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Exam #1 Review

Dr. Holbert
February 15, 2006

ECE201 Exam #1 Review 1


Circuit Analysis Techniques
• While Obeying Passive Sign Convention
• Ohm’s Law; KCL; KVL
• Voltage and Current Division
• Series/Parallel Impedance combinations
Z series  Z1  Z 2    Z N   Z j
1 1 1 1 1
   
Z par Z1 Z 2 ZM Zi
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 2
Sign Convention
• Passive sign convention : current should
enter the positive voltage terminal
I
Circuit Element
+ –

• Consequence for P = I V
– Positive (+) Power: element absorbs power
– Negative (-) Power: element supplies power
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 3
Ohm’s Law
V=IZ
I
The +
Rest of Z V
the
Circuit –

ECE201 Exam #1 Review 4


KCL (Kirchhoff’s Current Law)
i1(t) i5(t)
i2(t) i4(t)

i3(t)

The sum of currents entering the node is zero:


n

 i (t )  0
j 1
j

Analogy: mass flow at pipe junction


ECE201 Exam #1 Review 5
KVL (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law)
+ –
v2(t) +
+
v1(t) v3(t)

• The sum of voltages around a loop is zero:


n

v
j 1
j (t )  0

• Analogy: pressure drop thru pipe loop


ECE201 Exam #1 Review 6
KVL Polarity
• A loop is any closed path through a circuit
in which no node is encountered more than
once
• Voltage Polarity Convention
– A voltage encountered + to - is positive
– A voltage encountered - to + is negative

ECE201 Exam #1 Review 7


In General: Voltage Division
Consider N impedances in series:
Zi
VZ i   VSk
Z j
Source voltage(s) are divided between the
elements in direct proportion to their
impedances
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 8
In General: Current Division
Consider N impedances in parallel:
Z par
I Z j   I Sk
Zj
1 1 1 1 1
   
Z par Z1 Z 2 ZN Zi
Special Case (2 impedances in parallel)
Z2
IZ1  IS
Z1  Z 2
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 9
Equivalent Impedance
If we wish to replace the two parallel
impedances with a single impedance whose
voltage-current relationship is the same, the
equivalent impedance has a value of:
Z1 Z 2
Z eq 
Z1  Z 2
Parallel elements share the same 2 end nodes

ECE201 Exam #1 Review 10


Phasors
• A phasor is a complex number that
represents the magnitude and phase of a
sinusoidal voltage or current:
X M cost   

X  X M 
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 11
Complex Numbers
Polar: z   = A = x + jy : Rectangular
imaginary
axis • x is the real part
y • y is the imaginary part
• z is the magnitude
real
 axis •  is the phase angle
x

x  z cos z  x2  y2
y  z sin    tan 1 y
ECE201 Exam #1 Review x 12
Impedance
• AC steady-state analysis using phasors
allows us to express the relationship
between current and voltage using a
formula that looks likes Ohm’s law:
V=IZ
• Z is called impedance (units of ohms, W)
• Impedance is (often) a complex number
• Impedance depends on frequency, 2f
ECE201 Exam #1 Review 13
Impedance Summary
Element Impedance

Capacitor ZC = 1 / jC = -1/C  90

Inductor ZL = jL = L  90

Resistor ZR = R = R  0

ECE201 Exam #1 Review 14