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# PHYSICS

Thermal
physics
Tiffany, Amel, Angelo
SOL ID
Particles very close to one another , vibrate in
their fixed position, have very strong attractive
force

L IQ UID
Particles can slide to one another, have strong
attractive force.

GA S
Presentations are tools that can be used as
lectures, speeches, reports, and more.
GRAPH
AB-Kinetic energy increases, electrical
potential energy increases a bit.
BC - The electrical potential energy increases
quite a lot.
CD - Kinetic energy increases a lot, electrical
energy increases a bit.
DE - Electrical Potential energy increases a lot.
EF - Kinetic energy increases a lot, have
maximum electrical potential energy which is
0
INTERNAL ENERGY
Kinetic energy + Potential energy = Internal energy

## CHANGING INTERNAL ENERGY

Heating a gas - Heating result in the
molecules to vibrate faster = Higher
kinetic energy = Higher temperature

## Doing work - Apply compressive force =

bounce faster = Higher kinetic energy
and temperature

## FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Energy is conserved so all the energy put will
end up in the gas.
Increase in internal energy = Energy supplied
by heating + Energy supplied by doing work
DEFINITIONS
THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
There is no net transfer of thermal energy
between two objects that are in contact THERMAL ENERGY
between one another
Energy from high temperature region to low
temperature region
THERMODYNAMIC SCALE
Also known as Kelvin's Scale.
Cannot go below 0 K = Minimum internal energy
Thermodynamics temp. depends on kinetic energy.
Has two fixed point - Absolute zero (0K), triple point
of water (273.16K)
THERMOMETERS
Thermocouple Thermometers
An eletrical device which shows
voltage to measure temperature, the
greater the difference in
temperature, the greater the voltage
produced

Resistance Thermometers
An electrical device which uses
resistor as the sensor of a
thermometer

temperature
value of variable theta
value of ice point
value of steam point
T HE RMA L CA P A CITY SP E CIF IC L AT E NT HE AT OF
The energy required to raise the F USION
temp. of the body by 1 degree Energy required per unit mass to
change it's state from solid to liquid
C = thermal capacity (JK^-1)
Q = heat energy needed (J)
or vice versa without any change in
T = temperature (K) temperature.
Lf = latent heat of fusion (Jkg^-1)

## SP ECIF IC L AT ENT HEAT OF

SP E CIF IC HE A T CA P ACITY EVAP OR ATION
Energy required per unit mass of the Energy required per unit mass to
substance to raise the temperature change it's state from liquid to gas
and vice versa, without any change
in temperature.
c = specific heat capacity (Jkg^-1K^-1)
Lv = latent heat of evaporation(Jkg^-1)
Exchange of Heat
(Black's Principle)
Heat energy lost = Heat energy gain

original temp
THANK YOU~~