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Arranged by :
Wita krismayenti
VB Nursing

Teacher’s aide :
Ns. yelmi reni putri s, kep MAN
A. Definition of oxygenation

Oxygenation is the fulfillment

of oxygen (O²) requirements.
Needs physiological oxygenation
is a basic human need that is
used for continuity of body cell
metabolism, to maintain life, and
for the activity of various organs
or cells. (Asmadi, 2008)
B. Oxygenation Needs
OxygenOxygen plays an important role in all
functional bodily processes. The absence of oxygen
will cause the body to functional decline or even
cause death. Therefore, the need for oxygen is the
most important requirement and is very vital for the
body. (Asmadi, 2008)
Meeting the needs of oxygen is inseparable from
the functional condition of the respiratory system
C. A Body System That Roles in Oxygenation Needs of

the Upper Respiratory Tract:

1. Nose, the process of oxygenation begins with the entry of air through the nose.
2. esophagus.
3. Larynx, is the respiratory tract after the pharynx.
4. Epiglottis, a cartilage valve that is in charge of closing the larynx when the process

Lower respiratory tract:

1. Trachea, is a continuation of the larynx to approximately the height of the fifth thoracic
2. Bronchhus, is a continuation of the trachea branching into the right and left bronchus.
3. Bronchiole, is the branching channel after the bronchus.
4. Alveoli, are air sacs where oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide.
5. Lung (Pulmo), Lungs are the main organs in the respiratory system. (Asmadi, 2008)
D. Oxygenation Process
Split in three namely:

Is the process of oxygen in and out of the atmosphere into
the alveoli or from the alveoli into the atmosphere
2. Gas Diffusion Gas
diffusion is an exchange between dialveoli oxygen and
pulmonary capillaries and co2 in capillaries with alveoli
3. Gas Transplantation Gas
transportation is the process of distributing capillary O2 to
body tissues and body tissue Co2 to capillaries
E. Types of Breathing
1.External Breathing External
breathing is the process of entry of O2 and the release of CO2 from
the body, often referred to as normal breathing
2. Internal Breathing Internal
breathing is a process of gas exchange between tissue cells and
surrounding fluid which often involves the process of all hormones
including catecholamine derivatives can dilate the respiratory tract.
(Asmadi, 2008)
F. Here's how to examine the vital lung with a
spirometry device:

1. Prepare a spirometry
2. device Turn on the device first by pressing the ON button. Enter data such
as age, sex, TB, BB.
3. Then insert the mouthpiece in the spirometry device into his mouth and
cover the nose with a nose clip.
4. To regulate breathing, breathe calmly before examining.
5. Press the start button when ready to start the measurement.
6. Start with calm breathing until an order from the device for maximum
expiration (uninterrupted) arises. When done correctly it will come out data
and curves on the spirometry monitor screen.
7. Then repeat the measurement by continuing deep inspiration and maximum
8. After completing the mouthpiece, check the data and the curve then proceed
to print the recording (press the print button on the spirometry tool). (Asmadi,
G. Factors Affecting Oxygen

1. Environment
In a hot environment the body responds to the occurrence of
peripheral arteries vasodilation
2. Physical exercise
Physical exercise or increased activity can increase heart rate and
respiration rate so that the need for oxygen is higher.
3. Emotions
Fear, anxiety and anger will accelerate the heart rate so that oxygen
demand increases.
4. Lifestyle
Smoking will affect a person's oxygenation status because smoking
can worsen coronary artery disease and arterial blood vessels
5. Health Status
In healthy people, the cardiovascular system and the respiratory
system function properly so that they can meet the body's oxygen
needs adequately.
H. Disorders of Oxygenation
Problems in terms of meeting the needs of
oxygen can not be separated from the disruption
that occurs in the respiratory system both at the
anatomy and physiological organs of respiration.
Problems in fulfillment can be caused by
interference with other body systems, for example
the cardiovascular system. (Hidayat, A. Aziz Alimul.
Disturbances in the respiratory system can be
caused by, among others, inflammation,
obstruction, trauma, cancer, degenerative and