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Mycology

PHAR 221

2019

UGSoP, University of Ghana, Legon


Learning objectives

 Classification-Morphological characteristics

 Growth requirements, multiplication and reproduction

 Isolation, cultivation (culture media) of fungi

 Microscopic examination

 Differentiate between yeasts and moulds

 Appreciate economic importance of fungi

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Fungi - Introduction

What is mycology?

The study of fungi, including their genetic and

biochemical properties, taxonomy and use to

humans as a source of medicine and food, as well

as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.

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Fungi - Introduction

• True fungus are primarily terrestrial spore-


bearing organisms that exhibits absorptive
heterotrophic mode of nutrition as they lack
chlorophyll.

•Fungi maybe unicellular (yeast), multicellular


filamentous colonies eg molds, and mushrooms.

•They are also routinely grouped as Microscopic


and macroscopic

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Fungi - Introduction

• Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs

• They are distinct as they:


-lack chlorophyll
-Do not obtain energy directly from the sun
-Utilize CO2 as source of Carbon.

• They require organic nutrients as a source of energy

• They are saprophytic or parasitic.

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Fungi – Introduction

• Fungi produce exoenzymes to act on


macromolecules.
– Digestive enzymes that are secreted into the environment to
digest the food into small molecules that can be absorbed
and used by the fungus.

• Such macromolecules include carbohydrates (cellulases),


lignin (oxidases), organic phosphates (phosphatases), amino
sugar polymers (chitinases) and proteins (proteases) to
break them down into soluble molecules that are subsequently
transported into cells to support heterotrophic metabolism.

• They are therefore absorptive heterotrophs.


Fungi - Introduction _Distribution
• Every conceivable place, including the North Pole.

• Body’s normal flora contains several fungi that are non


pathogenic in nature – Malassezia spp, Candida albicans,
Mucor racemosus

• However they can be opportunistic, causing minor infections


of the hair, nails, mucous membranes, skin in both
immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.

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Introduction_Cellular organisation

– Larger than bacteria

– Contain nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes

– Cell wall which is composed of

– polysaccharides,

polypeptides and chitin .

Chitin is a long carbohydrate polymer that adds


rigidity and structural support to the thin cells of
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the fungus.
Introduction

Similarity with plants:

 Cell wall

 Liquid-filled intracellular vacuoles

 Microscopically visible streaming of cytoplasm

 Lack of motility

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Classification based on morphology

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Classification based on Morphology:
1. Moulds : These are multicellular and filamentous
fungi. Eg: Aspergillus spp, Trichophyton spp.

2. Yeasts: Single celled organisms that reproduce by


budding. Eg: Cryptococcus neoformans,
Saccharomyces cerviciae

3. Yeast like: Similar to yeasts but produce


pseudohyphae. Eg: Candida albicans
Classification based on Morphology:
4. Dimorphic: Exists in two different morphological forms

(mould or yeast) under two different environmental

conditions

Eg: Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatidis,

Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis.

• They exist as yeasts in tissue and in vitro at 37oC but as

moulds in their natural habitat and in vitro at room

temperature.
A closer look at Yeasts

Yeasts

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Yeasts

•Yeasts are unicellular, nonfilamentous,


3-5 µm in diameter/microscopic fungi
which are typically spherical or oval

•Have single nucleus and eukaryotic


organelles

•They are facultative anaerobes.


Eg. Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
Cryptococcus spp (C. neoformans).

http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/mycology/sza_images_SEM.htm 14
The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

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The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

•The yeast is an organism surrounded by one cell wall only.

•The cell wall is followed by a space called the periplasmic


space, a cell membrane and the cytoplasma.

•Inside the yeast are many important organelles eg. the


vacuole, mitochondria etc .
• Cytoplasm
– holds different parts of the cell's organelles together.
• Golgi body
– sorting and processing of proteins

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The morphology of unicellular fungi -Yeasts

• Vacuole
– It carries out degradative processes
– It s the primary storage site for small molecules and
biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and
polyphosphate
– Plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the
homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino
acid concentration and intracellular pH.

• Mitochondria
– The generation of adenosine triphosphate from energy-
rich compounds.

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A closer look at Moulds

Moulds

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The morphology of multicellular fungi
•Fungi have long branched threadlike
filament called hyphae

•Hyphae having cross walls/septa


between cells are said to be septate.

• Formation of septate and nonseptate


hyphae depends on the fungi species.

•Cells of septate hyphae may be


connected by pores that allow
cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes
nuclei to pass through.
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The morphology of multicellular fungi
•Hyphae release enzymes to digest food
sources for extracellular
absorption of nutrients.

•Hyphae grow at their tips


into a net like overall
mass called mycelium .

•Mycelium is a highly branched system of


tubes that contains mobile cytoplasm with
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many nuclei.
The morphology of multicellular fungi

•Mycelium can extensively

permeate the substrate

within which the fungi

grows (eg. soil, water

or living tissue.

•Mycelium extend the area in which a


fungi can find nutrients.
The morphology of multicellular fungi
Types of hyphae

– Vegetative hyphae -grow on or in media to absorb nutrients

– Aerial hyphae – Usually contain structures for production of


spores or may be developed into fruiting body

• Some moulds form sexual spores in the so called YM or MY shift


which confer protection against environmental factors as heat,
freezing, drying and some chemical agents.

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The morphology of multicellular fungi

•Molds tend to grow on surfaces rather


than throughout substrates.
•Mildews, rusts, smuts are examples of aerobic filamentous
fungi.

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Reproduction

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Reproduction

Types of fungal reproduction

– budding

– fission

– hyphae fragmentation

– sporulation

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Reproduction_buding_Yeast
Reproduction in
yeast is by asexual
and sexual means

•Asexual Budding
Reproduction is
by budding or
fission

•Parent nucleus divides,


migrate to one end to form a bud
which enlarges and detaches from the mother cell 26
Yeast reproduction

Fission: Similar to budding but the cells grow to


certain size and divide into two identical cells.

Only a few yeast species reproduce by fission.


e.g. Schizosaccharomyces pombe

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Mould reproduction

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Reproduction

•Moulds reproduce by means of spores, both


sexually (meiotic) and asexually (mitotic).

• Sexual spores result from mating between two


different hyphae.

• Asexual spores result from a simple internal


division or external modification of an individual
hypha. 29
• Asexual spores may be free and unprotected
at the end of hyphae; known as conidia
• Asexual spores may also be formed in a sac,
known as a sporangium
Reproduction

• A large number of fungi invariably reproduce both

asexually and sexually.

• Spore generally are the reproductive body of a fungus;

occasionally, a resistant body for adverse environment.

• Spores are mostly colourless (hyaline), while a few are

pigmented as green, yellow, red, orange, black or brown.


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• Reproduce either by asexual or sexual means.

• Both asexual or sexual spores can germinate and form new hyphae.

Rhizopus stolonifer, a common bread mold, is an example of a zygomycete


that undergoes both asexual and sexual reproduction.
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General characteristics of fungal spores

1. Represent microscopic dispersal or survival means

2. Fungal spores may be unicellular or multicellular

3. Some spores possess a textured or ornamented surface.

4. The protoplasm of most spores is surrounded by a rigid


wall, which is often thicker and more multilayered than
that of the hyphae and may be impregnated with
pigments e.g. melanins and lipids.
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General characteristics of fungal spores

6. Spores often contain substantial amounts of nutrient


reserves, which may take the form of lipids, glycogen etc.

7. They possess a relatively low water content.

8. While dormant, they exhibit a low rate of metabolic


activity.
NB: many fungi are capable of producing more than one
type of spore. Each has its own role to play in the life cycle
of the fungus.
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Classification of fungi

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•Most common classification is the Linneaus system -

relatedness between fungi leads to a hierarchy of different

levels of classification, with terms used to denote different levels

in this hierarchy.

•Fungi that are very closely related are grouped into species.

•The nomenclature is binomial, with a generic and specific

names (eg. Aspergillus niger).


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There are three phyla but actually four groups of fungi:
• Phylum Zygomycota, the zygomycetes
• Phylum Ascomycota, the ascomycetes
• Phylum Basidiomycota, the basidiomycetes
• Imperfect fungi

• The imperfect fungi are not a true phylum, but rather a collection of
fungi in which sexual structures have not been identified.

• The three phyla of fungi are distinguished primarily by


their sexual reproductive structures.

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Reproduction & Classification

Deuteromycota

mucor

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Growth requirements

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Growth requirements - oxygen

• With respect to oxygen requirements, fungi can be


either:

– Obligate aerobes

– Facultative aerobes

• Most fungi are aerobic but some, especially the


yeasts, are facultative anaerobes.

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Growth requirements -temperature

Most fungi grow at room temperature (25-30 ºC) .

Four basic groups

Thermotolerant: can grow well within a wide range of


temperatures

Psychrophilic: growth optimum 4- 16°C; 20°C max.

Mesophilic: commonly grow from 10-40°C; includes most fungi

Thermophilic: 40-50°C optimum

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Growth requirements - pH

They tolerate extreme pH

• Fungi grow over a broad range of pH 3.0 - 9.0

• Most show a relatively broad pH range


optimum of 5.0 - 7.0

There are also special cases of acidophilic as well


as alkalophilic fungi

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Growth requirements - water

Water

• Most fungi require very high water availability and rapidly


senesce in dry conditions.

• DNA is denatured at a water activity of 0.55 (water activity


of pure water is 1).

• Xerotolerant fungi can grow, slowly, at water activity of 0.64


(dry conditions). In these fungi, the metabolic processes take
place in the compatible solute glycerol instead of water.
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Growth requirements

Carbon

• Obtained from basic sugar molecules, but for


the use of polymers specific degrading
enzymes are required.

• Organic sources of carbon usually include


monosaccharides, disaccharides, starch,
amino-sugars, sugar alcohols etc.
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Growth requirements

Nitrogen
• Nitrogen is required for the formation of amino acids
and purines.

• All fungi can use amino acids as nitrogen source

• Most fungi can use ammonium as sole source of


nitrogen.

• can also use nitrate as sole source of nitrogen converting


it to ammonium by the enzymes nitrate reductase and
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nitrite reductase.
Growth requirements

Phosphorous

• Obtained from the environment by the release of


phosphotase enzymes which break down complex
phosphate molecules.

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Growth requirements

Iron

• Fungi absorb iron from the environment by using


special compounds called siderophores.

• Siderophores are iron chelators that solubilise ferric


hydroxide making soluble iron available for absorption
by fungi.
• Minerals : K+, Mg2+, SO42- and trace elements Cu2+, Zn2+,
Mg2+
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Cultivation of fungi

Culture media

• Generally tube media is used rather than plated media

i. there is less chance for spore release into the environment.

ii. less chance for dehydration

iii. ease of storage.

• The agar in a tube is inoculated in a straight line.

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Morphology

Cryptococcus Candida Trichophyton T. menta- Wangiella Aspergillus


neoformans albicans tonsurans grophytes dermatitidis fumigatus 52
Fungal culture media

a. Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Sab-Dex) - classic medium,


recommended for most studies.

b.Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol -


chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial growth.

c. Mycosel agar –

• For the solation of pathogenic fungi from materials having a


large amount of flora of other fungi and bacteria.

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Fungal culture media

• Mycosel agar contains chloramphenicol to inhibit bacterial


growth and cycloheximide to inhibit saprophytic fungi and
some yeasts .

NB. Bacteria-like fungi (such as Actinomycetes) are inhibited by


chloramphenicol.

Cycloheximide will prevent the growth of Aspergillus,


Scopulariopsis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

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Fungal culture media

d. Brain heart infusion slant (BHI) –

This medium is more enriched than Sab-Dex. Used in


the recovery of H. capsulatum.

e. Potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and Corn-meal agar -


are used in slide cultures; as they induce spore
formation, which greatly aids in identification.

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Fungal culture media

Special applications agar

a. Caffeic Acid Agar - Cryptococcus neoformans will


produce melanin resulting in black colonies .

b. Birdseed Agar - used to isolate Cryptococcus


neoformans from contaminated cultures

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Macroscopic examination

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Macroscopic examination

Preliminary identification is based on differential growth patterns


(colony morphology) on various media.

Colony Morphology

• Surface texture eg: cottony or wooly (floccose), granular,


chalky, velvety, powdery, silky, glabrous (smooth, creamy),
waxy etc. , smooth, glistening, rough, dull (opposite of
glistening), rugose (wrinkled), etc.

• Surface topography - some fungal colonies may cover the


entire surface of agar; others grow in a more restricted
manner. 58
Macroscopic examination

• Form
– What is the basic shape of the colony?
For example, circular, filamentous, irregular, etc.
• Elevation
– What is the cross sectional shape of the colony?
For eg. Elevated, convex , etc.
• Margin
– What is the magnified shape of the edge of the
colony? For eg. Filiform, undulate, entire.

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Macroscopic examination

•Chromogenesis (Pigmentation)

–fungi may be colorless, brightly or darkly colored.

–Color may be on fungus itself, on its sporulating


apparatus, on the agar, or on the bottom of the
colony.

–It is important to note the top pigment; the


underside pigment (reverse); and any discoloration
of the medium.
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Morphology

Cryptococcus Candida Trichophyton T. menta- Wangiella Aspergillus


neoformans albicans tonsurans grophytes dermatitidis fumigatus 61
Economic Importance

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Importance of fungi

Production of alcoholic drinks

•To ferment fruit juices to wines

• To ferment cereal products eg malt in the production of


whiskies, rums, vodkas, brandies, gins etc.

•Beer from starch sources

• Production of Bakery Products

The baker, strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is meticulously


selected for their specific high production of CO2 under the
aerobic parameters. 63
Importance of fungi

• Production of Cheeses

The mould Penicillium roqueforti is usually employed in


the production of the blueveined cheeses.

The spores of the fungus are normally used to inoculate


the cheese.

• Food - Mushroom-

Agaricus bisporus
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Importance of fungi

• Supplies vitamins

Aspergillus niger for citric acid production.

•Saccharomyces cerevisiae also finds use as a food


supplement as it is fairly rich in Vitamin B variants.

• Antibiotics production

Penicillium notatum (chrysogenum)- penicillin

Penicillium griseofulvin – griseofulvin

Streptomyces orientalis – vancomycin

Streptomyces griseus – streptomycin 65


Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Cortisone (Rhizopus arrhizus)

– immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporin )

Cyclosporin A is a primary metabolite of several fungi,


including Trichoderma polysporum and
Cylindrocarpon lucidum.
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Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Ergot produced by Claviceps purpurea contains


medically important alkaloids that help in inducing
uterine contractions, controlling bleeding and
treating migraine.

– Alkaloids are now produced in culture by strains of


C. fusiformis and C. paspalii.

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Importance of fungi

Other drugs

– Aspergillus terreus, a soil-borne fungus, produces


a secondary metabolite called lovastatin and
Phoma sp produces squalestatin. These are lipid
lowering drugs.

– Saccharomyces cerviciae is extensively used in


recombinant DNA technology, which includes the
Hepatitis B Vaccine.
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Fungal infections

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Fungal infections

1. Superficial -

2. Cutaneous – dermatophycosis, mucocutaneous


candidiasis

3. Subcutaneous – sporotrichosis, blastomycosis

4. Systemic – histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis,


aspergillosis

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Fungal infections

1. Superficial fungal infections

• Confined to the outermost layers of the skin and


hair.

• No host cellular or inflammatory response is seen due


to the organisms being remote from living tissue.

•No pathology; the disease is recognized

purely on cosmetic basis. Eg. Malasezzia furfur.


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Fungal infections
2. Cutaneous fungal infections

• It is the most common fungal disease

• It is caused by a closely related group of fungi called


the dermatophytes that produce keratinase.

• Have particular affinity for the keratin of the skin,


nails and hair.

• Disease caused by these organisms is called


dermatomycosis. 72
Fungal infections

Eg. Tinea capitis, Tinea pedis, Tinea nigra

Three genera of fungi are commonly involved in


cutaneous mycoses:

1. Trichophyton

2. Microsporum

3. Epidermophyton
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Fungal infections

Tinea pedis – on the feet or between the toes

Tinea corporis (ringworm) – between the fingers, on


the legs, arms etc .

Tinea cruris – lesions on the hairy skin around the


genitalia

Tinea capitis – scalp and eyebrows

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Fungal infections

Tinea favosa - chronic dermatophyte

infection of the scalp


Tinea barbae –

Tinea unguium -

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Fungal infections

Mucocutaneous candidiasis

• Colonization of the mucous membranes by the yeast


Candida albicans
– Thrush – fungal growth in the oral cavity, An indicator of
immunodeficiency.

– Vulvovaginitis – fungal growth in the vaginal canal

Can be associated with a hormonal imbalance


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Fungal infections

3. Subcutaneous fungal infections

• Involves the deeper layers of skin and often muscle


tissue.

• Follows inoculation of fungal spores via trauma.

•This type of fungal infection is often tentatively


identified by the presence of a characteristic tissue
reaction or granule. Examples are :

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Fungal infections

Sporotrichosis
•Caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii

•Infection of the skin that causes pus exuding


subcutaneous nodules that progresses proximally along
lymphatic channels (lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis).

•Pulmonary sporotrichosis and inoculation into tendons


and joints.
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Fungal infections

Chromoblastomycosis

• Low, progressive, granulomatous infection.

• Skin lesions containing dark brown sclerotic bodies.

• Caused by black molds, eg Cladosporium,


phialophora.

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Fungal infections

4. Systemic fungal infections

•Attack the deep tissues and organ systems.

Two categories of systemic disease.

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Fungal infections

a. Those caused by truly pathogenic fungi with the


ability to cause disease in the normal human host
when the inoculum is of sufficient size.

Histoplasma capsulatum

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Coccidioides immitis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
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Fungal infections
Blastomyces dermatitidis

•Causes blastomycosis

• The fungi lives in the environment, particularly in moist


soil and in decomposing matter such as wood and
leaves.

• Although most people who breathe in the spores don’t


get sick, some of those who do may have flu-like
symptoms, and the infection can sometimes become
systemic if not treated. 82
Fungal infections

Blastomyces dermatitidis

•Blastomysis may spread to the

–skin (cutaneous blastomycosis

– the bones (osseous blastomycosis)

–the urogenital tract or

–the central nervous system.

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Fungal infections

Coccidioides immitis
•The disease often begins as a benign or mildly severe
upper respiratory infection that usually resolves rapidly.

•Recovery from mild forms of the disease usually results


in lifelong immunity.

•However, if there are enough spores inhaled, or if the


person's immune system is compromised , the disease
can spread to other parts of the body.
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Fungal infections

Coccidioides immitis
•If infection is established, the disease may
progress as a chronic pulmonary condition or as a systemic
disease involving the meninges , bones, joints, and
subcutaneous and cutaneous tissues.

•The symptoms of the disease are quite variable but often


the patient has an allergic reaction to the circulating
fungus, producing reddening of the skin known as "desert
bumps“.
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Fungal infections

b. Opportunistic fungi

These are low virulence organisms who require the


patient's defenses to be lowered before the infection is
established.

Aspergillus sp.

Candida albicans

Cryptococcus neoformans

Pneumocystis jirovecii 86
Some specific examples of fungi and their pathogenic factors

87
Candida albicans

• C. albicans belongs to a diverse group of

budding yeast that belong to the genus Candida.

• The most common specie is Candida albicans.


• This organism stains Gram-positive.

• Most infections are endogenous.

•Candida is component of normal oral, GI, vaginal flora

•It causes the disease candidiasis 88


Candida albicans

Candidiasis may occur in the body as

– Thrush (tongue, oral mucosa)


seen with inhaled steroids, cancer, HIV

– Esophagitis in immunosuppressed patients

– Vulvovaginitis

– Bloodstream candidiasis
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Candida albicans

Pathogenic factors
 Candida albicans can express at least three types of
surface adhesion molecules to ensure mucosal
adherence and colonization of epithelial surfaces.

 An aspartyl proteinase enzyme able to facilitate


initial penetration of keratinized cells.

 Deeper penetration of keratinized epithelia is


assisted by hyphae formation. 90
Cryptococcus neoformans
•Cryptococcus neoformans causes
Cryptococcosis.

•Cryptococcosis is a lung infection which is acquired by


inhalation of the fungi

•This fungi lives in soil throughout the world.

•Most infections are asymptomatic.

•May present as isolated pulmonary nodules (carcinoma).


91
Cryptococcus neoformans

• Cryptococcal meningitis may occur as

a result of dissemination from lung.

•Major opportunistic infection in immuno suppressed patients


especially HIV patients with low CD4 counts.

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Cryptococcus neoformans

Major virulence factors of C. neoformance

•Polysaccharide capsule

This make it antiphagocytic: not phagocytized or killed by


neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages

•Melanin synthesis – protects yeast against oxidant


damage

•Temperature tolerance

93
Pneumocystis jirovecii

• Causes Pneumocystic pneumonia (PCP)

•Which is a lung infection

•PCP? is one of the most frequent and severe


opportunistic infections in people with weakened
immune systems, particularly people with HIV/AIDS.

94
Histoplasma capsulatum

•Causes acute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

•Filamentous mold in the environment which


exhibits dimorphism.

•The fungus lives particularly in soil that contains


large amounts of bird or bat droppings.

95
Histoplasma capsulatum

•Patients usually improve in several weeks.

•5-10 % symptomatic cases develop inflammatory


syndromes (arthritis, erythema nodosum, or
pericarditis)

96
Aspergillus spp

•Causes Aspergillosis.
•A mould that spreads through the air and can cause
serious pulmonary and bloodstream infections in people
with lung diseases or weakened immune systems.

•Aspergilloma (fungus ball) occurs as a result of

colonization of preexisting lung cavity disease


eg. TB, abscess, etc.
97
Aspergillus infections

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

– Occurs in patients with immunosuppression


and neutropenia

– Hematogenous dissemination may occur.


commonly are ocular, cerebral and cutaneous
involvement

98
Aspergillus spp

•More than 100 species of Aspergillus are

omnipresent in environment ( in soil , on damp walls,


composts etc.

•Most human disease are caused by


A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger.

•A. fumigatus is thermotolerant (up to 55 oC) and is found


in high concentrations in compost sites. It is an airborne
opportunistic pathogen. 99
Toxigenic fungi

100
Toxigenic fungi

These are fungi which produce fungal metabolites

which when ingested, inhaled or absorbed through skin


cause lowered performance, sickness or death in man or
animals.

Acute effects

Headache, fever, nausea, diarrhœa, vomiting, weakness,


tremors, convulsions, in some cases death
101
Toxigenic fungi

Chronic or long-term effects

• Cancer, genetic or birth defects

• Over 200 kinds of mycotoxin, produced by about 150


different fungi

• Certain crops are commonly associated with certain


mycotoxins

102
Fungal toxins

• Toxins from fungi are widely grouped into


– Toxins from moulds ("mycotoxins") and

– Toxins from higher fungi ("mushroom poisons").

103
Mycotoxins

• Mycotoxins are "natural products from moulds that evoke


a toxic response when introduced in low concentrations to
vertebrates".

• Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary


metabolites.

• They are part of fungal metabolism that is not essential for


cell growth and maintainance of basic cell function but
provide some advantage to survive in the environment.
104
Mycotoxins

• The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of


foods, feeds and pharmaceutical products.

• Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the


type of producing fungus and environmental
conditions such as the substrate, water activity
(moisture and relative humidity), duration of
exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or
other animal interactions.
105
Mycotoxins

106
Toxigenic fungi

• Aflatoxin is potent carcinogen produced by


members of Aspergillus. They contaminate grain
before harvest or during storage, following
prolonged exposure to a high-humidity
environment. Eg. maize, sorghum, and groundnuts.
• Aflatoxin poisoning is known as Aflatoxicosis -
Liver damage, Liver cancer, Mental impairment
Abdominal Pain
107
Toxigenic fungi

• Ochratoxin A is produced by Penicillium and


Aspergillus species.
• known to occur in cereals, coffee, dried fruit
and red wine.
• Meat and meat products can be contaminated
with this toxin.
• Exposure to ochratoxins through diet can
cause acute toxicity in mammalian kidneys.
• It is possibly a human carcinogen
108
Mushroom poisons

• Mushroom poisoning is commonly caused


after consumption of raw or cooked fruit
bodies of toxic species.
• Poisonous mushrooms are often referred to as
toadstools from the German word
"Todesstuhl" (= death's stool).
• Mushroom toxins may be classified into four
groups according to their principal biological
effect.
109
Toxigenic fungi

110
References

1. Kathlene Talaro and Arthur Talaro. Foundations in


Microbiology
2. Jacquelyn G. Black. Microbiology Principles and Explorations
3. Ronald M. Atlas, Lawrence C. Parks and Alfred E. Brown. 1995.
Microorganisms in our World. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.
4. Alfred E. Brown. 2005. Benson’s Microbiological applications.
McGraw Hill companies.
5. Richard V. Goering, Hazel M. Dockrell, Mark Zuckerman, Ivan
M. Roitt, Peter L. Choidini. 2013. Mims’ Medical
Microbiology.

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Learning Outcomes

 Yeasts and moulds

 Morphological characteristics

 Growth requirements, multiplication and


reproduction

 Isolation, cultivation (culture media)

 Economic importance

 Toxigenic fungi
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