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THE NANO WORLD

GEC 007
WEEK 15
Introduction
• Scientific researchers have developed new
technological tools that greatly improve different
aspects of our lives.
• The use of nanoscale is one important
interdisciplinary area generated by advancement in
science and technology.
• Scientists and engineers were able to build
materials with innovative properties as they
manipulate nanomaterials.
Nanotechnology
• It refers to the science, engineering, and
technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is
about 1 to 100 nanometers.
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology employs the
study and application of exceptionally small things
in other areas of science including material science,
engineering, physics, biology, and chemistry.
How small is “nano”?
• Nanotechnology deals with the very smallest
components of our world – atoms and molecules.
Trying to understand just how small the nanoscale is
can be very difficult for people.
• A nanometer is a unit of measurement for length just
as you have with meters and centimeters. A nanometer
is one billionth of a meter, 0.000000001 or 10-9 meters.
• The word “nano” comes from the Greek word for
“dwarf.” The term nanoscale is used to refer to objects
with dimensions on the order of 1-100 nanometers
(nm).
Distinct features of
nanotechnology
• Nanoscale particles are not new in either nature or
science. However, the recent leaps in areas such as
microscopy have given scientists new tools to
understand and take advantage of phenomena that
occur naturally when matter is organized at the
nanoscale.
• In essence, these phenomena are based on
"quantum effects" (smallest amount of many forms
of energy).
Distinct features of
nanotechnology
• We tend to think of nanotechnology as something
new and alien, perhaps because the word
"technology" implies artificial and human-made,
but life itself is an example of nanotechnology:
proteins, bacteria, viruses, and cells all work on the
nanoscopic scale.
Nanomanufacturing
• It refers to scaled-up, reliable, and cost-
effective manufacturing of nanoscale
materials, structures, devices, and systems;
nanomanufacturing leads to the
development of new products and improved
materials.
Nanomanufacturing
- There are two fundamental approaches to
nanomanufacturing:
1. Bottom-up fabrication - It manufactures
products by building them up from
atomic- and molecular-scale
components.
2. Top-down fabrication - It trims down
large pieces of materials into nanoscale.
New Approaches to the Assembly
of Nanomaterials
• Dip pen lithography. The tip of an atomic
force microscope is "dipped" into a chemical
fluid and then utilized to "write" on a
surface.
• Self-assembly. A set of components joins
together to mold an organized structure in
the absence of an outside direction.
New Approaches to the Assembly
of Nanomaterials
• Chemical vapor deposition. Chemicals act in
response to form very pure, high-
performance films.
• Nanoimprint lithography. Generating
nanoscale attributes by "stamping" or
"printing" them onto a surface.
New Approaches to the Assembly
of Nanomaterials
• Molecular beam epitaxy. Depositing
extremely controlled thin films.
• Roll-to-roll processing. Constructing
nanoscale devices on a roll of ultrathin
plastic or metal.
• Atomic layer epitaxy. Laying down one-
atom-thick layers on a surface.
Dip pen lithography
Chemical vapor deposition
Benefits and concerns of using
nanotechnology
• After more than 20 years of basic nanoscience
research and more than fifteen years of focused
R&D under the NNI, applications of
nanotechnology are delivering in both expected
and unexpected ways on nanotechnology’s promise
to benefit society.
• Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve,
even revolutionize, many technology and industry
sectors: information technology, security, medicine,
transportation, energy, food safety, and
environmental science, among many others.
Benefits and concerns of using
nanotechnology
There are concerns that need to be addressed
before using and promoting materials derived
from nanotechnology:
• Nanotechnology is not a single technology; it
may become pervasive.
• Nanotechnology seeks to develop new
materials with specific properties.
Benefits and concerns of using
nanotechnology
• Nanotechnology may introduce new
efficiencies and paradigms which may make
some natural resources and current practices
uncompetitive or obsolete.
• It may be complicated to detect its presence
unless one has the specialist tools of
nanotechnology.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Medicine)
• The application of nanotechnology is most exciting
in the biomedical field as scientists continue to
make advances in the prevention, treatment and
diagnostics areas.
• From nano-fabricated super condoms to sunscreen
products with nano-particles that reflect cancer-
causing ultraviolet light, researchers are coming up
with better ways to protect people.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Medicine)
• Early disease detection is possible thanks to nano-
sensors that can identify and quantify biological
substances in body fluids. Also, experts are
currently working on a drug-delivery method that
will make use of highly-targeted capsules to fight
cancer cells. According to the ASME Organization,
these capsules will only unleash the chemotherapy
medicine once they are in the range of cancerous
cells, thus, minimizing damage to normal tissue.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Electronics and Electricity)
• Nanotechnology makes it possible to expand the
capabilities of electronic devices while reducing
their power consumption and weight.
• The results are increased densities of memory chips
and improved display screens on electronics
devices, among others.
• The sustainability and low maintenance of solar
power make it the future of energy storage.
However, its production costs twice as much as that
of natural gas.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Electronics and Electricity)
• In 2014, a team of scientists from the University of
California created a new nano-material that
increases thermal storage and enhances the
conversion of light to electricity.
• The nano-material converts heat to molten salt so
as to make it possible to synthesize power even
after the sun goes down. With this technology,
solar energy will be less costly and more efficient.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Consumer Products)
• Nanotechnology has already found its way to the
shopping outlets. Some of the products used today
employ the technology to improve their
performance and longevity.
• For starters, lithium-ion batteries on electric cars
use nanoparticle-based electrodes while some skin
care products include nanoparticles that infuse or
deliver vitamins deeper into the skin.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Consumer Products)
• Also, manufacturers are coating furniture
foam with flame-retardant carbon
nanofibers and integrating silver
nanoparticles in fabric to kill bacteria making
clothes odor-resistant.
• In the alcohol industry, clay nanoparticles are
allowing brewers to pack beer in cheaper
plastic bottles.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Sporting Goods)
• Even sporting goods are not left behind. As
of now, golf and tennis are the largest
beneficiaries of nanotechnology but other
sports are soon to receive a boost too.
• High-end tennis and golf balls keep their
bounce longer thanks to a composite made
of clay nanoparticles that spread out to keep
air from escaping.
Uses of Nanotechnology
(Security)
• Body armors are able to stop most calibers,
but usually with a significant amount of
damage.
• A heavy bullet carries a lot of force and could
hurt the victim’s internals even without
penetration. Such problem has been solved
by several weapons manufacturing company
today.