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CHAPTER 5 SMITH AND VAN

NESS: 2 LAW OF
ND

THERMODYNAMICS
CPMonterola che123
OBSERVATION/EXPERIENCE

“No machine can convert all available


heat to work”
OBSERVATION/EXPERIENCE

“Work conversion to other form of energy


can approach 100%”
OBSERVATION/EXPERIENCE

“Heat flow between two bodies always occur


from hot body to cold body”
KELVIN-PLANCK’S STATEMENT OF THE
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
CLAUSIUS’ STATEMENT OF THE
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
THERMAL EFFICIENCY
CARNOT’S CYCLE
CARNOT’S THEOREM
CARNOT’S EQUATION
CARNOT’S EFFICIENCY PROBLEM
CARNOT ENGINE
SEAT WORK
THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
(IN TERMS OF ENTROPY)
THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
(IN TERMS OF ENTROPY)
THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
(IN TERMS OF ENTROPY)
ENTROPY BALANCE FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
ENTROPY BALANCE FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
ENTROPY BALANCE FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
AND STEADY STATE
ENTROPY BALANCE FOR OPEN SYSTEMS,
STEADY STATE
WITH ONE ENTRANCE AND ONE EXIT
ENTROPY BALANCE FOR OPEN SYSTEMS AND STEADY STATE
Entropy balance for open systems, steady state with one entrance and one exit
CALCULATION OF IDEAL WORK
CALCULATION OF IDEAL WORK
(NEGLIGIBLE POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY)
CALCULATION OF IDEAL WORK FOR OPEN SYSTEM,
STEADY STATE AND ONE ENTRANCE/EXIT
(NEGLIGIBLE POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY)
IDEAL WORK PERRY PAGE 4-39
CALCULATION OF IDEAL WORK FOR OPEN SYSTEM,
STEADY STATE AND ONE ENTRANCE/EXIT
(NEGLIGIBLE POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY)
IDEAL WORK PROBLEM
LOST WORK

Wlost = Ws – Wideal
LOST WORK
LOST WORK
WLOST = TSURR SG
WLOST PERRY PAGE 4-39
COUNTERCURRENT HEAT
EXCHANGER
PARALLEL FLOW HEAT
EXCHANGER
SEAT WORK
5.39 A steady-flow adiabatic turbine (expander)
accepts gas at conditions 500K, 6 bar and
discharges at condition 371K, 1.2 bar. assuming
ideal gases, determine (per mole of gas) W,
Wideal, Wlost and SG . Take T surr. = 300 K and Cp
= 7/2 R.

WLOST = TSURR SG
THE THIRD LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
“The absolute entropy is zero for
crystalline substances at 0 K.”

Smith and Van Ness


THE THIRD LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
ENTROPY IN
MICROSCOPIC
VIEWPOINT

S = k log W
“EVERYTHING HAPPEN BECAUSE
OF CHANCE”
S=K LN W

W IS NUMBER OF
WAYS OR NUMBER
OF MICROSTATES

S IS ENTROPY

K IS R/NA
MAXWELL DEMON
THE ARROW OF TIME
ENTROPY CALCULATION USING
AN ELECTRIC MOTOR
CONSTANT VOLUME ENTROPY CALCULATION
REFRIGERATION/ CARNOT EFFICIENCY
SEAT WORK
A Carnot engine operates between temperature levels of 100°C
and 30°C. It drives a Carnot refrigerator, which provides cooling
at 0°C and discard heat at 30°C. Determine a numerical ratio of
heat extracted by the refrigerator (“cooling load”) to the heat
delivered to the engine (“heating load”).
ENTROPY CHANGES IN AN IDEAL GAS
ENTROPY CHANGES IN AN IDEAL GAS

Methane gas at 298K and 5 bar undergoes


a reversible adiabatic expansion to 1 bar.
Assuming methane to be an ideal gas
at these conditions, find its final temperature.
Assuming that the Cp, ig/R of methane
is constant at 4.217.
ENTROPY CALCULATIONS USING
CPIG/R