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The Plant Body: Tissues

and Meristem

 Meristematic tissues are clumps of small cells

with dense cytoplasm and proportionately
large nuclei.
 Regions of plants where cells keep dividing
and growing.
 Lack Central Vacuole
Types of Meristem

1. Apical Meristem (apex means “tip”)

 Elongation of stem and roots; Longer
 located at tip of stems and roots
 Plant tissues that result from primary growth are called primary tis
 make up the primary plant body.
 Root apical meristem is protected by the root cap.

Types of Meristem
Basswood – root in cross section

2. Lateral Meristem (lateral means “side to side”)

 Increase girth or becomes thicker; Wider

 Most trees, shrubs, and some herbs have active lateral meristems.
 Non-woody plants
 increase girth or “secondary growth”
 Woody stems
 cork cambium- produces cork cells
 vascular cambium
 produces secondary vascular tissue
 forms between the xylem and phloem in vascular bundles
 Secondary xylem is the main component of wood. Secondary phloem is
very close to the outer surface of a woody stem.
Types of Meristem

3. Intercalary Meristems (Intercalary means “inserted between other things”)

 Found in the base of the leaves or the inter

 It helps the leaves grow rapidly
 Usually found in grass and bamboo.
Primary vs. Secondary Growth

 Primary growth- results from cell divisio

n at the apical meristem at the plant tip.
 Secondary growth - results from cell
division at the lateral meristem, increasin
g the shoot’s girth.
Tissue Systems

1. Ground Tissue
 Parenchyma
- Polyhedral to round in shape.
- Occur throughout the plant body.
- Photosynthesis, storage, and secretion.
 Collenchyma
- Elongate in shape.
- Occur beneath the epidermis in young stems.
- Support young growing tissues.
 Sclerenchyma
- fibers and sclereids.
- Long or stellate in shape.
- Occur throughout the plant body.
- Support (strengthen) and storage.
Tissue Systems

2.a Vascular Tissue #1

 Xylem- water-conducting tissue in vascular plants; dead at mat
Tracheary Elements
Tracheid- elongate and tapering; pits
- but no perforations
- seedless vascular plants
- gymnosperms, and some angiosperms.
Vessel element- elongate; pits and perforations;
Tissue Systems

2.b Vascular Tissue #2

 Phloem- principal food-conducting tissue in vascular plants; living at maturity;
not lignified.
Gymnosperm Sieve Elements
Sieve cell- elongate & tapering; with sieve areas.
Albuminous cell- elongate & tapering; delivers substances to sieve cells.
Angiosperm Sieve Elements
Sieve-tube element- elongate & tapering; with a sieve plate.
Companion cell- variable; delivers substances to sieve-tube elements.
Tissue Systems

3. Dermal Tissue
 Epidermis - outermost cell layer of the primary plant body.
• Variable in shape; guard cells and trichomes.
• Outermost layer of plant body.
• Protective (cuticle and water loss) and aeration (stomata).
 Periderm- secondary protective tissues.
• Rectangular in shape; cork cells.
• Beneath the epidermis.
• Protective and aeration (lenticels); replaces
the epidermis.