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STRESSES

Prepared by:
Engr. Joseph Kimuel D. Caguete,
ME
OBJECTIVE

TO LEARN THE FUNDAMENTAL STRESSES


THAT IS ESSENTIAL FOR DESIGN AND TO
HAVE COMMON UNDERSTADING REGARDING
THE SUBJECT.
STRESSES

• Definition
“The unit strength of a material
or the force or load applied to a
material per unit area.” – (AGMA)
STRESSES

• Strain – It is the amount by which the body


changes (shorten or lengthen) due to
application of load divided by the original
length. It is the percentage elongation or
compression of material due to application of
force.
STRESSES
VARIABLE STRESSES

 For ductile materials


Soderberg equation:
1 𝑆𝑚 𝑆𝑎
= +
𝐹𝑆 𝑆𝑦 𝑆𝑛
For brittle materials
Goodman equation:
1 𝑆𝑚 𝑆𝑎
= +
𝐹𝑆 𝑆𝑢 𝑆𝑛
STRESSES

Axial Stress
- stress due to axial force or force acting
at the centroid of resisting cross-sectional
area.
a. Tensile stress
b. Compressive stress
STRESSES
Shearing Stress
- stress due to the shearing force applies
to the resisting area.
a. Single shear
b. Double shear
STRESSES
Torsional Stress
- Through the application of torque, shaft
is subjected to a pure torsion causing it to
twist.
a. Solid shaft
b. Hollow shaft
STRESSES

 Bearing Stress
- Stress cause by a force which is
perpendicular to the resisting area.
- It is the contact pressure between two
separate bodies.
STRESSES
 Bending or flexural Stress
- stress induced by applying a force to a
member and is subjected to an equivalent
moment.
a. Rectangular section
b. Circular section
STRESSES

 ThermalStress
- created when a change in size or
geometry is constrained due to a change in
temperature.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E)

 It indicates the stiffness of the material


or its resistance to deformation.
 A tendency of an object to deform
along an axis when opposing forces are
applied along that axis.
MODULUS OF RIGIDITY (G)

The ratio of the shearing stress to shearing


strain . It also indicates materials stiffness
under shear loading – that is, resistance to
shear deformation.
THERMAL ELONGATION

A change in size or geometry due to an applied


load or change in temperature.
ANGULAR DEFLECTION

A twist on a member due to application of


torque or an equivalent moment.
ELONGATION DUE TO WEIGHT

A change in size or geometry due to its own


weight.
COMBINED STRESSES

Combined axial and flexural stresses


Combined axial and torsional stresses
Combined torsional and flexural
Combined axial, torsional and flexural
QUESTIONS?
EXAMPLE NO.1
A steel rod having a cross-sectional area of 300 mm2
and a length of 150 m is suspended vertically from
one end. It supports a tensile load of 20 kN at the
lower end. If the unit mass of steel is 7850 kg/m3
and E = 200 × 103 MN/m2, find the total elongation
of the rod.

Ans: 54.33 mm
EXAMPLE NO.2

A steel wire 30 ft long, hanging vertically, supports a


load of 500 lb. Neglecting the weight of the wire,
determine the required diameter if the stress is not
to exceed 20 ksi and the total elongation is not to
exceed 0.20 in. Assume E = 29 × 106 psi.

Ans: 0.1988 inch


EXAMPLE NO.3
An aluminum bar having a cross-sectional area of 0.5 in2 carries
the axial loads applied at the positions shown in the figure.
Compute the total change in length of the bar if E = 10 × 106 psi.
Assume the bar is suitably braced to prevent lateral buckling.

Ans: 0.0696 in. (lengthening)


EXAMPLE NO.3

A steel tie rod on bridge must be made to withstand


a pull of 5000 lbs. Find the diameter of the rod
assuming a factor of safety of 5 and the ultimate
stress of 64,000 psi.

Ans: 0.71 in
EXAMPLE NO.2

An iron column of annular cross section has an outer


diameter of 200 mm and is subjected to force of 75
kN. Find the wall thickness if the allowable
compressive stress is 10 Mpa.

Ans: 12.75 mm
EXAMPLE NO.4

A steel railroad rails 10 m long are laid with a


clearance of 3mm at a temperature of 15 deg. C. At
what temperature will the rails just touch. If there
were no initial clearance.
Assume: alpha= 11.7 micro m/m-deg. C and E=200Gpa

Ans: 40.64 deg. C


EXAMPLE NO.5

A rigidly built in cantilever has cross section of ½ in deep,


3/8 inches wide, and is loaded 12 in. from the support.
Determine the bending stress in the beam assuming that a
load of 8 lb is applied gradually.

Ans: 6144 psi


EXAMPLE NO.6

Calculate the change in length of a circular steel rod of


radius 1.5 in and length of 6 ft loaded axially in tension by
force of 15 kips.

Ans: 0.005 in
EXAMPLE NO.7

Given the modulus of elasticity (E=207 Gpa)


and poisson’s ratio (mu= 0.28), calculate
the shear modulus of elasticity.

Ans: 80.8 Gpa


EXAMPLE NO.8

A cantilever of rectangular section is 100 mm broad by


150 mm deep and carries a concentrated load of 15 kN at
its free end. Neglecting the weight of the beam, find the
distance from the free end where the stress at the outer
fiber is 75 MN/m^2.

Ans: 1.875 m
EXAMPLE NO.9

A tensile stress of 8000 psi and a shear stress of 4000 psi


are induced in a brittle material whose working strength in
straight tension is 10,000 psi. What is the maximum
tensile stress?

Ans: 9656 psi


EXAMPLE NO.10

A railroad track is laid at a temperature of 10 deg. F with


gaps of 0.01 feet between the ends of the rails. The rails
are 33 feet long. If they are prevented from buckling, what
stress will result from a temperature of 110 deg. F?
Coefficient of linear expansion = 6.5x10^-6 per degree F.

Ans: 10,409 psi


EXAMPLE NO.11

Compute the load in Newton that must be applied to


a 25 mm round steel bar 2.5 m long (E = 207 Gpa) to
stretch the bar 1.3 mm.

Ans: 52,840 N
EXAMPLE

A round steel shaft is subjected to a torque of 226 N-m. The


allowable shearing stress is 41.4 Mpa. It is also subjected to a
bending moment of 339 N-m. The allowable tensile stress is 55
Mpa. Find the diameter of the shaft.

Answer: 41 mm
EXAMPLE NO.1
A prismatic bar at 50 deg. F is embedded in a rigid
concrete wall. The bar is 40 in. long and has a cross-
sectional area of 4 in^2. What is the axial force
developed if the temperature is increased to 100
deg. F ? The thermal expansion coefficient of the bar
is 5x10^-6/deg. F.

Ans: 30,000 lbs