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GLOBALIZATION

Theories
Dynamics of Local and Global Culture
Processes of Globalization
1. Homogeneity
The INCREASING SAMENESS in the
world as CULTURAL INPUTS,
ECONOMIC FACTORS, and POLITICAL
ORIENTATIONS of societies EXPAND to
create COMMON practices, SAME
economies, and SIMILAR forms of
government.
Concept of Homogeneity theory

A ONE-SIZE-FITS ALL practice,


economy and government

Treating each country in the world as


the same.
A. Homogeneity of CULTURE
a. LINKED to Cultural IMPERIALISM
b. Dominant culture INFLUENCING other cultures.
Ex.
Religion: Christianity
Social Practices: Personal Courtship- virtual
courtship (online dating)
Homogeneity of Economic Factors

a. Linked with the RECOGNITION of


the SPREAD of CAPITALISM, and
other economic systems in the
world.
Homogeneity of Political Orientations
a. Linked with the EMERGENCE of SIMILAR
MODELS of GOVERNANCE in the world.

(regardless whether the chosen model is


practically or ideally applicable/relevant
to a nation)
Ex. Spread of Democracy
Homogeneity of Political Orientations

“McWorld”
--- refers to the idea that ONE political
orientation is growing in today’s societis.
B. Media Imperialism
Refers to the EXISTENCE of ALTERNATIVE
GLOBAL MEDIA originating from DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES

Also the INFLUENCE of the LOCAL and


REGIONAL media
McDonaldization
Process by which Western societies
are dominated by the principles of
fast food restaurants

It involves the global spread of


RATIONAL SYSTEMS
2. Heterogeneity
The creation of VARIOUS cultural
practices, new economies, and
political groups because of the
interaction of elements from
different societies in the world.
a. Due to combinations of cultures
b. Due to Hybrids of ideas
c. Due to lasting differences of
each country
Cultural Imperialism
vs
Cultural Hybridization
Glocalization
--- Roland Robertson
The interaction of GLOBAL FORCES with
LOCAL FACTORS produces the ‘GLOCAL’

--thinking GLOBALLY but acting LOCALLY


Dynamics of Local and Global Culture
What is DYNAMICS?
The Dynamics of global
culture flows easily and
faster due to
GLOBALIZATION.
3 perspectives on Global
Cultural Flows
1. Cultural Differentialism
a. Cultures are ESSENTIALLY
DIFFERENT and are only
SUPERFICIALLY affected by
GLOBAL FLOWS.
2. Cultural Hybridization
a. INTEGRATION of the LOCAL and GLOBAL
cultures
b. Combination to have NEW FORMS
c. A CREATIVE PROCESS of “glocalization”
d. The interplay of Global and Local to
produce unique outcomes
3. Cultural Convergence
-- stresses homogeneity
-- could lead to Cultural
Imperialism
In a nutshell…

The concept of globalization in the


Contemporary world transcends the IDEA
of LIVING in a COMMON world, but it
also suggests DIFFERENCES due to
interpenetration of Global factors and
Local actors.
METAPHOR