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Understanding Work Teams


Learning Objectives After studying this chapter,
you should be able to:
• 10-1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams in
• 10-2 Contrast groups and teams.
• 10-3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.
• 10-4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.
• 10-5 Explain how organizations can create team
• 10-6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.
is team work a good thing?
• Ob POLL Is teamwork a good thing?

team serve an important function 95%

prefer to work

0% 25% 50% 75% 100%

Source University of Phoenix survey reveals on june 9,2013

exhibit 10-1 Comparing workgroups and work teams

• workgroups Work teams

• share information Goal • collective performance

• neutral (sometimes negative) Synergy • positive
• individual Akuntabilitas • individual and mutual
• random and varieds skills • complementary
Teams ThaT Play TogeTher sTay TogeTher
• Teams ThaT Play TogeTher sTay TogeTherAt SmugMug, an
online photo sharing company, every day is a photo op-
portunity. If you’re hired there, you might be expected to enjoy
photog-raphy, have extensive Web knowledge, and be willing
to work in teams. You might even be expected to become a
subject in photos the organization posts. But would you
anticipate hav-ing to crawl through muddy trenches under
barbed wire with your team as these employees have?
They’ve just finished the hard-core 10–12-mile obstacle course
experience provided by Tough Mudder, an organization that
creates physical challeng-es for organizational teams like those
at SmugMug.The mission of Tough Mudder is simple:
solidify teams through a shared experience. Co-founder Chris
MacAskill said, “You get muddy and tired and beat up. It is like
the Marines and boot camp. The more athletic help the less
athletic because you want to finish together as a team. At the
end, you are arm in arm, and there are big smiles and high-
fives.” Tough Mudder events like the one pictured here teach
values like mental grit by providing fun, success, and thrills. It
seems to work, according to Lynn Gruber of Fortune, who
remarked, “The teamwork and camaraderie out there was
amazing.” To date, the organization boasts a track record of
over 100 events, 1.5 million participants, 4,000 Tough
Mudder tattoos, and a 95 percent participation rate.
Teams ThaT Play TogeTher sTay TogeTher
• Is Tough Mudding not your cup of tea? Then perhaps you should con-sider employment at Grid Connect Inc., a software firm in Illinois. The game
there is ping pong, and “Everybody plays, nobody can opt out. You can take your frustrations out playing ping pong. When you aren’t
playing, you can root for the underdogs,” said founder and CEO Mike Justice. He is the trophy holder and his father is the official scorekeeper, but
still, he says, the organization’s tournaments enhance team building for his employees. “It’s a real confidence booster. It was one of the best things
we ever did for morale.”Perhaps old-fashioned athletic leagues are more your thing? Most com-panies have leagues for organized sports, which
may or may not enhance their work teams. At Offerpop, a social-marketing firm, “The sports teams help to make everyone more comfortable with
each other,” said CEO Wen-dell Landsford, although he says the real team building happens during postgame drinks. Jerry Schranz of
public-relations agency Beckerman per-sonally learned an important job skill while captain of the softball team. He observed, “It is very difficult to
give up the ball as a starting pitcher, where you think that no one can pitch as well as you. It was something I had to learn to do: delegate to others
and let it unfold.”For all the good that intentional team-building recreation can do, note that programs such as Tough Mudder’s may be more
successful than off-hours sports leagues. John Pinkham of PAN Communications Inc. was in charge of the Boston PR firm’s casual soccer
team. He said, “Turns out the fun league we signed up for was super competitive, with ex-college players and Europeans who kicked the ball faster
than I thought was possible.” In response, losers either tried to out-strategize the perpetual winners or quit. Those that stayed tried to have fun no
matter the score. Pinkham said, “I think everyone was glad they played, and it brought us more together as col-leagues and friends—just maybe
not as teammates.”Sources: B. Haislip, “Play Ball!” The Wall Street Journal, June 12, 2014, R4; M. L. Shuffler, D. DiazGranados, and E. Salas,
“There’s a Science for That: Team Development Interventions in Organizations,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 20, no. 6 (2011):
365–72; and Tough Mudder website,, accessed June 23, 2015.Do teams that play together stay together, as the opening
discussion sug-gests? There is definitely an upside to shared experiences, as we will find in this chapter. There may also be something
about unique, unexpected challenges that bring teams together, as Tough Mudder claims. We are, how-ever, cautioned to consider the effects
of these “play” exercises, including possible discrimination against employees who are disabled or physically unfit. We will consider more
types of team-building strategies, and teams in general, in this chapter.
10-1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams
in organizations.
• Why Have Teams Become So Popular?Why are teams popular? In
short, because we believe they are effective. “A team of people
happily committed to the project and to one another will outper-
form a brilliant individual every time,” writes Forbes publisher Rich
Karlgaard.1In some ways, he’s right. Teams can sometimes achieve
feats an individual could never accomplish.2Teams are more flexible
and responsive to changing events than traditional departments or
other forms of permanent groupings. They can quickly assemble,
deploy, refocus, and disband. They are an effective means to
democratize organizations and increase employee involvement. And
finally, research indicates that our involvement in teams positively
shapes the way we think as individuals, introducing a
collaborative mindset about even our per-sonal decision
making.3The fact that organizations have embraced teamwork
doesn’t necessarily mean teams are always effective. Team
members, as humans, can be swayed by fads and herd mentality that
can lead them astray from the best decisions. What conditions affect
their potential? How do members work together? Do we even like
teams? Maybe not, according to the OB Poll. To answer these
questions, let’s first distinguish between groups and teams.
10-2 Contrast groups and teams.
• Differences Between Groups and TeamsGroups and teams are not the same thing.
In Chapter 9, we defined a group as two or more individuals, interacting and
interdependent, who work together to achieve particular objectives. A workgroup is a
group that interacts primarily to share information and make decisions to help each
member perform within his or her area of responsibility.Workgroups have no need or
opportunity to engage in collective work with joint effort, so the group’s performance
is merely the summation of each mem-ber’s individual contribution. There is no
positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance greater than the
sum of the inputs. A workgroup is a collection of individual doing their work,albeit with
the interaction and or depency
TYPE OF Teams :
• Team can make products,provide Services,negotiate deals,coordinate
project,offer advice,make decisions
• Types of team in organizations :
1. Problem solving teams : pemecah masalah
2. Self managed work teams : berhasil mengatur team
3. Cross functional team : team yang berfungsi
4. Virtual teams : Tim Virtual
5. Multiteam systems : team yang berinteraksi secara langsung
10-4 Identify the characteristics of effective
• Creating Effective Teams
I. Team Context :
1. Adequate resources : sumber daya memadai
2. Leadership and structure : kepemimpinan dan struktur
3. Climate of Trust : iklim kepercayaan
4. Performance and Reward system : evaluasi kinerja dan hadiah
10-4 Identify the characteristics of effective
II. Team Composition :
1. Abilities of Members : kemampuan anggota
2. Personality of Members : kepribadian anggota
3. Allocation of roles : Peran alokasi
4. Diversity Of Members : Keragaman Anggota
5. Cultural Differences : Perbedaan Budaya
6. Size of Team : Ukuran Team
7. Member Preferences : Anggota preferensi
10-4 Identify the characteristics of effective
III Team Processes :
1. Common plan and purpose : Rencana dan Tujuan
2. Spesific goals : Tujuan Goals
3. Team efficacy : Kerjasama team
4. Team Identity : Identitas Team
5. Team Cohesion : Kehebatan Team
6. Mental Models : Mental team
7. Conflict Levels : Tingkat Konflik
8. Social Loafing : Hubungan Sosial
10-5 Explain How organization can create
team players
• Turning individuals into team players :
1. Selecting:hiring team players : pilih team
2. Training : creating team players : pelatihan dan membangun team
3. Rewarding : providing incentives to be a good team player :
10-6 Decide when to use individuals
instead of teams
• Beware! Teams aren't always the answer :
1. Kerjasama team lebih banyak dan memiliki peningkatan
komunikasi juga mengelola konflik. Putuskan kapan untuk
menggunakan individu daripada team.
2. Summary : ringkasan