00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

16 Ansichten128 SeitenEngineering Mechanics from Kevin Lester Lobo

Oct 09, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Engineering Mechanics from Kevin Lester Lobo

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

16 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

Engineering Mechanics from Kevin Lester Lobo

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 128

MECHANICS

Mechanics

Mechanics

is a branch of

the physical sciences

that is concerned with

the state of rest or motion of bodies

that are subjected to

the action of forces.

Mechanics

Statics

of Rigid-bodies

Dynamics • Kinematics

of Rigid-bodies • Kinetics

Engineering

Mechanics Mechanics

of Deformable-bodies

Fluid Mechanics

Fundamental Concepts

Basic Quantities

Length

Is used to locate the position of a point in space and thereby describe the size of a physical

system. Once a standard unit of length is defined, one can then use it to define distances and

geometric properties of a body as multiples of this unit.

Time

Is conceived as a succession of events. Although the principles of statics are time independent,

this quantity plays an important role in the study of dynamics.

Mass

Is a measure of a quantity of matter that is used to compare the action of one body with that of

another. This property manifests itself as a gravitational attraction between two bodies and

provides a measure of the resistance of matter to a change in velocity.

Force

In general, it is considered as the “push” or “pull” exerted by one body on another. This

interaction can occur when there is direct contact between the bodies, such as a person pushing

on a wall, or it can occur through a distance when the bodies are physically separated. Examples

of the latter type include gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces. In any case, a force is

completely characterized by its magnitude, direction, and point of application.

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

Conversion of Units

1 𝑓𝑡 = 12 𝑖𝑛 1 𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 2,000 𝑙𝑏𝑚 1 𝑁 = 100,000 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑒

1 𝑦𝑎𝑟𝑑 = 3 𝑓𝑡 1 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒 = 1,000 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑘𝑖𝑝 = 1,000 𝑙𝑏

1 𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = 660 𝑓𝑡

1 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 5,280 𝑓𝑡

1 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 1,609.344 𝑚

1 𝑛𝑎𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 1,852 𝑚

The International System of Units

Prefixes

The International System of Units

Rules for Use

• Quantities defined by several units which are multiples of one another are separated by a

dot to avoid confusion with prefix notation, as indicated by 𝑁 = 𝑘𝑔 · 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 .

Also, 𝑚 · 𝑠 (meter-second), whereas 𝑚𝑠 (milli-second).

• The exponential power on a unit having a prefix refers to both the unit and its prefix.

For example, μ𝑁 2 = μ𝑁 2 = μ𝑁 · μ𝑁. Likewise, 𝑚𝑚2 represents 𝑚𝑚 2 = 𝑚𝑚 · 𝑚𝑚.

• With the exception of the base unit the kilogram, in general avoid the use of a prefix in the

denominator of composite units.

For example, do not write 𝑁Τ𝑚𝑚, but rather 𝑘𝑁Τ𝑚;

also, 𝑚Τ𝑚𝑔 should be written as 𝑀𝑚Τ𝑘𝑔.

• When performing calculations, represent the numbers in terms of their base or derived

units by converting all prefixes to powers of 10. The final result should then be expressed

using a single prefix. Also, after calculation, it is best to keep numerical values between 0.1

and 1000; otherwise, a suitable prefix should be chosen.

For example,

50 𝑘𝑁 60 𝑛𝑚 = 50 103 𝑁 60 10−9 𝑚

= 3000 10−6 𝑁 · 𝑚 = 3 10−3 𝑁 · 𝑚

= 3 𝑚𝑁 · 𝑚

Numerical Calculations

Dimensional Homogeneity

Each term must be expressed in the same units.

Example:

1

𝑆 = 𝑉0 𝑡 + 𝑎 𝑡2

2

𝐿 1 𝐿

𝐿 = 𝑇 + 2 𝑇2

𝑇 2 𝑇

Significant Figures

The number of significant figures contained in any number determines the accuracy of the

number.

As a general rule,

any numerical figure

ending in five or greater is rounded up

and a number less than five is rounded down.

Calculations

Do not round off calculations until expressing the final result.

This procedure maintains precision throughout the series of steps to the final solution.

General Procedure for Analysis

The most effective way of learning the principles of engineering mechanics

is to solve problems.

To be successful at this,

it is important to always present the work

in a logical and orderly manner,

as suggested by the following sequence of steps:

• Read the problem carefully and try to correlate the actual physical situation with

the theory studied.

• Apply the relevant principles, generally in mathematical form. When writing any

equations, be sure they are dimensionally homogeneous.

• Solve the necessary equations, and report the answer with no more than four

significant figures.

• Study the answer with technical judgment and common sense to determine

whether or not it seems reasonable.

Example 1.1

SOLUTION

(a) Since 1 𝑘𝑚 = 1000 𝑚 and 1 ℎ = 3600 𝑠, the factors of conversion are arranged in

the following order, so that a cancellation of the units can be applied:

2 𝑘𝑚 1000 𝑚 1ℎ

2 𝑘𝑚Τℎ =

ℎ 𝑘𝑚 3600 𝑠

2000 𝑚

=

3600 𝑠

= 𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟔 𝒎Τ𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

0.556 𝑚 1 𝑓𝑡

0.556 𝑚Τ𝑠 =

𝑠 0.3048 𝑚

= 𝟏. 𝟖𝟐 𝒇𝒕Τ𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 1.2

units.

SOLUTION

Recall, 1 𝑙𝑏 = 4.448 𝑁

4.448 𝑁

300 𝑙𝑏 · 𝑠 = 300 𝑙𝑏 · 𝑠

𝑙𝑏

= 1334.5 𝑁 · 𝑠

= 𝟏. 𝟑𝟑 𝒌𝑵 · 𝒔 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

3

3

52 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 14.59 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑓𝑡

Τ

52 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 =

𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 0.3048 𝑚

= 26,800 𝑘𝑔Τ𝑚3

= 𝟐𝟔. 𝟖 𝑴𝒈Τ𝒎𝟑 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 1.3

appropriate prefix: a 50 𝑚𝑁 ∗ 6 𝐺𝑁 , b 400 𝑚𝑚 ∗ 0.6 𝑀𝑁 2 ,

c 45𝑀𝑁 3 Τ900𝐺𝑔.

SOLUTION

𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒂

50 𝑚𝑁 6 𝐺𝑁 = 50 ∗ 10−3 𝑁 6 ∗ 109 𝑁

= 300 ∗ 106 𝑁 2

2

6 2

1 𝑘𝑁

= 300 ∗ 10 𝑁 ∗

103 𝑁

= 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒌𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 1.3

SOLUTION

𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒃

= 400 ∗ 10−3 𝑚 0.36 ∗ 1012 𝑁 2

= 144 ∗ 109 𝑚 · 𝑁 2

= 𝟏𝟒𝟒 𝑮𝒎 · 𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

We can also write

2

1 𝑀𝑁

144 109 𝑚 · 𝑁 2 = 9

144 ∗ 10 𝑚 · 𝑁 ∗2

106 𝑁

= 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟒 𝒎 · 𝑴𝑵𝟐 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 1.3

SOLUTION

𝑷𝒂𝒓𝒕 𝒄

45 𝑀𝑁 3 45 106 𝑁 3

=

900 𝐺𝑔 900 106 𝑘𝑔

= 50 109 𝑁 3 Τ𝑘𝑔

3

1 𝑘𝑁 1

= 50 109 𝑁 3

103 𝑁 𝑘𝑔

= 𝟓𝟎 𝒌𝑵𝟑 Τ𝒌𝒈 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Scalars and Vectors

Scalar

A scalar

is any positive or negative

physical quantity

that can be completely specified

by its magnitude.

length,

mass,

time,

temperature.

Scalars and Vectors

Vector

A vector

is any physical quantity

that requires both a magnitude and a direction

for its complete description.

force,

position,

velocity,

moment.

Scalars and Vectors

Vector

The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector, and

the angle between the vector and a fixed axis defines the direction of its

line of action.

The head or tip of the arrow indicates the sense of direction of the

vector.

and the magnitude of the vector is italicized, 𝐴.

For handwritten work, it is often convenient to denote a vector quantity

by simply drawing an arrow on top of it, 𝐴Ԧ

Resultant of Vector

Parallelogram Law

• Two “component” forces 𝐅1 and 𝐅2 add

according to the parallelogram law, yielding

a resultant force 𝐅𝑅 that forms the diagonal

of the parallelogram.

components along two axes 𝑢 and 𝑣, then

start at the head of force 𝐅 and construct

lines parallel to the axes, thereby forming

the parallelogram. The sides of the

parallelogram represent the components,

𝐅𝑢 and 𝐅𝑣 .

magnitudes and the angles on the sketch

and identify the two unknowns as the

magnitude and direction of 𝐅𝑅 , or the

magnitudes of its components.

Resultant of Vector

Trigonometry

parallelogram to illustrate the

triangular head-to-tail addition

of the components.

magnitude of the resultant force

can be determined using

the Law of cosines, and its

direction is determined from the

Law of sines. The magnitudes of

the other two force components

are determined from the Law of

sines.

Resultant of Multiple Vector

Component Method

If more than two forces are to be added,

successive applications of the parallelogram law can be carried out

in order to obtain the resultant force.

the resultant of any two of the forces is found, say, 𝐅1 + 𝐅2

—and then this resultant is added to the third force,

yielding the resultant of all three forces; i.e., 𝐅𝑅 = 𝐅1 + 𝐅2 + 𝐅3 .

--OR--

Resultant of Multiple Vector

Component Method

If more than two forces are to be added,

successive applications of the parallelogram law can be carried out

in order to obtain the resultant force.

Problems of this type are easily solved by using the “Rectangular Component

Method”.

𝟐

𝐅𝑹 = 𝚺𝑭𝒙 𝟐 + 𝚺𝑭𝒚

Example 1

The screw eye is subjected to two forces, 𝐅1 and 𝐅2 .

Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force.

Example 1

SOLUTION:

Apply Parallelogram Law:

The parallelogram is formed by drawing a line from the head of 𝐅1 that is parallel to 𝐅2 , and

another line from the head of 𝐅2 that is parallel to 𝐅1 . The resultant force 𝐅𝑅 extends to where

these lines intersect at point A.

The two unknowns are the magnitude of 𝐅𝑅 and the angle θ (theta).

Example 1

SOLUTION:

Then apply Trigonometry:

Using the law of cosines

𝐹𝑅 = 100 𝑁 2 + 150 𝑁 2 − 2 100 𝑁 150 𝑁 cos 115°

= 10,000 𝑁 2 + 22,500 𝑁 2 − 30,000 𝑁 2 −0.4226

𝐹𝑅 = 𝟐𝟏𝟑 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 1

SOLUTION:

Applying the law of sine to determine θ,

150 𝑁 212.6 𝑁 150 𝑁

= sin θ = sin 115°

sin θ sin 115° 212.6 𝑁

𝜽 = 𝟑𝟗. 𝟖° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

𝝋 = 39.8° + 15.0° = 𝟓𝟒. 𝟖° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Example 2

Resolve the horizontal 600-lb force into components

acting along the 𝑢 and 𝑣 axes

and determine the magnitudes of these components.

Example 2

SOLUTION:

The vector addition using the triangle rule is shown.

The two unknowns are the magnitudes of 𝐹𝑢 and 𝐹𝑣 .

Applying the law of sine,

𝐹𝑢 600 𝑙𝑏

=

sin 120° sin 30°

𝐹𝑢 = 1,039 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

𝐹𝑣 600 𝑙𝑏

=

sin 30° sin 30°

𝐹𝑣 = 600 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

Example 3

Determine the magnitude of the component force 𝐅 in and the

magnitude of the resultant force, 𝐅𝑅 if it is directed along the

positive y-axis.

SOLUTION

• The parallelogram law of addition.

• The triangle rule.

be determined by applying the law of sine.

𝐹 200 𝑙𝑏

=

sin 60° sin 45°

𝐹 = 245 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

𝐹𝑅 200 𝑙𝑏

=

sin 75° sin 45°

𝐹𝑅 = 273 𝑙𝑏 𝐴𝑛𝑠.

Example 5

It is required that the resultant force acting on the eyebolt

be directed along the positive x axis

and that 𝐅2 have a minimum magnitude.

and the corresponding resultant force.

SOLUTION

The triangle rule for is shown.

specified, then 𝐅2 can actually be any vector that has its

head touching the line of action of 𝐅𝑅 . However, as

shown, the magnitude of 𝐅2 is a minimum or the shortest

length when its line of action is perpendicular to the line

of action of 𝐅𝑅 , that is, when

𝜽 = 𝟗𝟎° 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

unknown magnitudes can be obtained by trigonometry.

𝐹𝑅 = 800 𝑁 cos 60° = 𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

𝐹2 = 800 𝑁 sin 60° = 𝟔𝟗𝟑 𝑵 𝑨𝒏𝒔.

Cartesian Vectors

Rectangular Components of a Vector

𝐀 = 𝐀𝑥 + 𝐀𝑦 + 𝐀𝑧

Cartesian Vectors

Cartesian Unit Vectors

In three dimensions, the set of Cartesian unit vectors, i, j, k, is used to

designate the directions of the x, y and z axes, respectively.

Cartesian Vectors

Rectangular Components of a Vector

𝐀 = 𝐴𝑥 𝐢 + 𝐴 𝑦 𝐣 + 𝐴𝑧 𝐤

Cartesian Vectors

Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

Cartesian Vectors

Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

cos α = cos β = cos γ =

|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|

Cartesian Vectors

Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

cos α = cos β = cos γ =

|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|

Cartesian Vectors

Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

cos α = cos β = cos γ =

|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|

Cartesian Vectors

Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector

𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

cos α = cos β = cos γ =

|𝐴| |𝐴| |𝐴|

Cartesian Vectors

Unit Vectors

An easy way of obtaining these direction cosines is to form a unit vector 𝐮𝐴 in the direction of A

𝐀 𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

𝐮𝐴 = = 𝐢+ 𝐣+ 𝐤

|𝐴| 𝐴 𝐴 𝐴

Cartesian Vectors

Unit Vectors

cos 2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1

Problem 1

The cable attached to the eye bolt is pulled with the force ‘F’ of

magnitude 500-lb. Determine (a) the rectangular representation of this

force and (b) the force acting along the x, y and z axes

Problem 2

Referring to Figure show, determine (a) the rectangular representation

of the position vector A and (b) the angle between vector A and each of

the positive coordinate axes.

Motion Concepts

Position and Displacement

∆𝒔 = 𝒔′ − 𝒔

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Velocity

∆𝒔

𝒗𝒂𝒗𝒈 =

∆𝒕

∆𝑠

𝑣 = lim

∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡

𝒅𝒔

𝒗=

𝒅𝒕

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Velocity

For example, if the particle is moving to the right, the velocity is positive; whereas if it

is moving to the left, the velocity is negative.

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Average Speed and Velocity

𝑺𝑻

𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒗𝒈 =

∆𝒕

∆𝒔

𝒗𝒂𝒗𝒈 =

∆𝒕

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Acceleration

∆𝒗

𝒂𝒂𝒗𝒈 =

∆𝒕

the Instantaneous Acceleration is a vector defined as

∆𝑣

𝑎 = lim

∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡

𝒅𝒗

𝒂=

𝒅𝒕

𝒅𝟐 𝒔

𝒂= 𝟐

𝒅𝒕

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Deceleration

is decreasing, the particle is said to be decelerating.

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Differential relation involving ‘s’, ‘v’ and ‘a’ along the path

Finally, an important differential relation involving the displacement,

velocity, and acceleration along the path may be obtained by eliminating

the time differential, dt between the instantaneous velocity and

instantaneous acceleration which gives:

Instantaneous Velocity:

𝒅𝒔

𝒗=

𝒅𝒕

Instantaneous Acceleration:

𝒅𝒗

𝒂=

𝒅𝒕

Derived Relationship:

𝒂 𝒅𝒔 = 𝒗 𝒅𝒗

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Velocity as a Function of Time

𝑣 𝑡

න 𝑑𝑣 = න 𝑎𝑐 𝑑𝑡

𝑣0 0

𝑣 − 𝑣0 = 𝑎𝑐 𝑡

𝒗 = 𝒗𝟎 + 𝒂 𝒄 𝒕

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Position as a Function of Time

𝑠 𝑡

න 𝑑𝑠 = න 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑠0 0

𝑡2

𝑠 − 𝑠0 = 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑐

2

𝟏

𝒔 = 𝒔𝟎 + 𝒗 𝟎 𝒕 + 𝒂 𝒄 𝒕 𝟐

𝟐

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Velocity as a Function of Position

𝑣 𝑠

න 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 = න 𝑎𝑐 𝑑𝑠

𝑣0 𝑠0

𝑣 2 − 𝑣02

= 𝑎𝑐 𝑠 − 𝑠0

2

𝒗𝟐 = 𝒗𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝒂𝒄 𝒔 − 𝒔𝟎

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion Formulas

Differential Relations

𝑑𝑠 (12-1)

𝑣=

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑣 (12-2)

𝑎=

𝑑𝑡

𝑎 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 (12-3)

𝑣 = 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 (12-4)

1 (12-5)

𝑠 = 𝑠0 + 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑡 2

2

Velocity as a Function of Position

𝑣 2 = 𝑣02 + 2𝑎𝑐 𝑠 − 𝑠0 (12-6)

Motion of a Projectile

Vertical Motion Only

𝟏 𝟐

𝒉 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒕 + 𝒈𝒕

𝟐

𝒗 = 𝒗𝟎 + 𝒈𝒕

𝒗𝟐 = 𝒗𝟎 𝟐 + 𝟐𝒈𝒉

Acceleration due to gravity: 𝒈 = 𝟗. 𝟖𝟏 𝒎Τ𝒔𝟐 = 𝟑𝟐.2 𝒇𝒕Τ𝒔𝟐

• Acceleration due to gravity, ‘g’ is positive when the object is falling or going in a

downwards direction; otherwise it is negative.

• When the object is “dropped” and the one that drops the object is not in motion,

the object will have zero initial velocity; otherwise, if the one that drops the object

is in motion, the object would have an initial velocity and direction equal to the

velocity and direction that drops it.

• Air resistance is neglected.

• Vertical velocity at the peak is zero.

Motion of a Projectile

Horizontal Motion

Displacement : 𝒙 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒙 𝒕

Velocity : 𝒗𝟎 𝒙 = 𝒗𝟎 ∗ 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝜽

Acceleration : 𝟎

Vertical Motion

𝒗𝒚 = 𝒗 𝟎 𝒚 − 𝒈𝒕

𝒗𝟎 𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 ∗ 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽

𝟏 𝟐

±𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 𝒚 𝒕 − 𝒈𝒕

𝟐

𝒗𝟐𝒚 = 𝒗𝟎 𝟐

𝒚 − 𝟐𝒈𝒚

Motion of a Projectile

General Equation of Projectile

𝒈𝒙𝟐

±𝒚 = 𝒙𝒕𝒂𝒏𝜽 −

𝟐 𝒗𝒐 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜽

• the height, ‘y’ is positive for the projectile that hits above the firing point and it is

negative when the projectile hits below the firing point.

• when ‘y’ is zero; then x = R (Max Range)

• at max height, h; the y-component velocity, (Vo)y is zero

• when Θ = 0°, then y = h (Max Height)

Motion of a Projectile

Range at an Inclined or Declined Angle

Inclined Declined

𝑹= 𝑹=

𝒈 ∗ 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜷 𝒈 ∗ 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜷

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given s-t graph, find v-t graph

𝑑𝑠

𝑣=

𝑑𝑡

𝑣 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given v-t graph, find a-t graph

𝑑𝑣

𝑎=

𝑑𝑡

𝑎 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣 − 𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given a-t graph, find v-t graph

Δ𝑣 = න 𝑎 𝑑𝑡

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given v-t graph, find s-t graph

Δ𝑠 = න 𝑣 𝑑𝑡

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given a-s graph, find v-s graph

𝑠1

1 2 2

𝑣 − 𝑣0 = න 𝑎 𝑑𝑠

2 1 𝑠0

𝑠1

න 𝑎 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑎 − 𝑠 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ

𝑠0

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion

Given v-s graph, find a-s graph

𝑑𝑣

𝑎=𝑣

𝑑𝑠

𝑣 ∗ 𝑎 = 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣 − 𝑠 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ

Problem 1

The car in starts from rest and travels along a straight track such that it

accelerates at 10 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 for 10 s, and then decelerates at 2 𝑚Τ𝑠 2 . Draw

the v-t and s-t graphs and determine the time, ‘t‘ needed to stop the car.

How far has the car travelled?

Problem 2

A bicycle moves along a straight road such that its position is described

by the graph shown. Construct the v-t and a-t graphs for 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑠.

Problem 3

A two-stage missile is fired vertically from rest with the acceleration

shown. In 15-s the first stage A burns out and the second stage B ignites.

Plot the v-t and s-t graphs which describe the two-stage motion of the

missile for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 seconds

Activity 1

The velocity of a particle is shown in the graph below. Take note that at

t=0, s=0. Draw the a-t and s-t graph of the particle

v(t), m/s

t, seconds

3 6 8

-4

General Curvilinear Motion

Curvilinear Motion

occurs

when

a particle

moves

along a

curved path.

General Curvilinear Motion

Position

Consider a particle located at a point on a space curve defined by the

path function, s(t).

designated by the position vector: 𝐫 = 𝐫 𝑡

General Curvilinear Motion

Displacement

Suppose that during a small time interval, Δt the particle moves a

distance, Δs along the curve to a new position, defined by: 𝐫 ′ = 𝐫Ԧ + 𝚫𝐫

and is determined by vector subtraction; 𝚫𝐫 = 𝐫 ′ − 𝐫Ԧ

General Curvilinear Motion

Velocity

Since 𝚫𝐫 will be tangent to the curve, the direction of the velocity, 𝐯 is

also tangent to the curve. The magnitude of |v|, which is called the

speed, is obtained by realizing that the length of the straight line

segment 𝚫𝐫 in approaches the arc length, Δs as 𝛥𝑡 → 0,

𝑑𝒔

𝑣=

𝑑𝒕

General Curvilinear Motion

Acceleration

The Average Acceleration, aavg of the particle during the time interval,

𝚫𝐭 is:

∆𝑣

𝒂𝑎𝑣𝑔 =

∆𝑡

General Curvilinear Motion

Acceleration

A Hodograph

describes the locus of points for the arrowhead of the velocity vector in the same

manner as the path, ‘s’ describes the locus of points for the arrowhead of the position

vector

The Instantaneous Acceleration, a as 𝚫𝐭 → 0

𝑑𝐯

𝐚=

𝑑𝒕

𝑑2 𝐫

𝐚= 2

𝑑𝒕

General Curvilinear Motion

Acceleration

hodograph; and in general it is not tangent to the path of motion.

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Position

𝐫 = 𝑥𝐢 + 𝑦𝐣 + 𝑧𝐤

𝐫

𝑟= 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 + 𝑧2 𝐮𝑟 =

𝑟

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Velocity

𝑑𝐫

𝐯= = 𝑣𝑥 𝐢 + 𝑣𝑦 𝐣 + 𝑣𝑧 𝐤

𝑑𝑡

Magnitude of ′𝐯′: Direction of ′𝐯′:

𝐯

𝑣= 𝑣𝑥2 + 𝑣𝑦2 + 𝑣𝑧2 𝐮𝑣 =

𝑣

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Velocity

𝑣𝑥 = 𝑥ሶ

𝑣𝑦 = 𝑦ሶ

𝑣𝑧 = 𝑧ሶ

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Acceleration

𝑑𝐯

𝐚= = 𝑎𝑥 𝐢 + 𝑎𝑦 𝐣 + 𝑎𝑧 𝐤

𝑑𝑡

Magnitude of ′𝐚′: Direction of ′𝐚′:

𝐚

𝑎= 𝑎𝑥2 + 𝑎𝑦2 + 𝑎𝑧2 𝐮𝑎 =

𝑎

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Acceleration

𝑎𝑥 = 𝑣𝑥ሶ = 𝑥ሷ

𝑎𝑦 = 𝑣𝑦ሶ = 𝑦ሷ

𝑎𝑧 = 𝑣𝑧ሶ = 𝑧ሷ

Problem 1

At any instant, the horizontal position of the weather balloon in the

figure below is defined by x = (8t) ft, where ‘t’ is time in seconds. If the

equation of the path is y = x2/10, determine the magnitude and

direction of the velocity and the acceleration when t = 2s.

Problem 2

The path of the plane is described by 𝑦 = (0.001𝑥 2 ) 𝑚. If the plane is

rising with a constant velocity of 10 𝑚/𝑠, determine the magnitudes of

the velocity and acceleration of the plane when it is 100-m above the

ground.

Answer:

m

Velocity: |v| = 18.7083

s

Acceleration: |a| = 0.7906 m/s 2

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Planar Motion

When the path along which a particle travels is ‘known’, then it is often

convenient to describe the motion using ‘n’ and ‘t’ coordinate axes

which act normal and tangent to the path, respectively and having a

fixed origin that is coincident with the particle at the instant considered

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Planar Motion

Consider the particle shown in the figure, which moves in a plane along a fixed curve,

such that at a given instant it is at position, s, measured from point, O

Each segment, ds is formed from the arc of an associated circle having a radius of

curvature, p (rho) and center of curvature, O’

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Velocity

Since the particle moves, ‘s’ is a function of time. The particle's velocity, v has a

direction that is always tangent to the path, and a magnitude that is determined by

taking the time derivative of the path function, s = s(t) i.e., v = ds/dt. Hence:

𝐯 = 𝑣𝐮𝑡

𝑣 = 𝑠ሶ

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Acceleration

The acceleration of the particle is the time rate of change of the velocity. Thus

𝐚 = 𝐯ሶ = 𝑣𝐮

ሶ 𝑡 + 𝑣 𝐮𝑡ሶ

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Acceleration, ′𝐚′ can be written as the sum of its two components

𝐚 = 𝑎 𝑡 𝐮 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑛 𝐮 𝑛

Where:

𝑑𝐯

𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣ሶ =

𝑑𝑡

or

𝑎𝑡 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑣𝑑𝑣

and

𝑣2

𝑎𝑛 =

𝜌

𝑎= 𝑎𝑡2 + 𝑎𝑛2

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Acceleration

Thus 𝑎 = 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣,ሶ and we can conclude that the tangential component of acceleration

represents the time rate of change in the magnitude of the velocity.

2. If the particle moves along a curve with a constant speed, then 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣ሶ = 0 and

𝑎 = 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑣 2 /𝜌. Therefore, the normal component of acceleration represents the time rate

of change in the direction of velocity. Since 𝐚𝑛 always acts towards the center of curvature,

this component is sometimes referred to as the centripetal (or center seeking) acceleration.

Problem 3

A race car, ‘C’ starts from rest and travels around the horizontal circular

track that has a radius of 300 𝑓𝑡. If the car increases its speed at a

constant rate of 7 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 2 , starting from rest, determine the time needed

for it to reach an acceleration of 8 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 2 . What is its speed at this

instant?

Answer:

Acceleration: 𝑡 = 4.87 𝑠

Velocity: 𝑣 = 34.1 𝑓𝑡/𝑠

Problem 4

The boxes travel along the industrial conveyor. If a box starts from rest at

‘A’ and increases its speed such that 𝑎𝑡 = (0.2𝑡) 𝑚/𝑠 2 , where ‘t’ is in

seconds, determine the magnitude of its acceleration when it arrives at

point ‘B’.

Answer:

Acceleration: 𝑎𝐵 = 5.36 𝑚/𝑠 2

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Equation of Motion

When a particle moves along a curved path which is known, the

equation of motion for the particle may be written in the tangential,

normal, and binormal directions

since the particle is constrained to move along the path.

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Equation of Motion

Recall that Tangential Acceleration, at (= dv/dt) represents the time rate

of change in the magnitude of velocity. So if ΣFt acts in the direction of

motion, the particle's speed will increase, whereas if it acts in the

opposite direction, the particle will slow down.

change in the velocity's direction. It is caused by ΣFn, which always acts

in the positive ‘n’ direction, i.e., toward the path's center of curvature.

From this reason it is often referred to as the centripetal force.

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Banking of Curve

Case 1: Circular path on a Flat Horizontal Road

• When a vehicle is moving in an arc, there is a centripetal acceleration and thus

force directed towards the center of the circle.

• The force causing the centripetal acceleration is the “sideways” friction force on

the vehicle by the road.

• Without that force, the vehicle will tend to continue in a straight line rather

than turning the corner

• There is a limit to the frictional force provided by the road thus limiting the

cornering speed of an arc given radius.

𝐹𝑥 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛

𝑣2

𝐹𝑓𝑟 = 𝑚 ∗

𝑟

𝑣2

𝜇𝑠 ∗ 𝑁 = 𝑚 ∗

𝑟

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Banking of Curve

Case 2: Banked Curved without Friction (Ideal Velocity)

• This expression can be understood by considering how

the banking angle, θ depends on the ideal velocity, v of

the vehicle and the radius of curvature, r of the path.

𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛 𝐹𝑏 = 0

𝒗𝟐

𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗ 𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 = 𝟎

𝒓

Taking Eq.1/Eq.2 we have:

𝑁 sin 𝜃 𝑚𝑣 2

=

𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑚𝑔𝑟

𝒗𝟐

𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝜽 =

𝒈𝒓

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Banking of Curve

Case 2A: Banked Curved with Friction (Actual Velocity > Ideal Velocity)

• The centripetal force, N*sinΘ will not be enough thus

friction will now be a factor and will act at a downward

direction in the incline.

𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛

(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐

𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 + 𝒇 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗

𝒓

(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐

𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 + 𝝁𝒔 𝑵 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗

𝒓

𝐹𝑏 = 0

𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 − 𝒇 sin 𝜽 = 𝟎

Curvilinear Motion: Normal & Tangential Components

Banking of Curve

Case 2B: Banked Curved with Friction (Actual Velocity < Ideal Velocity)

• The centripetal force, N*sinΘ will not be enough thus

friction will now be a factor and will act at an upward

direction in the incline.

𝐹𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑛

(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐

𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 − 𝒇 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗

𝒓

(𝒗𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 )𝟐

𝑵 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 − 𝝁𝒔 𝑵 cos 𝜽 = 𝒎 ∗

𝒓

𝐹𝑏 = 0

𝑵 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝒎𝒈 + 𝒇 sin 𝜽 = 𝟎

Problem 5

Curves on some test tracks and race courses, such as the Daytona

International Speedway in Florida, are very steeply banked. This

banking, with the aid of tire friction and very stable car configurations,

allows the curves to be taken at very high speed. To illustrate, calculate

the speed (in km/hr) at which a 100-m radius curve banked at 65.0°

should be driven if the road is frictionless.

Calculate the allowable velocity if the track was not banked with the

standard coefficient of static friction for dry asphalt is 0.9 and an

average weight for a Formula-One race car with its driver is 740-kg.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣 = 165.12 𝑘𝑚/ℎ𝑟

Velocity: 𝑣 = 106.97 𝑘𝑚/ℎ𝑟

Problem 6

The sports car, having a mass of 1,700 kg travels horizontally along a 20°

banked track which is circular and has a radius of curvature of 100-m. If

the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is 0.2,

determine (a) the maximum constant speed at which the car can travel

without sliding up and (b) the minimum constant speed at which the car

can travel without sliding down the slope.

Answer:

(a) Velocity: 𝑣 = 24.4272 𝑚/𝑠

(b) Velocity: 𝑣 = 12.245 𝑚/𝑠

Problem 7

The device shown is used to produce the experience of weightlessness

in a passenger when he reaches point A, ϴ=90°, along the path. If the

passenger has a mass of 75-kg, determine the minimum speed he

should have when he reaches ‘A’ so that he will experience the feeling of

weightlessness. The chair is pin-connected to the frame ‘BC’ so that he

is always seated in an upright position. During the motion his speed

remains constant.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣 = 9.9045 𝑚/𝑠

Problem 8

The 2-kg block ‘B’ and 15-kg cylinder ‘A’ are connected to a light cord

that passes through a hole in the center of the smooth table. If the block

travels along a circular path of radius r = 1.5 m, determine the speed of

the block.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣 = 10.5054 𝑚/𝑠

Activity 2

y = 0.25x2. If x=(2t2) m, where ‘t’ is in seconds,

determine the magnitude of the particle's

velocity and acceleration when t=2s.

path. If x=(4t4) m, where ‘t’ is in seconds,

determine the magnitude of the particle's

velocity and acceleration when t=0.5s

with a speed of v=(0.0625t2) m/s, where t is in

seconds. Determine the magnitude of its

acceleration when t=10s.

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

of one particle depends

on the corresponding

motion of another particle.

This dependency

commonly occurs

if the particles

are interconnected

by inextensible cords

which are wrapped

around pulleys

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

For this set-up: If the movement of block ‘A’ is downward along the inclined

plane it will cause a corresponding movement of block ‘B’ up the other

incline.

Note that each of the coordinate axes is: (1) measured from a fixed point, ‘O’

or fixed datum line, (2) measured along each inclined plane in the direction

of motion of each block, and (3) has a positive sense from C to A and D to B

If the total cord length is 𝑙 𝑇 , the two position coordinates are related by the

equation:

𝒔𝑨 + 𝒍𝑪𝑫 + 𝒔𝑩 = 𝒍𝑻

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

Here 𝑙𝐶𝐷 is the length of the cord passing over arc, ‘CD’.

Taking the time derivative of this expression, realizing that 𝑙𝐶𝐷 and 𝑙 𝑇 remain

constant, while 𝑠𝐴 and 𝑠𝐵 measure the segments of the cord

that change in length.

We have:

𝒅𝒔𝑨 𝒅𝒔𝑩

+ = 𝟎 𝐨𝐫 𝒗𝑩 = −𝒗𝑨

𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕

In a similar manner:

𝒂𝑩 = −𝒂𝑨

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

For this set-up: The position of block ‘A’ is

specified by SA, and the position of the end of

the cord from which block B is suspended is

defined by SB

axes: (1) have their origin at fixed points or

datums, (2) are measured in the direction of

motion of each block, and (3) are positive to

the right for SA and positive downward for SB.

The two position coordinates are related by

the equation:

𝟐𝒔𝑩 + 𝒉 + 𝒔𝑨 = 𝒍𝑻

we have:

𝒅𝒔𝑩 𝒅𝒔𝑨

𝟐 =− 𝒐𝒓 𝟐𝒗𝑩 = −𝒗𝑨

𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕

In a similar manner:

𝟐𝒂𝑩 = −𝒂𝑨

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

The same set-up can also be worked by

defining the position of block ‘B’ from the

center of the bottom pulley (a fixed point), In

this case:

the equation:

𝟐 𝒉 − 𝒔𝑩 + 𝒉 + 𝒔𝑨 = 𝒍𝑻

we have:

𝒅𝒔𝑩 𝒅𝒔𝑨

𝟐 = 𝒐𝒓 𝟐𝒗𝑩 = 𝒗𝑨

𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕

In a similar manner:

𝟐𝒂𝑩 = 𝒂𝑨

Problem 1

Determine the speed of block A if block B has an upward speed of 6 ft/s.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣𝐴 = 18 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 ↓

Problem 2

Determine the speed of A if B has an upward speed of 6 ft/s.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣𝐴 = 24 𝑓𝑡/𝑠 ↓

Problem 3

Determine the speed of block B if the end of the cord at A is pulled down with a speed

of 2 m/s.

Answer:

Velocity: 𝑣𝐵 = 0.5 𝑚/𝑠 ↑

Seatwork

1. Determine the speed of block ‘D’ if end ‘A’ of the rope is pulled

down with a speed of 3m/s.

Seatwork

2. Determine the speed of block ‘A’ if end B of the rope is pulled down

with a speed of 6 m/s.

Seatwork

3. Determine the speed of block ‘A’ if end B of the rope is pulled down

with a speed of 1.5 m/s

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

When a body

rotates about

a fixed

axis, any point

where in the body travels

moves along

a circular path.

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

Angular Position, ϴ

At the instant shown, the angular position of ‘r’ is

defined by the angle ϴ, measured from a fixed

reference line to ‘r’.

Angular Displacement, dϴ

The change in the angular position, which can be

measured as a differential dϴ

This vector has a magnitude of dϴ, measured in

degrees, radians, or revolutions, where 1 rev = 2π rad.

Since motion is about a fixed axis, the direction of dϴ

is always along this axis. Specifically, the direction is

determined by the right-hand rule.

Angular Velocity, ω

The time rate of change in the angular position.

This vector has a magnitude which is often measured

in rad/s.

𝑑𝜃 1

𝜔= 𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑓 T=

𝑑𝑡 𝑓

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

Angular Acceleration, α

measures the time rate of change of the angular

velocity.

𝑑𝜔

𝛼=

𝑑𝑡

𝑑2𝜃

𝛼=

𝑑𝑡

Angular velocity, and Angular displacement:

𝛼𝑑𝜃 = 𝜔𝑑𝜔

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

Constant Angular Acceleration

If the angular acceleration of the body is constant,

α=αc, then these equations, when integrated, yield a

set of formulas which relate the body's angular

velocity, angular position, and time. These equations

are similar to equations used for rectilinear motion.

Relationship of Angular and Linear Motion

Motion of Point, ‘P’

As the rigid body in the figure rotates, point ‘P’ travels

along a circular path of radius, r with center at point O.

This path is contained within the shaded plane shown

in top view

The position of ‘P’ is defined by the position vector ‘r’,

which extends from ‘O’ to ‘P’. If the body rotates dϴ

then ‘P’ will displace ds = rdϴ

∆𝑠 = 𝑟 ∗ ∆𝜃

Velocity of Point, ‘P’

The velocity of P has a magnitude which can be found

by dividing ds = rdϴ by ‘dt’ so that

𝑣 = 𝜔𝑟

Relationship of Angular and Linear Motion

Acceleration of Point, ‘P’

The acceleration of ‘P’ can be expressed in terms of its normal and tangential

components.

𝑎𝑡 = 𝛼 ∗ 𝑟 𝑎 2 = 𝛼𝑛 2 ∗ 𝛼 𝑡 2 𝑎𝑛 = 𝜔 2 ∗ 𝑟

Problem 1

Load ‘B’ is connected to a double pulley by one of the two inextensible

cables shown. The motion of the pulley is controlled by cable ‘C’, which

has a constant acceleration of 9in/s2 and an initial velocity of 12in/s,

both directed to the right. Determine (a) the number of revolutions

executed by the smaller pulley in 2-seconds, (b) the velocity and change

in position of the load ‘B’ after 2-seconds, and (c) the acceleration of

point ‘D’ on the rim of the inner pulley at t=0

Problem 2

A cylinder of radius 12-cm starts from rest and rotates about its axis

with a constant angular acceleration of 5.0rad/s2. At t = 3.0-sec, what is

its (a) angular velocity, (b) linear speed of the point on the rim and (c)

radial and tangential components of acceleration of a point on the rim.

Problem 3

A record player is spinning at 33.3 rpm. (a) How far does it turn in 2-sec?

(b) When the motor is shut off, the record player spins down for 20-sec

before coming to rest. What is the angular acceleration assuming that it

is constant? How many turn does it make during this coast down?

Problem 4

The motion of a cam is defined by the relation ϴ = t3 - 9t2 + 15t where ϴ

is expressed in radians and ‘t’ in seconds. Determine the angular

position, the angular velocity, and the angular acceleration of the cam

when (a) t = 0s, (b) t = 3s.

Problem 5

The motion of an oscillating crank is defined by the relation

ϴ=6sin(πt/4)-3sin (πt/2) where ‘ϴ’ is expressed in radians and ‘t’ in

seconds. Determine the angular displacement, the angular velocity,

and the angular acceleration of the crank when (a) t=0-s, (b) t=2-s

Problem 6

The angular acceleration of a shaft is defined by the relation α= -0.25ω,

where ‘α’ is expressed in rad/s2 and ω in rad/s. Knowing that at t=0 the

angular velocity of the shaft is 20 rad/s, determine (a) the number of

revolutions the shaft will execute before coming to rest, (b) the time

required for the shaft to come to rest, (c) the time required for the

angular velocity of the shaft to be reduced to 1 percent of its initial

value.

Problem 7

When studying whiplash resulting from rear end collisions, the rotation

of the head is of primary interest. An impact test was performed, and it

was found that the angular acceleration of the head is defined by the

relation α=700cos(θ) + 70sin(θ) where ‘α’ is expressed in rad/s2 and ‘θ’

in radians. Knowing that the head is initially at rest, determine the

angular velocity of the head when θ = 30°

Simple Pendulum

A

simple pendulum

is defined to

have a point mass,

which is suspended

from a string of

with

negligible mass

Simple Pendulum

• A simple pendulum is defined

to have a point mass, also

known as the pendulum bob,

which is suspended from a

string of length ’L’ with

negligible.

bob are the force of gravity

acting through the weight of

the bob and tension from the

string.

assumed to be negligible as

compared to the mass of the

bob.

Simple Pendulum

Angular Frequency, ω

𝑔

𝜔=

𝐿

Where: g - acceleration due to gravity

L - length of the cord

Period, T

𝐿

𝑇 = 2𝜋

𝑔

Where: g - acceleration due to gravity

L - length of the cord

Problem 1

What is the acceleration due to gravity in a region where a simple

pendulum having a length 75-cm has a period of 1.7357-s?

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.