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Definition of Morphology and Morphemes

 Morphology : Greece “morphe” that has

meaning “forms”
 Morphology is a science of language
that focuses on language and how that
language special word formed.
 While, a morpheme can be defined as a
minimal unit having more or less
constant meaning and more of less
constant form.
Kinds of Morphemes

Free Bound
Morphemes Morphemes

Lexical Functional
and Inflectional
Morphemes Morphemes
Free Morphemes (Morfem Bebas)

• Verbs: walk, read, study

Lexical • Nouns: baby, man, tree
Morphemes • Adjectives: hot, cold
(stand alone and has meaning)

• Conjunctions: but
Functional • Prepositions: at, on
Morphemes • Articles: the, a, an
(stand alone, but it has not clear
meaning) • Pronouns: she
• Aux Verbs; can
Bound Morphemes (Morfem Terikat)
• Prefixes
Derivational • Suffixes
Morphemes • Ex : Beauty (noun)  Beautiful
(form a new word, and new (Adjective)
meaning) • Agree (verb)  Agreement (noun)

• Plural; book (noun)  books

Inflectional • Past Tense; play  played
• Progressive; swim  swimming
Morphemes • Past participle; take  taken
(new grammatical, same lexeme) • Comparative & superlative; big
 bigger, biggest
 Allomorphs are forms that are related to each other but
slightly different, depending on the surrounding environment.
 A simple example is the English word a. It means something
like “one of something, but not any particular one”, like in
these examples:
a book
a friend

 But if the word following a begins with a vowel and not a

consonant, then the word a changes its form:
an ice cream
an idea

 Article Allomorph: an eagle, a duck

 Past Tense Allomorph: hated, picked
 Lexical Allomorph: cats, boxes, disbelieve