑦 𝐣 + 𝐴𝑧 𝐤
Cartesian Vectors
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

𝐴= 𝐴2𝑥 + 𝐴2𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧2


Cartesian Vectors
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
cos α = cos β = cos γ =
|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|
Cartesian Vectors
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
cos α = cos β = cos γ =
|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|
Cartesian Vectors
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
cos α = cos β = cos γ =
|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|
Cartesian Vectors
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
cos α = cos β = cos γ =
|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|
Cartesian Vectors
Unit Vectors
An easy way of obtaining these direction cosines is to form a unit vector 𝐮𝐴 in the direction of A

𝐀 𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝐮𝐴 = = 𝐢+ 𝐣+ 𝐤
|𝐴| 𝐴 𝐴 𝐴
Cartesian Vectors
Unit Vectors
cos 2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1
Problem 1
The cable attached to the eye bolt is pulled with the force ‘F’ of
magnitude 500-lb. Determine (a) the rectangular representation of this
force and (b) the force acting along the x, y and z axes
Problem 2
Referring to Figure show, determine (a) the rectangular representation
of the position vector A and (b) the angle between vector A and each of
the positive coordinate axes.
Motion Concepts
Position and Displacement

∆𝒔 = 𝒔′ − 𝒔
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Velocity

∆𝒔
𝒗𝒂𝒗𝒈 =
∆𝒕

the Instantaneous Velocity is a vector defined as:


∆𝑠
𝑣 = lim
∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡

𝒅𝒔
𝒗=
𝒅𝒕
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Velocity

Velocity can either be positive or negative.


For example, if the particle is moving to the right, the velocity is positive; whereas if it
is moving to the left, the velocity is negative.
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Average Speed and Velocity

𝑺𝑻
𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒗𝒈 =
∆𝒕

∆𝒔
𝒗𝒂𝒗𝒈 =
∆𝒕
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Acceleration

∆𝒗
𝒂𝒂𝒗𝒈 =
∆𝒕
the Instantaneous Acceleration is a vector defined as
∆𝑣
𝑎 = lim
∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡

𝒅𝒗
𝒂=
𝒅𝒕
𝒅𝟐 𝒔
𝒂= 𝟐
𝒅𝒕
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Deceleration

Acceleration can either be positive or negative.

In particular, when the particle is slowing down, or its speed


is decreasing, the particle is said to be decelerating.

Thus, acceleration is negative


Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Differential relation involving ‘s’, ‘v’ and ‘a’ along the path
Finally, an important differential relation involving the displacement,
velocity, and acceleration along the path may be obtained by eliminating
the time differential, dt between the instantaneous velocity and
instantaneous acceleration which gives:
Instantaneous Velocity:
𝒅𝒔
𝒗=
𝒅𝒕
Instantaneous Acceleration:
𝒅𝒗
𝒂=
𝒅𝒕
Derived Relationship:

𝒂 𝒅𝒔 = 𝒗 𝒅𝒗
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Velocity as a Function of Time

𝑣 𝑡
න 𝑑𝑣 = න 𝑎𝑐 𝑑𝑡
𝑣0 0

𝑣 − 𝑣0 = 𝑎𝑐 𝑡

𝒗 = 𝒗𝟎 + 𝒂 𝒄 𝒕
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Position as a Function of Time

𝑠 𝑡
න 𝑑𝑠 = න 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑠0 0

𝑡2
𝑠 − 𝑠0 = 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑐
2

𝟏
𝒔 = 𝒔𝟎 + 𝒗 𝟎 𝒕 + 𝒂 𝒄 𝒕 𝟐
𝟐
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Velocity as a Function of Position

𝑣 𝑠
න 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 = න 𝑎𝑐 𝑑𝑠
𝑣0 𝑠0

𝑣 2 − 𝑣02
= 𝑎𝑐 𝑠 − 𝑠0
2

𝒗𝟐 = 𝒗𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝒂𝒄 𝒔 − 𝒔𝟎
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion Formulas
Differential Relations
𝑑𝑠 (12-1)
𝑣=
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑣 (12-2)
𝑎=
𝑑𝑡
𝑎 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 (12-3)

Velocity as a Function of Time


𝑣 = 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 (12-4)

Position as a Function of Time


1 (12-5)
𝑠 = 𝑠0 + 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 2
2
Velocity as a Function of Position
𝑣 2 = 𝑣02 + 2𝑎𝑐 𝑠 − 𝑠0 (12-6)
Motion of a Projectile
Vertical Motion Only
𝟏 𝟐
𝒉 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒕 + 𝒈𝒕
𝟐
𝒗 = 𝒗𝟎 + 𝒈𝒕
𝒗𝟐 = 𝒗𝟎 𝟐 + 𝟐𝒈𝒉
Acceleration due to gravity: 𝒈 = 𝟗. 𝟖𝟏 𝒎Τ𝒔𝟐 = 𝟑𝟐.2 𝒇𝒕Τ𝒔𝟐
• Acceleration due to gravity, ‘g’ is positive when the object is falling or going in a
downwards direction; otherwise it is negative.
• When the object is “dropped” and the one that drops the object is not in motion,
the object will have zero initial velocity; otherwise, if the one that drops the object
is in motion, the object would have an initial velocity and direction equal to the
velocity and direction that drops it.
• Air resistance is neglected.
• Vertical velocity at the peak is zero.
Motion of a Projectile
Horizontal Motion
Displacement : 𝒙 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒙 𝒕
Velocity : 𝒗𝟎 𝒙 = 𝒗𝟎 ∗ 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝜽

Acceleration : 𝟎

Vertical Motion
𝒗𝒚 = 𝒗 𝟎 𝒚 − 𝒈𝒕

𝒗𝟎 𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 ∗ 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽
𝟏 𝟐
±𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒚 𝒕 − 𝒈𝒕
𝟐
𝒗𝟐𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 𝟐
𝒚 − 𝟐𝒈𝒚
Motion of a Projectile
General Equation of Projectile

𝒈𝒙𝟐
±𝒚 = 𝒙𝒕𝒂𝒏𝜽 −
𝟐 𝒗𝒐 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜽
• the height, ‘y’ is positive for the projectile that hits above the firing point and it is
negative when the projectile hits below the firing point.
• when ‘y’ is zero; then x = R (Max Range)
• at max height, h; the y-component velocity, (Vo)y is zero
• when Θ = 0°, then y = h (Max Height)
Motion of a Projectile
Range at an Inclined or Declined Angle

Inclined Declined

𝟐 𝒗𝒐 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜽 ∗ 𝒔𝒊𝒏(𝜽 − 𝜷) 𝟐 𝒗𝒐 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜽 ∗ 𝒔𝒊𝒏(𝜽 + 𝜷)


𝑹= 𝑹=
𝒈 ∗ 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜷 𝒈 ∗ 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜷
Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given s-t graph, find v-t graph

𝑑𝑠
𝑣=
𝑑𝑡

𝑣 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ
Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given v-t graph, find a-t graph

𝑑𝑣
𝑎=
𝑑𝑡

𝑎 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ
Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given a-t graph, find v-t graph

Δ𝑣 = න 𝑎 𝑑𝑡

∆𝑣 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑎 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ


Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given v-t graph, find s-t graph

Δ𝑠 = න 𝑣 𝑑𝑡

Δ𝑠 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑣 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ


Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given a-s graph, find v-s graph

𝑠1
1 2 2
𝑣 − 𝑣0 = න 𝑎 𝑑𝑠
2 1 𝑠0

𝑠1
න 𝑎 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑎 − 𝑠 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ
𝑠0
Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given v-s graph, find a-s graph

𝑑𝑣
𝑎=𝑣
𝑑𝑠

𝑣 ∗ 𝑎 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣 − 𝑠 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ
Problem 1
The car in starts from rest and travels along a straight track such that it
accelerates at 10 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 for 10 s, and then decelerates at 2 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 . Draw
the v-t and s-t graphs and determine the time, ‘t‘ needed to stop the car.
How far has the car travelled?
Problem 2
A bicycle moves along a straight road such that its position is described
by the graph shown. Construct the v-t and a-t graphs for 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑠.
Problem 3
A two-stage missile is fired vertically from rest with the acceleration
shown. In 15-s the first stage A burns out and the second stage B ignites.
Plot the v-t and s-t graphs which describe the two-stage motion of the
missile for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 seconds
Activity 1
The velocity of a particle is shown in the graph below. Take note that at
t=0, s=0. Draw the a-t and s-t graph of the particle
v(t), m/s

t, seconds
3 6 8

-4
General Curvilinear Motion

Curvilinear Motion
occurs
when
a particle
moves
along a
curved path.
General Curvilinear Motion
Position
Consider a particle located at a point on a space curve defined by the
path function, s(t).

The position of the particle, measured from a fixed point 0, will be


designated by the position vector: 𝐫 = 𝐫 𝑡
General Curvilinear Motion
Displacement
Suppose that during a small time interval, Δt the particle moves a
distance, Δs along the curve to a new position, defined by: 𝐫 ′ = 𝐫Ԧ + 𝚫𝐫

The displacement, 𝚫𝐫 represents the change in the particle's position


and is determined by vector subtraction; 𝚫𝐫 = 𝐫 ′ − 𝐫Ԧ
General Curvilinear Motion
Velocity
Since 𝚫𝐫 will be tangent to the curve, the direction of the velocity, 𝐯 is
also tangent to the curve. The magnitude of |v|, which is called the
speed, is obtained by realizing that the length of the straight line
segment 𝚫𝐫 in approaches the arc length, Δs as 𝛥𝑡 → 0,

𝑑𝒔
𝑣=
𝑑𝒕
General Curvilinear Motion
Acceleration

The Average Acceleration, aavg of the particle during the time interval,
𝚫𝐭 is:
∆𝑣
𝒂𝑎𝑣𝑔 =
∆𝑡
General Curvilinear Motion
Acceleration

A Hodograph
describes the locus of points for the arrowhead of the velocity vector in the same
manner as the path, ‘s’ describes the locus of points for the arrowhead of the position
vector
The Instantaneous Acceleration, a as 𝚫𝐭 → 0
𝑑𝐯
𝐚=
𝑑𝒕
𝑑2 𝐫
𝐚= 2
𝑑𝒕
General Curvilinear Motion
Acceleration

Thus by definition of the derivative, Acceleration, ′𝐚′ acts tangent to the


hodograph; and in general it is not tangent to the path of motion.
Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Position

𝐫 = 𝑥𝐢 + 𝑦𝐣 + 𝑧𝐤

Magnitude of ′𝐫′: Direction of ′𝐫′:


𝐫
𝑟= 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 + 𝑧2 𝐮𝑟 =
𝑟
Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Velocity

𝑑𝐫
𝐯= = 𝑣𝑥 𝐢 + 𝑣𝑦 𝐣 + 𝑣𝑧 𝐤
𝑑𝑡
Magnitude of ′𝐯′: Direction of ′𝐯′:
𝐯
𝑣= 𝑣𝑥2 + 𝑣𝑦2 + 𝑣𝑧2 𝐮𝑣 =
𝑣
Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Velocity

𝑣𝑥 = 𝑥ሶ
𝑣𝑦 = 𝑦ሶ
𝑣𝑧 = 𝑧ሶ
Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Acceleration

𝑑𝐯
𝐚= = 𝑎𝑥 𝐢 + 𝑎𝑦 𝐣 + 𝑎𝑧 𝐤
𝑑𝑡
Magnitude of ′𝐚′: Direction of ′𝐚′:
𝐚
𝑎= 𝑎𝑥2 + 𝑎𝑦2 + 𝑎𝑧2 𝐮𝑎 =
𝑎
Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Acceleration

𝑎𝑥 = 𝑣𝑥ሶ = 𝑥ሷ
𝑎𝑦 = 𝑣𝑦ሶ = 𝑦ሷ
𝑎𝑧 = 𝑣𝑧ሶ = 𝑧ሷ
Problem 1
At any instant, the horizontal position of the weather balloon in the
figure below is defined by x = (8t) ft, where ‘t’ is time in seconds. If the
equation of the path is y = x2/10, determine the magnitude and
direction of the velocity and the acceleration when t = 2s.
Problem 2
The path of the plane is described by 𝑦 = (0.001𝑥 2 ) 𝑚. If the plane is
rising with a constant velocity of 10 𝑚/𝑠, determine the magnitudes of
the velocity and acceleration of the plane when it is 100-m above the
ground.

Answer:
m
Velocity: |v| = 18.7083
s
Acceleration: |a| = 0.7906 m/s 2
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Planar Motion

When the path along which a particle travels is ‘known’, then it is often
convenient to describe the motion using ‘n’ and ‘t’ coordinate axes
which act normal and tangent to the path, respectively and having a
fixed origin that is coincident with the particle at the instant considered
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Planar Motion

Consider the particle shown in the figure, which moves in a plane along a fixed curve,
such that at a given instant it is at position, s, measured from point, O

Each segment, ds is formed from the arc of an associated circle having a radius of
curvature, p (rho) and center of curvature, O’
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Velocity

Since the particle moves, ‘s’ is a function of time. The particle's velocity, v has a
direction that is always tangent to the path, and a magnitude that is determined by
taking the time derivative of the path function, s = s(t) i.e., v = ds/dt. Hence:

𝐯 = 𝑣𝐮𝑡
𝑣 = 𝑠ሶ
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Acceleration

The acceleration of the particle is the time rate of change of the velocity. Thus

𝐚 = 𝐯ሶ = 𝑣𝐮
ሶ 𝑡 + 𝑣 𝐮𝑡ሶ
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Acceleration, ′𝐚′ can be written as the sum of its two components
𝐚 = 𝑎 𝑡 𝐮 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑛 𝐮 𝑛

Where:
𝑑𝐯
𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣ሶ =
𝑑𝑡
or
𝑎𝑡 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑣𝑑𝑣
and

𝑣2
𝑎𝑛 =
𝜌

The magnitude of acceleration

𝑎= 𝑎𝑡2 + 𝑎𝑛2
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Acceleration

To better understand, consider the following two special cases of motion.

1. If the particle moves along a straight line, then 𝜌 → ∞ and 𝑎𝑛 = 0 .


Thus 𝑎 = 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣,ሶ and we can conclude that the tangential component of acceleration
represents the time rate of change in the magnitude of the velocity.

2. If the particle moves along a curve with a constant speed, then 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣ሶ = 0 and
𝑎 = 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑣 2 /𝜌. Therefore, the normal component of acceleration represents the time rate
of change in the direction of velocity. Since 𝐚𝑛 always acts towards the center of curvature,
this component is sometimes referred to as the centripetal (or center seeking) acceleration.
Problem 3
A race car, ‘C’ starts from rest and travels around the horizontal circular
track that has a radius of 300 𝑓𝑡. If the car increases its speed at a
constant rate of 7 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 2 , starting from rest, determine the time needed
for it to reach an acceleration of 8 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 2 . What is its speed at this
instant?

Answer:
Acceleration: 𝑡 = 4.87 𝑠
Velocity: 𝑣 = 34.1 𝑓𝑡/𝑠
Problem 4
The boxes travel along the industrial conveyor. If a box starts from rest at
‘A’ and increases its speed such that 𝑎𝑡 = (0.2𝑡) 𝑚/𝑠 2 , where ‘t’ is in
seconds, determine the magnitude of its acceleration when it arrives at
point ‘B’.

Answer:
Acceleration: 𝑎𝐵 = 5.36 𝑚/𝑠 2
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Equation of Motion
When a particle moves along a curved path which is known, the
equation of motion for the particle may be written in the tangential,
normal, and binormal directions

Note that there is NO motion of the particle in the binormal direction,


since the particle is constrained to move along the path.
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Equation of Motion
Recall that Tangential Acceleration, at (= dv/dt) represents the time rate
of change in the magnitude of velocity. So if ΣFt acts in the direction of
motion, the particle's speed will increase, whereas if it acts in the
opposite direction, the particle will slow down.

Likewise, Normal Acceleration, an (= v2 /ρ) represents the time rate of


change in the velocity's direction. It is caused by ΣFn, which always acts
in the positive ‘n’ direction, i.e., toward the path's center of curvature.
From this reason it is often referred to as the centripetal force.
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Banking of Curve
Case 1: Circular path on a Flat Horizontal Road
• When a vehicle is moving in an arc, there is a centripetal acceleration and thus
force directed towards the center of the circle.
• The force causing the centripetal acceleration is the “sideways” friction force on
the vehicle by the road.
• Without that force, the vehicle will tend to continue in a straight line rather
than turning the corner
• There is a limit to the frictional force provided by the road thus limiting the
cornering speed of an arc given radius.

෍ 𝐹𝑥 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛
𝑣2
𝐹𝑓𝑟 = 𝑚 ∗
𝑟
𝑣2
𝜇𝑠 ∗ 𝑁 = 𝑚 ∗
𝑟
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Banking of Curve
Case 2: Banked Curved without Friction (Ideal Velocity)
• This expression can be understood by considering how
the banking angle, θ depends on the ideal velocity, v of
the vehicle and the radius of curvature, r of the path.

෍ 𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛 ෍ 𝐹𝑏 = 0

𝒗𝟐
𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗ 𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 = 𝟎
𝒓
Taking Eq.1/Eq.2 we have:

𝑁 sin 𝜃 𝑚𝑣 2
=
𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑚𝑔𝑟
𝒗𝟐
𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝜽 =
𝒈𝒓
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Banking of Curve
Case 2A: Banked Curved with Friction (Actual Velocity > Ideal Velocity)
• The centripetal force, N*sinΘ will not be enough thus
friction will now be a factor and will act at a downward
direction in the incline.

෍ 𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛
(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐
𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 + 𝒇 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗
𝒓
(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐
𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 + 𝝁𝒔 𝑵 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗
𝒓

෍ 𝐹𝑏 = 0
𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 − 𝒇 sin 𝜽 = 𝟎
Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components
Banking of Curve
Case 2B: Banked Curved with Friction (Actual Velocity < Ideal Velocity)
• The centripetal force, N*sinΘ will not be enough thus
friction will now be a factor and will act at an upward
direction in the incline.

෍ 𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛
(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐
𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 − 𝒇 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗
𝒓
(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐
𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 − 𝝁𝒔 𝑵 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗
𝒓

෍ 𝐹𝑏 = 0
𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 + 𝒇 sin 𝜽 = 𝟎
Problem 5
Curves on some test tracks and race courses, such as the Daytona
International Speedway in Florida, are very steeply banked. This
banking, with the aid of tire friction and very stable car configurations,
allows the curves to be taken at very high speed. To illustrate, calculate
the speed (in km/hr) at which a 100-m radius curve banked at 65.0°
should be driven if the road is frictionless.

Calculate the allowable velocity if the track was not banked with the
standard coefficient of static friction for dry asphalt is 0.9 and an
average weight for a Formula-One race car with its driver is 740-kg.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣 = 165.12 𝑘𝑚/ℎ𝑟
Velocity: 𝑣 = 106.97 𝑘𝑚/ℎ𝑟
Problem 6
The sports car, having a mass of 1,700 kg travels horizontally along a 20°
banked track which is circular and has a radius of curvature of 100-m. If
the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is 0.2,
determine (a) the maximum constant speed at which the car can travel
without sliding up and (b) the minimum constant speed at which the car
can travel without sliding down the slope.

Answer:
(a) Velocity: 𝑣 = 24.4272 𝑚/𝑠
(b) Velocity: 𝑣 = 12.245 𝑚/𝑠
Problem 7
The device shown is used to produce the experience of weightlessness
in a passenger when he reaches point A, ϴ=90°, along the path. If the
passenger has a mass of 75-kg, determine the minimum speed he
should have when he reaches ‘A’ so that he will experience the feeling of
weightlessness. The chair is pin-connected to the frame ‘BC’ so that he
is always seated in an upright position. During the motion his speed
remains constant.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣 = 9.9045 𝑚/𝑠
Problem 8
The 2-kg block ‘B’ and 15-kg cylinder ‘A’ are connected to a light cord
that passes through a hole in the center of the smooth table. If the block
travels along a circular path of radius r = 1.5 m, determine the speed of
the block.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣 = 10.5054 𝑚/𝑠
Activity 2

1. A particle is traveling along the parabolic path


y = 0.25x2. If x=(2t2) m, where ‘t’ is in seconds,
determine the magnitude of the particle's
velocity and acceleration when t=2s.

2. A particle is constrained to travel along the


path. If x=(4t4) m, where ‘t’ is in seconds,
determine the magnitude of the particle's
velocity and acceleration when t=0.5s

3. The boat is traveling along the circular path


with a speed of v=(0.0625t2) m/s, where t is in
seconds. Determine the magnitude of its
acceleration when t=10s.
Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

When the motion


of one particle depends
on the corresponding
motion of another particle.

This dependency
commonly occurs
if the particles
are interconnected
by inextensible cords
which are wrapped
around pulleys
Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

For this set-up: If the movement of block ‘A’ is downward along the inclined
plane it will cause a corresponding movement of block ‘B’ up the other
incline.

Note that each of the coordinate axes is: (1) measured from a fixed point, ‘O’
or fixed datum line, (2) measured along each inclined plane in the direction
of motion of each block, and (3) has a positive sense from C to A and D to B

If the total cord length is 𝑙 𝑇 , the two position coordinates are related by the
equation:

𝒔𝑨 + 𝒍𝑪𝑫 + 𝒔𝑩 = 𝒍𝑻
Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

Here 𝑙𝐶𝐷 is the length of the cord passing over arc, ‘CD’.
Taking the time derivative of this expression, realizing that 𝑙𝐶𝐷 and 𝑙 𝑇 remain
constant, while 𝑠𝐴 and 𝑠𝐵 measure the segments of the cord
that change in length.
We have:
𝒅𝒔𝑨 𝒅𝒔𝑩
+ = 𝟎 𝐨𝐫 𝒗𝑩 = −𝒗𝑨
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕
In a similar manner:
𝒂𝑩 = −𝒂𝑨
Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles
For this set-up: The position of block ‘A’ is
specified by SA, and the position of the end of
the cord from which block B is suspended is
defined by SB

Note that the chosen position of coordinate


axes: (1) have their origin at fixed points or
datums, (2) are measured in the direction of
motion of each block, and (3) are positive to
the right for SA and positive downward for SB.
The two position coordinates are related by
the equation:
𝟐𝒔𝑩 + 𝒉 + 𝒔𝑨 = 𝒍𝑻

Taking the time derivative of this expression,


we have:
𝒅𝒔𝑩 𝒅𝒔𝑨
𝟐 =− 𝒐𝒓 𝟐𝒗𝑩 = −𝒗𝑨
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕
In a similar manner:
𝟐𝒂𝑩 = −𝒂𝑨
Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles
The same set-up can also be worked by
defining the position of block ‘B’ from the
center of the bottom pulley (a fixed point), In
this case:

The two position coordinates are related by


the equation:
𝟐 𝒉 − 𝒔𝑩 + 𝒉 + 𝒔𝑨 = 𝒍𝑻

Taking the time derivative of this expression,


we have:
𝒅𝒔𝑩 𝒅𝒔𝑨
𝟐 = 𝒐𝒓 𝟐𝒗𝑩 = 𝒗𝑨
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕
In a similar manner:
𝟐𝒂𝑩 = 𝒂𝑨

Here the signs are the same. Why?


Problem 1
Determine the speed of block A if block B has an upward speed of 6 ft/s.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣𝐴 = 18 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 ↓
Problem 2
Determine the speed of A if B has an upward speed of 6 ft/s.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣𝐴 = 24 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 ↓
Problem 3
Determine the speed of block B if the end of the cord at A is pulled down with a speed
of 2 m/s.

Answer:
Velocity: 𝑣𝐵 = 0.5 𝑚/𝑠 ↑
Seatwork
1. Determine the speed of block ‘D’ if end ‘A’ of the rope is pulled
down with a speed of 3m/s.
Seatwork
2. Determine the speed of block ‘A’ if end B of the rope is pulled down
with a speed of 6 m/s.
Seatwork
3. Determine the speed of block ‘A’ if end B of the rope is pulled down
with a speed of 1.5 m/s
Rotation about a Fixed Axis

When a body
rotates about
a fixed
axis, any point
where in the body travels
moves along
a circular path.
Rotation about a Fixed Axis
Angular Position, ϴ
 At the instant shown, the angular position of ‘r’ is
defined by the angle ϴ, measured from a fixed
reference line to ‘r’.

Angular Displacement, dϴ
 The change in the angular position, which can be
measured as a differential dϴ
 This vector has a magnitude of dϴ, measured in
degrees, radians, or revolutions, where 1 rev = 2π rad.
 Since motion is about a fixed axis, the direction of dϴ
is always along this axis. Specifically, the direction is
determined by the right-hand rule.

Angular Velocity, ω
 The time rate of change in the angular position.
 This vector has a magnitude which is often measured
in rad/s.
𝑑𝜃 1
𝜔= 𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑓 T=
𝑑𝑡 𝑓
Rotation about a Fixed Axis
Angular Acceleration, α
 measures the time rate of change of the angular
velocity.
𝑑𝜔
𝛼=
𝑑𝑡
𝑑2𝜃
𝛼=
𝑑𝑡

Differential relation between the Angular acceleration,


Angular velocity, and Angular displacement:

𝛼𝑑𝜃 = 𝜔𝑑𝜔
Rotation about a Fixed Axis
Constant Angular Acceleration
 If the angular acceleration of the body is constant,
α=αc, then these equations, when integrated, yield a
set of formulas which relate the body's angular
velocity, angular position, and time. These equations
are similar to equations used for rectilinear motion.
Relationship of Angular and Linear Motion
Motion of Point, ‘P’
 As the rigid body in the figure rotates, point ‘P’ travels
along a circular path of radius, r with center at point O.
This path is contained within the shaded plane shown
in top view

Position and Displacement of Point, ‘P’


 The position of ‘P’ is defined by the position vector ‘r’,
which extends from ‘O’ to ‘P’. If the body rotates dϴ
then ‘P’ will displace ds = rdϴ
∆𝑠 = 𝑟 ∗ ∆𝜃
Velocity of Point, ‘P’
 The velocity of P has a magnitude which can be found
by dividing ds = rdϴ by ‘dt’ so that
𝑣 = 𝜔𝑟
Relationship of Angular and Linear Motion
Acceleration of Point, ‘P’
 The acceleration of ‘P’ can be expressed in terms of its normal and tangential
components.

𝑎𝑡 = 𝛼 ∗ 𝑟 𝑎 2 = 𝛼𝑛 2 ∗ 𝛼 𝑡 2 𝑎𝑛 = 𝜔 2 ∗ 𝑟
Problem 1
Load ‘B’ is connected to a double pulley by one of the two inextensible
cables shown. The motion of the pulley is controlled by cable ‘C’, which
has a constant acceleration of 9in/s2 and an initial velocity of 12in/s,
both directed to the right. Determine (a) the number of revolutions
executed by the smaller pulley in 2-seconds, (b) the velocity and change
in position of the load ‘B’ after 2-seconds, and (c) the acceleration of
point ‘D’ on the rim of the inner pulley at t=0
Problem 2
A cylinder of radius 12-cm starts from rest and rotates about its axis
with a constant angular acceleration of 5.0rad/s2. At t = 3.0-sec, what is
its (a) angular velocity, (b) linear speed of the point on the rim and (c)
radial and tangential components of acceleration of a point on the rim.
Problem 3
A record player is spinning at 33.3 rpm. (a) How far does it turn in 2-sec?
(b) When the motor is shut off, the record player spins down for 20-sec
before coming to rest. What is the angular acceleration assuming that it
is constant? How many turn does it make during this coast down?
Problem 4
The motion of a cam is defined by the relation ϴ = t3 - 9t2 + 15t where ϴ
is expressed in radians and ‘t’ in seconds. Determine the angular
position, the angular velocity, and the angular acceleration of the cam
when (a) t = 0s, (b) t = 3s.
Problem 5
The motion of an oscillating crank is defined by the relation
ϴ=6sin(πt/4)-3sin (πt/2) where ‘ϴ’ is expressed in radians and ‘t’ in
seconds. Determine the angular displacement, the angular velocity,
and the angular acceleration of the crank when (a) t=0-s, (b) t=2-s
Problem 6
The angular acceleration of a shaft is defined by the relation α= -0.25ω,
where ‘α’ is expressed in rad/s2 and ω in rad/s. Knowing that at t=0 the
angular velocity of the shaft is 20 rad/s, determine (a) the number of
revolutions the shaft will execute before coming to rest, (b) the time
required for the shaft to come to rest, (c) the time required for the
angular velocity of the shaft to be reduced to 1 percent of its initial
value.
Problem 7
When studying whiplash resulting from rear end collisions, the rotation
of the head is of primary interest. An impact test was performed, and it
was found that the angular acceleration of the head is defined by the
relation α=700cos(θ) + 70sin(θ) where ‘α’ is expressed in rad/s2 and ‘θ’
in radians. Knowing that the head is initially at rest, determine the
angular velocity of the head when θ = 30°
Simple Pendulum

A
simple pendulum
is defined to
have a point mass,
which is suspended
from a string of
with
negligible mass
Simple Pendulum
• A simple pendulum is defined
to have a point mass, also
known as the pendulum bob,
which is suspended from a
string of length ’L’ with
negligible.

• The only forces acting on the


bob are the force of gravity
acting through the weight of
the bob and tension from the
string.

• The mass of the string is


assumed to be negligible as
compared to the mass of the
bob.
Simple Pendulum
Angular Frequency, ω

𝑔
𝜔=
𝐿
Where: g - acceleration due to gravity
L - length of the cord

Period, T

𝐿
𝑇 = 2𝜋
𝑔
Where: g - acceleration due to gravity
L - length of the cord
Problem 1
What is the acceleration due to gravity in a region where a simple
pendulum having a length 75-cm has a period of 1.7357-s?