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■ Understand the worth of our opposable thumb

and explain how the human body imposes
limits and possibilities.

■ Distinguish the limitations and possibilities for

 our uncertainty about many things stems
from our limitations as human beings.
 our limitations is due to our embodied
 just as much as our bodies limit us, our
bodies also enable us to create meaning
in the world.
 Body is a source of limitation and
Thumb-less life
■ With your partner, you will pretend that your thumbs are gone for five
minutes. While in this state, proceed with your normal activities while
your thumbs are not functioning (immobile). On a piece of paper, in
one column ask your partner to write down as many activities you can
NOT do because your thumb is absent. In other column write down the
many things you CAN do even if your thumb is absent.

I cant pick up a coin. I can flip the book from one page
to another.
Act.2: Answer the following questions based on
the previous activity.

1. How do you feel about your self after failing to do certain activities that you
would normally do easily?
2. Did you appreciate the importance of a very a small part of your body, your
thumb, more after this activity?
3. When you wrote down the column of things that you can still do even in the
absence of your thumb, did that change the way you feel about yourself?
4. Did it comfort you a little to know that you can still do certain things without
your thumb?
■ Do you know that humans
are the only animals on
earth with fully

■ Opposable refers to the

ability of the thumb to “lie
across the palm,
perpendicular to the four
■ Scientist and Anthropologist have pointed
out that the human opposable thumb is
one of the key factors that helped the
human species developed into what we
are today.
■ It is what makes us distinct from our
closest relatives in human revolution. The
thumbs of apes are not long and
opposable enough.
The Body As A Source Of
Limitation And Possibility
Are these Human Achievements?
makes Man,
■ We have only a certain amount of strength to carry things or
accomplish tasks.
■ We cannot prevent accidents entirely no matter how careful
we are.
■ We cannot move as fast as we could from one place to
■ Despite all advances in technology, we can never reverse
the course of time.
“These are our LIMITATION because
You are seated in your classroom while your teacher
lectures. Outside the window, the rain has not
stopped. The pitter patter of the rain is lulling you to
sleep. You long to curl up in your bed and sleep
some more. But you are in the classroom, trying
very hard to listen to your teacher. You cannot
simply do what you want. If you leave just to go
back to bed and sleep, you know that there will be
consequences. You cannot be in your bed and in
your classroom at once
■But the limitation here is also an
opportunity. Because your body limits
you to one place, you are forced to pay
attention to what is at hand. Because
of this limitation of your body, you are
opened to the possibility of learning
something new.
A. Ancient Greek Philosophy:
Plato and Aristotle

■ In Plato's eyes, man has an immortal soul

and a mortal perishable body.
■ Soul is the giver of life to the body, the
permanent, changeless and divine element
as opposed to the changing, transitory and
perishable body. This makes the human
being “a soul using the body”
B. Medieval Christian
Philosophy: St. Augustine
■ “The soul is not a soul if it is not the soul of a body.”
■ Man can be divided into body and soul, and no doubt
the soul is more real and important.
■ The soul is immortal and capable of intelligent
■ The soul exists separate from the body and only
inhabits it temporarily leaving upon death.
Embodied Spirit
■ Trichotomic View- holds that man is composed of
three essential parts: body, soul, and spirit.
1 Thessalonians 5:23
May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you
through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and
body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord
Jesus Christ.
James 2:26
For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith
without works is dead also.
 Dichotomic View- gives no distinction
between the spirit and soul and views
man as being composed of body and
■Psychosomatic unity- asserts that
man is of single or unitary
constitution, and that the body and
spirit are inseparable and integrated.
■ Human existence is embodied existence, we are not
angels. We have bodies. Many things that are related to
our existence as persons are related to our bodies that
limit us in may ways. So we have to take care of our
■ our limitations are due to our being embodied beings.
This does not mean, however that our bodies are
merely hindrances to our desires and aspirations. Just
as much as our bodies limit us, our bodies also
enables us to create meaning in the world. Hence, the
body is both a source of limitation and possibility.