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• Three steps ( E + P + B)

• 35%-37% Phosphoric Acid (pH 0.9)

• Remove the smear layer and demineralized the
enamel & dentine
• Sound dentine (15 sec etching time)
• Aged or sclerotic dentine (30 sec etching time)
• Rinsing time should be equal to etching time.
• Primer (Bi-functional Molecule) Rewet dentine
• Mixtures of monomers such as
• Solvents (water, ethanol, acetone)
• (decreased viscosity of blend and facilitate
penetration of primer and adhesive into dentine)
• Apply and agitate for 30 sec on the dentine surface
to improve penetration and enhance adhesion.
• Gently Air dried (drying time 10sec).
• Bis-GMA, TEGDMA (Hydrophobic)
• Apply with brush on primed surface and thinned
with brush or air syringe to a thickness of about
60-120um to achieve homogenous layer.
• Properly cured adhesive resin
• Oxygen inhibited layer on the upper layer of
adhesive which copolymerized with the restorative
• Bond strength was 20-50 MPa with enamel
and 13-80 MPa to dentine

• Disadvantage
• Time consuming
• Open to contamination because of the number of
separate steps involved.
• Running out of one bottle before other.
• Dry bonding
• Enamel frosty appearance after air drying
• Dentine (Hydrophilic) collapse of collagen fibril
• Low resin dentine bond strength,
• Dentine sensitivity,
• Microleakage
• Secondary caries, and
• Loss of restoration
• Wet bonding concept (Kanca)
• Used residual water on the dentine surface as a

rewetting agent.

• This technique increased resin-dentine bond strength

• Use blotting or wiping with a moist cotton pellet for

the removal of pooled moisture

• Moist dentine should exhibit a shiny, hydrated surface

Dentin that was kept moist after rinsing off the Dentin was air-dried. The intertubular porosity
etchant. The abundant intertubular porosity serves disappeared as a consequence of the collapse of
as a pathway for the penetration of the dentin the collagen secondary to the evaporation of water
• Wet bonding concept (Kanca)
• Recently Chlorhexidine (0.2-2% for 30 sec.) has been

used as rewetting agent.

• CHX inhibit dentine endogenous enzymes which are

responsible for bond degradation.

• Remove excess CHX with moist cotton pellet

• Two steps (E + PB)
• Remove the smear layer and demineralized the
enamel & dentine
• Combined Primer & Bond contain high concentration
of solvent (water, ethanol, acetone) upto 50%.

• Interfere with adhesive polymerization.

• Dentinal fluid also interfere curing reaction.

• Mode of application Combined Primer & Bond
• Rubbing action increases molecular kinetics and
inward monomer diffusion and improve stability of
the dentine bond.
• Warm and dry airstream is used to complete
evaporation of solvent before curing.
• Water filled blister are formed along the adhesive
• Bond strength 20-45 MPa with enamel
and 03-75 MPa to dentine
• Inferior to 4th generation
• User friendly & less time require
• Disadvantages
• Inclusion of hydrophilic components in bonding resin
can cause increase hydrolytic degradation.
• Due to Volatile nature lose their potency
• The “moist bonding” technique used with etch-
and-rinse adhesives prevents the spatial
alterations (i.e., collagen collapse) that occur on
drying demineralized dentin.

• Dentine surface for bonding with a total-etch

adhesive system should be a moist glistening
surface with no visible pooling of water.
Blot drying
• Rinse the etchant from the tooth
surface, then saturate a cotton pellet
with water and remove any excess water
from the pellet by blotting it on a gauze
pad. Use the pellet to moisten the tooth

• Applying a brief burst of air (2–3


• Organic solvents acetone or ethanol in

the primers or adhesives. The solvent
can displace water from the dentin
surface and the moist collagen network,
it promotes the infiltration of resin.
• Acetone or ethanol primers contact the water on the

• The boiling point of the ethanol/ethanol is increased

• And the boiling point of the water is decreased

• This causes the evaporation of both the acetone

/ethanol and the water, the resin is left behind.
• Advantages • Disadvantages
• No rinsing and drying • Incorporating smear
• No over wetting or over layer into adhesive zone
drying • Multiple layer are
• Less technique required with rubbing
sensitivity action.
• Depth of deminera- • Thick adhesives may
lization & penetration of pool easily.
resin is same.
• They can be used as self-etch, etch-and –rinse or selective –

etch system

• These adhesives have ability to bond methacrylate-based

restoratives, cement and sealant materials to dentine,

enamel, Glassionomer, and several indirect restorative
substrates. (Metal, Alumina, Zirconium)
• (Van Meerbeek 2003)
• Water based, self adhesive restorative material
• Acid base reaction