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GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

COMPACTION OF SOILS

BY:- BHANUPRIYA SHARMA


ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Outline

 Introduction
 Effect of compaction on properties of soil
 Compaction tests
 Methods of field compaction
INTRODUCTION

Compressibility :- It is the process of volume


decrease due to increase in compressive forces in
soil mass.
Compression of soils can occur due to:-
 Compression of pore air in the voids.
 Expulsion of pore air from the voids.
 Expulsion of water from the voids.
Introduction contd….

Compaction
 Process of decrease in volume due to compression
and expulsion of pore air.

 It is an instantaneous process.

 It is carried out on partially saturated or dry soil.


Introduction contd….
Effect of compaction on properties of soil
1. Increased shear strength
This means that larger loads can be applied to compacted
soils since they are typically stronger.
2. Reduced compressibility
This also means that larger loads can be applied to
compacted soils since they produce small settlements.
3. Reduced permeability
This inhibits soils ability to absorb water, therefore
reduces the tendency to expand and shrink.
Compaction tests

Compaction tests are performed for following


analysis :-
• To assess the amount of compaction and the water
content.
• Provides relationship between the water content
and the dry density.
• Water content at which the maximum dry density
is attained.
Compaction tests contd..

There are two methods of performing compaction


tests :-
 Standard Proctor Test/ Light Compaction Test
 Modified Proctor Test/ Heavy Compaction Test
Compaction tests contd..
S.No. Apparatus SPT MPT

1 Volume of standard 943 cubic cm 943 cubic cm


mould

2 Height of free fall 304.8 mm 450 mm


of hammer

3 Weight of hammer 2.497 kg 4.54 kg

4 No. of layers 3 5

5 No. of blows 25 25
Compaction tests contd..
Compaction tests contd..

Standard Proctor Test


Compaction tests contd..

Calculations
 Dry density is computed from bulk density and water
content
𝑀
ρ= gm/ml
𝑉
M=mass of compacted soil (gm), V= volume of the mould
(ml).
• Dry density is computed by the formula
ρ
ρd =
1+𝑤
Where w is the water content
Compaction tests contd..

 Maximum dry density occurs at optimum moisture


content (O.M.C).

 At O.M.C stage , degree of saturation in the soil will be


85% to 95% ,because practically not possible to remove
all the air.

 Theoretically, maximum dry density will be achieved


when all the air is expelled out.
Methods of field compaction.

Smooth wheel roller – used for highway construction


Methods of field compaction contd..

Pneumatic -tyred rollers used for compacting sub base courses


Methods of field compaction contd..

Sheep foot rollers – used for compacting core of earth dam


Methods of field compaction contd..

Vibratory compactors used for compacting small depths like base


courses for highways