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What is AI about?
Historical Definition of AI
The study of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other
feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a
machine can be made to simulate it.”
Views of AI fall into four categories:
Acting humanly: Turing Test
The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to
provide satisfactory operational definitions of intelligence. Turing defined
intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in
all cognitive tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator.

the test he proposed is that the computer should be interrogated by a

human via a teletype, and passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there
is a computer or a human at the other end. In the fourth coming chapters
discusses the details of the test, and whether or not a computer is really
intelligent if it passes
 Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence":

 "Can machines think?" "Can machines behave intelligently?"

 Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game

• The computer would need to possess the following capabilities:

Natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in English (or

some other human language);

Knowledge representation: to store information provided before or during the


automated reasoning: to use the stored information to answer questions and to

draw new conclusions;

Machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate

• Turing’s test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the
interrogator and the computer, because physical simulation of a person is
unnecessary for intelligence.

• However, the so called total Turing Test includes a video signal so that the
interrogator can test the subject’s perceptual abilities, as well as the
opportunity for the interrogator to pass physical objects “through the
hatch.” To pass the total Turing Test, the computer will need computer vision
to perceive objects, and robotics to move them about.
Thinking humanly: The cognitive modeling approach
If we are going to say that a given program thinks like a human, we must have
some way of determining how humans think. We need to get inside the actual
workings of human minds.

There are two ways to do this: through introspection—trying to catch our

own thoughts as they go by

or through psychological experiments. Once we have a sufficiently precise

theory of the mind, it becomes possible to express the theory as a computer
• If the program’s input/output and timing behavior matches human
behavior, that is evidence that some of the program’s mechanisms may also
be operating in humans.

• For example, Newell and Simon, who developed GPS, the “General Problem
Solver” (Newell and Simon, 1961), were not content to have their program
correctly solve problems.

• The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together computer models

from AI and experimental techniques from psychology to try to construct
precise and testable theories of the workings of the human mind.
Think Rationally: (Thinking rationally) "laws of thought"

• The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first to attempt to codify “right
thinking, “that is, irrefutable reasoning processes. His famous syllogisms
provided patterns for argument structures that always gave correct conclusions
given correct premises. For example, “Socrates is a man; all men are mortal;
therefore Socrates is mortal.” These laws of thought were supposed to govern
the operation of the mind, and initiated the field of logic.
Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes?

 Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic: notation and

rules of derivation for thoughts; may or may not have proceeded to the
idea of mechanization.

Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI


1. Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation

2. What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts should I have?

Act Rationally: (Acting Rationally) rational agent
Acting rationally means acting so as to achieve one’s goals, given one’s

An agent is just something that perceives and acts. (This may be an unusual
use of the word, but you will get used to it.) In this approach, AI is viewed as
the study and construction of rational agents.

 In the “laws of thought” approach to AI, the whole emphasis was on correct
inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational
agent, because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion
that a given action will achieve one’s goals, and then to act on that conclusion.
Human behavior, on the other hand, is well-adapted for one specific environment
and is the product, in part, of a complicated and largely unknown evolutionary process
that still may be far from achieving perfection.
• Rational behavior: doing the right thing
The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement,
given the available information
Doesn't necessarily involve thinking –e.g., blinking reflex –but thinking
should be in the service of rational action
An agent is an entity that perceives and acts
An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through
sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators
Human agent:
eyes, ears, skin, nose and other organs for sensors;
hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts for actuators
home, office, market, etc.… are environments
Robotic agent:
cameras and infrared range finders for sensors;
various motors for actuators
roads, forest, etc.… are environments
Agents can perform actions in order to modify future percepts so as to obtain
useful information (information gathering, exploration)

An agent is autonomous if its behavior is determined by its own experience

(with ability to learn and adapt).

An agent should strive to "do the right thing", based on what it can perceive
and the actions it can perform.
Agents and environments

The agent function maps from percept histories to actions:

[f: P*->A]

The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f

agent = architecture + program

The Foundation of AI:

• AI itself is a young field, it has inherited many ideas, viewpoints, and techniques
from other disciplines. From over 2000 years of tradition in philosophy, theories
of reasoning and learning have emerged, along with the view point that
the mind is constituted by the operation of a physical system. From over
400 years of mathematics, we have formal theories of logic, probability, decision
making, and computation.
AI prehistory
Philosophy Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical
system foundations of learning, language, rationality

Mathematics Formal representation and proof algorithms,

computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability

Economics utility, decision theory

Neuroscience physical substrate for mental activity

Psychology phenomena of perception and motor control

experimental techniques
Linguistics knowledge representation, grammar
History of AI
1943 McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain

1950 Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

1956 Dartmouth meeting: "Artificial Intelligence" adopted

1952—69 Look, Ma, no hands!

1950s Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program,

Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist, Gelernter's Geometry

1965 Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning

1966—73 AI discovers computational complexity Neural network research
almost disappears

1969—79 Early development of knowledge-based systems

1980-- AI becomes an industry

1986-- Neural networks return to popularity

1987-- AI becomes a science

1995-- The emergence of intelligent agents

State of the art
 Proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades

During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics

the applicability of the expert system technology derived from MYCIN-type


The fields of speech recognition illustrates the pattern. In the 1970s, a wide
variety of different architectures and approaches were tried.

Many of these were rather ad hoc and fragile, and were demonstrated on a few
specially selected examples. In recent years, approaches based on hidden
Markov models (HMMs) have come to dominate the area.