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PHAR 221


UGSoP, University of Ghana, Legon

Learning objectives

 Classification-Morphological characteristics

 Growth requirements, multiplication and reproduction

 Isolation, cultivation (culture media) of fungi

 Microscopic examination

 Differentiate between yeasts and moulds

 Appreciate economic importance of fungi

Fungi - Introduction

What is mycology?

The study of fungi, including their genetic and

biochemical properties, taxonomy and use to

humans as a source of medicine and food, as well

as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.

Fungi - Introduction

• True fungus are primarily terrestrial spore-

bearing organisms that exhibits absorptive
heterotrophic mode of nutrition as they lack

•Fungi maybe unicellular (yeast), multicellular

filamentous colonies eg molds, and mushrooms.

•They are also routinely grouped as Microscopic

and macroscopic

Fungi - Introduction

• Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs

• They are distinct as they:

-lack chlorophyll
-Do not obtain energy directly from the sun
-Utilize CO2 as source of Carbon.

• They require organic nutrients as a source of energy

• They are saprophytic or parasitic.

Fungi – Introduction

• Fungi produce exoenzymes to act on

– Digestive enzymes that are secreted into the environment to
digest the food into small molecules that can be absorbed
and used by the fungus.

• Such macromolecules include carbohydrates (cellulases),

lignin (oxidases), organic phosphates (phosphatases), amino
sugar polymers (chitinases) and proteins (proteases) to
break them down into soluble molecules that are subsequently
transported into cells to support heterotrophic metabolism.

• They are therefore absorptive heterotrophs.

Fungi - Introduction _Distribution
• Every conceivable place, including the North Pole.

• Body’s normal flora contains several fungi that are non

pathogenic in nature – Malassezia spp, Candida albicans,
Mucor racemosus

• However they can be opportunistic, causing minor infections

of the hair, nails, mucous membranes, skin in both
immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.

Introduction_Cellular organisation

– Larger than bacteria

– Contain nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes

– Cell wall which is composed of

– polysaccharides,

polypeptides and chitin .

Chitin is a long carbohydrate polymer that adds

rigidity and structural support to the thin cells of
the fungus.

Similarity with plants:

 Cell wall

 Liquid-filled intracellular vacuoles

 Microscopically visible streaming of cytoplasm

 Lack of motility

Classification based on morphology

Classification based on Morphology:
1. Moulds : These are multicellular and filamentous
fungi. Eg: Aspergillus spp, Trichophyton spp.

2. Yeasts: Single celled organisms that reproduce by

budding. Eg: Cryptococcus neoformans,
Saccharomyces cerviciae

3. Yeast like: Similar to yeasts but produce

pseudohyphae. Eg: Candida albicans
Classification based on Morphology:
4. Dimorphic: Exists in two different morphological forms

(mould or yeast) under two different environmental


Eg: Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatidis,

Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis.

• They exist as yeasts in tissue and in vitro at 37oC but as

moulds in their natural habitat and in vitro at room

A closer look at Yeasts



•Yeasts are unicellular, nonfilamentous,

3-5 µm in diameter/microscopic fungi
which are typically spherical or oval

•Have single nucleus and eukaryotic


•They are facultative anaerobes.

Eg. Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
Cryptococcus spp (C. neoformans). 14
The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

•The yeast is an organism surrounded by one cell wall only.

•The cell wall is followed by a space called the periplasmic

space, a cell membrane and the cytoplasma.

•Inside the yeast are many important organelles eg. the

vacuole, mitochondria etc .
• Cytoplasm
– holds different parts of the cell's organelles together.
• Golgi body
– sorting and processing of proteins

The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

• Vacuole
– It carries out degradative processes
– It s the primary storage site for small molecules and
biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and
– Plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the
homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino
acid concentration and intracellular pH.

• Mitochondria
– The generation of adenosine triphosphate from energy-
rich compounds.

A closer look at Moulds


The morphology of multicellular fungi
•Fungi have long branched threadlike
filament called hyphae

•Hyphae having cross walls/septa

between cells are said to be septate.

• Formation of septate and nonseptate

hyphae depends on the fungi species.

•Cells of septate hyphae may be

connected by pores that allow
cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes
nuclei to pass through.
The morphology of multicellular fungi
•Hyphae release enzymes to digest food
sources for extracellular
absorption of nutrients.

•Hyphae grow at their tips

into a net like overall
mass called mycelium .

•Mycelium is a highly branched system of

tubes that contains mobile cytoplasm with
many nuclei.
The morphology of multicellular fungi

•Mycelium can extensively

permeate the substrate

within which the fungi

grows (eg. soil, water

or living tissue.

•Mycelium extend the area in which a

fungi can find nutrients.
The morphology of multicellular fungi
Types of hyphae

– Vegetative hyphae -grow on or in media to absorb nutrients

– Aerial hyphae – Usually contain structures for production of

spores or may be developed into fruiting body

• Some moulds form sexual spores in the so called YM or MY shift

which confer protection against environmental factors as heat,
freezing, drying and some chemical agents.

The morphology of multicellular fungi

•Molds tend to grow on surfaces rather

than throughout substrates.
•Mildews, rusts, smuts are examples of aerobic filamentous



Types of fungal reproduction

– budding

– fission

– hyphae fragmentation

– sporulation

Reproduction in
yeast is by asexual
and sexual means

•Asexual Budding
Reproduction is
by budding or

•Parent nucleus divides,

migrate to one end to form a bud
which enlarges and detaches from the mother cell 26
Yeast reproduction

Fission: Similar to budding but the cells grow to

certain size and divide into two identical cells.

Only a few yeast species reproduce by fission.

e.g. Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Mould reproduction


•Moulds reproduce by means of spores, both

sexually (meiotic) and asexually (mitotic).

• Sexual spores result from mating between two

different hyphae.

• Asexual spores result from a simple internal

division or external modification of an individual
hypha. 29
• Asexual spores may be free and unprotected
at the end of hyphae; known as conidia
• Asexual spores may also be formed in a sac,
known as a sporangium

• A large number of fungi invariably reproduce both

asexually and sexually.

• Spore generally are the reproductive body of a fungus;

occasionally, a resistant body for adverse environment.

• Spores are mostly colourless (hyaline), while a few are

pigmented as green, yellow, red, orange, black or brown.

• Reproduce either by asexual or sexual means.

• Both asexual or sexual spores can germinate and form new hyphae.

Rhizopus stolonifer, a common bread mold, is an example of a zygomycete

that undergoes both asexual and sexual reproduction.
General characteristics of fungal spores

1. Represent microscopic dispersal or survival means

2. Fungal spores may be unicellular or multicellular

3. Some spores possess a textured or ornamented surface.

4. The protoplasm of most spores is surrounded by a rigid

wall, which is often thicker and more multilayered than
that of the hyphae and may be impregnated with
pigments e.g. melanins and lipids.
General characteristics of fungal spores

6. Spores often contain substantial amounts of nutrient

reserves, which may take the form of lipids, glycogen etc.

7. They possess a relatively low water content.

8. While dormant, they exhibit a low rate of metabolic

NB: many fungi are capable of producing more than one
type of spore. Each has its own role to play in the life cycle
of the fungus.
Classification of fungi

•Most common classification is the Linneaus system -

relatedness between fungi leads to a hierarchy of different

levels of classification, with terms used to denote different levels

in this hierarchy.

•Fungi that are very closely related are grouped into species.

•The nomenclature is binomial, with a generic and specific

names (eg. Aspergillus niger).

There are three phyla but actually four groups of fungi:
• Phylum Zygomycota, the zygomycetes
• Phylum Ascomycota, the ascomycetes
• Phylum Basidiomycota, the basidiomycetes
• Imperfect fungi

• The imperfect fungi are not a true phylum, but rather a collection of
fungi in which sexual structures have not been identified.

• The three phyla of fungi are distinguished primarily by

their sexual reproductive structures.

Reproduction & Classification



Growth requirements

Growth requirements - oxygen

• With respect to oxygen requirements, fungi can be


– Obligate aerobes

– Facultative aerobes

• Most fungi are aerobic but some, especially the

yeasts, are facultative anaerobes.

Growth requirements -temperature

Most fungi grow at room temperature (25-30 ºC) .

Four basic groups

Thermotolerant: can grow well within a wide range of


Psychrophilic: growth optimum 4- 16°C; 20°C max.

Mesophilic: commonly grow from 10-40°C; includes most fungi

Thermophilic: 40-50°C optimum

Growth requirements - pH

They tolerate extreme pH

• Fungi grow over a broad range of pH 3.0 - 9.0

• Most show a relatively broad pH range

optimum of 5.0 - 7.0

There are also special cases of acidophilic as well

as alkalophilic fungi

Growth requirements - water


• Most fungi require very high water availability and rapidly

senesce in dry conditions.

• DNA is denatured at a water activity of 0.55 (water activity

of pure water is 1).

• Xerotolerant fungi can grow, slowly, at water activity of 0.64

(dry conditions). In these fungi, the metabolic processes take
place in the compatible solute glycerol instead of water.
Growth requirements


• Obtained from basic sugar molecules, but for

the use of polymers specific degrading
enzymes are required.

• Organic sources of carbon usually include

monosaccharides, disaccharides, starch,
amino-sugars, sugar alcohols etc.
Growth requirements

• Nitrogen is required for the formation of amino acids
and purines.

• All fungi can use amino acids as nitrogen source

• Most fungi can use ammonium as sole source of


• can also use nitrate as sole source of nitrogen converting

it to ammonium by the enzymes nitrate reductase and
nitrite reductase.
Growth requirements


• Obtained from the environment by the release of

phosphotase enzymes which break down complex
phosphate molecules.

Growth requirements


• Fungi absorb iron from the environment by using

special compounds called siderophores.

• Siderophores are iron chelators that solubilise ferric

hydroxide making soluble iron available for absorption
by fungi.
• Minerals : K+, Mg2+, SO42- and trace elements Cu2+, Zn2+,
Cultivation of fungi

Culture media

• Generally tube media is used rather than plated media

i. there is less chance for spore release into the environment.

ii. less chance for dehydration

iii. ease of storage.

• The agar in a tube is inoculated in a straight line.


Cryptococcus Candida Trichophyton T. menta- Wangiella Aspergillus

neoformans albicans tonsurans grophytes dermatitidis fumigatus 52
Fungal culture media

a. Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Sab-Dex) - classic medium,

recommended for most studies.

b.Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol -

chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial growth.

c. Mycosel agar –

• For the solation of pathogenic fungi from materials having a

large amount of flora of other fungi and bacteria.

Fungal culture media

• Mycosel agar contains chloramphenicol to inhibit bacterial

growth and cycloheximide to inhibit saprophytic fungi and
some yeasts .

NB. Bacteria-like fungi (such as Actinomycetes) are inhibited by


Cycloheximide will prevent the growth of Aspergillus,

Scopulariopsis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Fungal culture media

d. Brain heart infusion slant (BHI) –

This medium is more enriched than Sab-Dex. Used in

the recovery of H. capsulatum.

e. Potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and Corn-meal agar -

are used in slide cultures; as they induce spore
formation, which greatly aids in identification.

Fungal culture media

Special applications agar

a. Caffeic Acid Agar - Cryptococcus neoformans will

produce melanin resulting in black colonies .

b. Birdseed Agar - used to isolate Cryptococcus

neoformans from contaminated cultures

Macroscopic examination

Macroscopic examination

Preliminary identification is based on differential growth patterns

(colony morphology) on various media.

Colony Morphology

• Surface texture eg: cottony or wooly (floccose), granular,

chalky, velvety, powdery, silky, glabrous (smooth, creamy),
waxy etc. , smooth, glistening, rough, dull (opposite of
glistening), rugose (wrinkled), etc.

• Surface topography - some fungal colonies may cover the

entire surface of agar; others grow in a more restricted
manner. 58
Macroscopic examination

• Form
– What is the basic shape of the colony?
For example, circular, filamentous, irregular, etc.
• Elevation
– What is the cross sectional shape of the colony?
For eg. Elevated, convex , etc.
• Margin
– What is the magnified shape of the edge of the
colony? For eg. Filiform, undulate, entire.

Macroscopic examination

•Chromogenesis (Pigmentation)

–fungi may be colorless, brightly or darkly colored.

–Color may be on fungus itself, on its sporulating

apparatus, on the agar, or on the bottom of the

–It is important to note the top pigment; the

underside pigment (reverse); and any discoloration
of the medium.

Cryptococcus Candida Trichophyton T. menta- Wangiella Aspergillus

neoformans albicans tonsurans grophytes dermatitidis fumigatus 61
Economic Importance

Importance of fungi

Production of alcoholic drinks

•To ferment fruit juices to wines

• To ferment cereal products eg malt in the production of

whiskies, rums, vodkas, brandies, gins etc.

•Beer from starch sources

• Production of Bakery Products

The baker, strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is meticulously

selected for their specific high production of CO2 under the
aerobic parameters. 63
Importance of fungi

• Production of Cheeses

The mould Penicillium roqueforti is usually employed in

the production of the blueveined cheeses.

The spores of the fungus are normally used to inoculate

the cheese.

• Food - Mushroom-

Agaricus bisporus
Importance of fungi

• Supplies vitamins

Aspergillus niger for citric acid production.

•Saccharomyces cerevisiae also finds use as a food

supplement as it is fairly rich in Vitamin B variants.

• Antibiotics production

Penicillium notatum (chrysogenum)- penicillin

Penicillium griseofulvin – griseofulvin

Streptomyces orientalis – vancomycin

Streptomyces griseus – streptomycin 65

Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Cortisone (Rhizopus arrhizus)

– immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporin )

Cyclosporin A is a primary metabolite of several fungi,

including Trichoderma polysporum and
Cylindrocarpon lucidum.
Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Ergot produced by Claviceps purpurea contains

medically important alkaloids that help in inducing
uterine contractions, controlling bleeding and
treating migraine.

– Alkaloids are now produced in culture by strains of

C. fusiformis and C. paspalii.

Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Aspergillus terreus, a soil-borne fungus, produces

a secondary metabolite called lovastatin and
Phoma sp produces squalestatin. These are lipid
lowering drugs.

– Saccharomyces cerviciae is extensively used in

recombinant DNA technology, which includes the
Hepatitis B Vaccine.
Fungal infections

Fungal infections

1. Superficial -

2. Cutaneous – dermatophycosis, mucocutaneous


3. Subcutaneous – sporotrichosis, blastomycosis

4. Systemic – histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis,


Fungal infections

1. Superficial fungal infections

• Confined to the outermost layers of the skin and


• No host cellular or inflammatory response is seen due

to the organisms being remote from living tissue.

•No pathology; the disease is recognized

purely on cosmetic basis. Eg. Malasezzia furfur.

Fungal infections
2. Cutaneous fungal infections

• It is the most common fungal disease

• It is caused by a closely related group of fungi called

the dermatophytes that produce keratinase.

• Have particular affinity for the keratin of the skin,

nails and hair.

• Disease caused by these organisms is called

dermatomycosis. 72
Fungal infections

Eg. Tinea capitis, Tinea pedis, Tinea nigra

Three genera of fungi are commonly involved in

cutaneous mycoses:

1. Trichophyton

2. Microsporum

3. Epidermophyton
Fungal infections

Tinea pedis – on the feet or between the toes

Tinea corporis (ringworm) – between the fingers, on

the legs, arms etc .

Tinea cruris – lesions on the hairy skin around the


Tinea capitis – scalp and eyebrows

Fungal infections

Tinea favosa - chronic dermatophyte

infection of the scalp

Tinea barbae –

Tinea unguium -

Fungal infections

Mucocutaneous candidiasis

• Colonization of the mucous membranes by the yeast

Candida albicans
– Thrush – fungal growth in the oral cavity, An indicator of

– Vulvovaginitis – fungal growth in the vaginal canal

Can be associated with a hormonal imbalance

Fungal infections

3. Subcutaneous fungal infections

• Involves the deeper layers of skin and often muscle


• Follows inoculation of fungal spores via trauma.

•This type of fungal infection is often tentatively

identified by the presence of a characteristic tissue
reaction or granule. Examples are :

Fungal infections

•Caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii

•Infection of the skin that causes pus exuding

subcutaneous nodules that progresses proximally along
lymphatic channels (lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis).

•Pulmonary sporotrichosis and inoculation into tendons

and joints.
Fungal infections


• Low, progressive, granulomatous infection.

• Skin lesions containing dark brown sclerotic bodies.

• Caused by black molds, eg Cladosporium,


Fungal infections

4. Systemic fungal infections

•Attack the deep tissues and organ systems.

Two categories of systemic disease.

Fungal infections

a. Those caused by truly pathogenic fungi with the

ability to cause disease in the normal human host
when the inoculum is of sufficient size.

Histoplasma capsulatum

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Coccidioides immitis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Fungal infections
Blastomyces dermatitidis

•Causes blastomycosis

• The fungi lives in the environment, particularly in moist

soil and in decomposing matter such as wood and

• Although most people who breathe in the spores don’t

get sick, some of those who do may have flu-like
symptoms, and the infection can sometimes become
systemic if not treated. 82
Fungal infections

Blastomyces dermatitidis

•Blastomysis may spread to the

–skin (cutaneous blastomycosis

– the bones (osseous blastomycosis)

–the urogenital tract or

–the central nervous system.

Fungal infections

Coccidioides immitis
•The disease often begins as a benign or mildly severe
upper respiratory infection that usually resolves rapidly.

•Recovery from mild forms of the disease usually results

in lifelong immunity.

•However, if there are enough spores inhaled, or if the

person's immune system is compromised , the disease
can spread to other parts of the body.
Fungal infections

Coccidioides immitis
•If infection is established, the disease may
progress as a chronic pulmonary condition or as a systemic
disease involving the meninges , bones, joints, and
subcutaneous and cutaneous tissues.

•The symptoms of the disease are quite variable but often

the patient has an allergic reaction to the circulating
fungus, producing reddening of the skin known as "desert
Fungal infections

b. Opportunistic fungi

These are low virulence organisms who require the

patient's defenses to be lowered before the infection is

Aspergillus sp.

Candida albicans

Cryptococcus neoformans

Pneumocystis jirovecii 86
Some specific examples of fungi and their pathogenic factors

Candida albicans

• C. albicans belongs to a diverse group of

budding yeast that belong to the genus Candida.

• The most common specie is Candida albicans.

• This organism stains Gram-positive.

• Most infections are endogenous.

•Candida is component of normal oral, GI, vaginal flora

•It causes the disease candidiasis 88

Candida albicans

Candidiasis may occur in the body as

– Thrush (tongue, oral mucosa)

seen with inhaled steroids, cancer, HIV

– Esophagitis in immunosuppressed patients

– Vulvovaginitis

– Bloodstream candidiasis
Candida albicans

Pathogenic factors
 Candida albicans can express at least three types of
surface adhesion molecules to ensure mucosal
adherence and colonization of epithelial surfaces.

 An aspartyl proteinase enzyme able to facilitate

initial penetration of keratinized cells.

 Deeper penetration of keratinized epithelia is

assisted by hyphae formation. 90
Cryptococcus neoformans
•Cryptococcus neoformans causes

•Cryptococcosis is a lung infection which is acquired by

inhalation of the fungi

•This fungi lives in soil throughout the world.

•Most infections are asymptomatic.

•May present as isolated pulmonary nodules (carcinoma).

Cryptococcus neoformans

• Cryptococcal meningitis may occur as

a result of dissemination from lung.

•Major opportunistic infection in immuno suppressed patients

especially HIV patients with low CD4 counts.

Cryptococcus neoformans

Major virulence factors of C. neoformance

•Polysaccharide capsule

This make it antiphagocytic: not phagocytized or killed by

neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages

•Melanin synthesis – protects yeast against oxidant


•Temperature tolerance

Pneumocystis jirovecii

• Causes Pneumocystic pneumonia (PCP)

•Which is a lung infection

•PCP? is one of the most frequent and severe

opportunistic infections in people with weakened
immune systems, particularly people with HIV/AIDS.

Histoplasma capsulatum

•Causes acute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

•Filamentous mold in the environment which

exhibits dimorphism.

•The fungus lives particularly in soil that contains

large amounts of bird or bat droppings.

Histoplasma capsulatum

•Patients usually improve in several weeks.

•5-10 % symptomatic cases develop inflammatory

syndromes (arthritis, erythema nodosum, or

Aspergillus spp

•Causes Aspergillosis.
•A mould that spreads through the air and can cause
serious pulmonary and bloodstream infections in people
with lung diseases or weakened immune systems.

•Aspergilloma (fungus ball) occurs as a result of

colonization of preexisting lung cavity disease

eg. TB, abscess, etc.
Aspergillus infections

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

– Occurs in patients with immunosuppression

and neutropenia

– Hematogenous dissemination may occur.

commonly are ocular, cerebral and cutaneous

Aspergillus spp

•More than 100 species of Aspergillus are

omnipresent in environment ( in soil , on damp walls,

composts etc.

•Most human disease are caused by

A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger.

•A. fumigatus is thermotolerant (up to 55 oC) and is found

in high concentrations in compost sites. It is an airborne
opportunistic pathogen. 99
Toxigenic fungi

Toxigenic fungi

These are fungi which produce fungal metabolites

which when ingested, inhaled or absorbed through skin

cause lowered performance, sickness or death in man or

Acute effects

Headache, fever, nausea, diarrhœa, vomiting, weakness,

tremors, convulsions, in some cases death
Toxigenic fungi

Chronic or long-term effects

• Cancer, genetic or birth defects

• Over 200 kinds of mycotoxin, produced by about 150

different fungi

• Certain crops are commonly associated with certain


Fungal toxins

• Toxins from fungi are widely grouped into

– Toxins from moulds ("mycotoxins") and

– Toxins from higher fungi ("mushroom poisons").


• Mycotoxins are "natural products from moulds that evoke

a toxic response when introduced in low concentrations to

• Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary


• They are part of fungal metabolism that is not essential for

cell growth and maintainance of basic cell function but
provide some advantage to survive in the environment.

• The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of

foods, feeds and pharmaceutical products.

• Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the

type of producing fungus and environmental
conditions such as the substrate, water activity
(moisture and relative humidity), duration of
exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or
other animal interactions.

Toxigenic fungi

• Aflatoxin is potent carcinogen produced by

members of Aspergillus. They contaminate grain
before harvest or during storage, following
prolonged exposure to a high-humidity
environment. Eg. maize, sorghum, and groundnuts.
• Aflatoxin poisoning is known as Aflatoxicosis -
Liver damage, Liver cancer, Mental impairment
Abdominal Pain
Toxigenic fungi

• Ochratoxin A is produced by Penicillium and

Aspergillus species.
• known to occur in cereals, coffee, dried fruit
and red wine.
• Meat and meat products can be contaminated
with this toxin.
• Exposure to ochratoxins through diet can
cause acute toxicity in mammalian kidneys.
• It is possibly a human carcinogen
Mushroom poisons

• Mushroom poisoning is commonly caused

after consumption of raw or cooked fruit
bodies of toxic species.
• Poisonous mushrooms are often referred to as
toadstools from the German word
"Todesstuhl" (= death's stool).
• Mushroom toxins may be classified into four
groups according to their principal biological
Toxigenic fungi


1. Kathlene Talaro and Arthur Talaro. Foundations in

2. Jacquelyn G. Black. Microbiology Principles and Explorations
3. Ronald M. Atlas, Lawrence C. Parks and Alfred E. Brown. 1995.
Microorganisms in our World. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.
4. Alfred E. Brown. 2005. Benson’s Microbiological applications.
McGraw Hill companies.
5. Richard V. Goering, Hazel M. Dockrell, Mark Zuckerman, Ivan
M. Roitt, Peter L. Choidini. 2013. Mims’ Medical

Learning Outcomes

 Yeasts and moulds

 Morphological characteristics

 Growth requirements, multiplication and


 Isolation, cultivation (culture media)

 Economic importance

 Toxigenic fungi