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Analyze Phase

• 4M Diagram

• Hypothesis Testing

• Mean Testing

• Variance Testing

• Regression Analysis

a. To List down all the Possible factors through Brainstorming.

b. Pick out the Vital few Potential Factors out of Trivial Many.

c. Statistical verification of Potential Factors by means of various type of Tests.

d. Ascertaining whether we have considered all factors & nothing is Left Out.

Analyze - Cause & Effect Diagram Understanding Six Sigma

4 M Diagram

MACHINE

MAN

Cause

Effect

Cause

Cause

Cause

METHOD MATERIAL

4 M ( Man, Method, Machine & Material ) Diagram is used to list down all the Probable

factors (causes ) responsible for the Major Problem ( Effect ). After brainstorming the

Significant Factors are selected for further comparison ( Hypothesis Testing )

The Symptom or result is put under the Dark Box on the Right.. Lighter Boxes at the end

of the Large Bones are main groups in which ideas are classified. The Lighter Boxes

consist of Four Ms - Man,Method, Machine & Material. The Middle Bones indicates the

direction of path from cause to effect.

Analyze - Cause & Effect Diagram Understanding Six Sigma

Machine

Man

Cylinder

New casual Failure

Die

Handling Setting

problem M/C not

clean OUT CASE

DENT

Dented sheet

Chips on Piece

sheet Piece

Sheet unloading

check

thickness

Material Method

Analyze - Tests used for Comparison Understanding Six Sigma

1.) Normality test

2) Variance Test

3) Mean Testing

In the Analyze phase, before going for any test , we have to check the Normality of the data. If

the P value >0.05, then data is Normal,

Second step is Variance Testing,

Normal data Non Normal data

Two variance test F- Test Levene’s Test

Test for equal variance. Barlett’s Test Levene’s Test

Third step is Mean Testing , for 1- Sample Z & 1- Sample t test , the variance

testing is not required.

Analyze - Hypothesis Understanding Six Sigma

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis means an assumption ,something taken to be true for the Purpose of

argument or Investigation. There is two types of Hypothesis.

• Null Hypothesis ( Ho)

• Alternate Hypothesis ( Ha)

assumed to be innocent.

Ha(Alternative Hypothesis) is alternatives the Null Hypothesis. Ha is the one that

must be proved.

variance ) by taking samples from those Populations. It is assumed in the beginning that the

two Populations are equal (Null Hypothesis ;m1 = m2 = ... mn ; s1 = s2 = ..sn) or not equal

(Alternate Hypothesis : m1≠ m2 ≠... mn; s1 ≠ s2 ≠... sn) . The equality is confirmed by actually

conducting tests on the sample. There is always a risk associated with the Hypothesis , in

case the sample taken for comparison from Population does not correctly represent the

Population..

Analyze - Tests used for Comparison Understanding Six Sigma

Analyze

Z Test Test Variance

1 Sample 2 Proportion

t Test Test

2 Variance

2 Sample Chi-Square Test

t Test Test

ANOVA

Testing

Analyze - Hypothesis Understanding Six Sigma

There are many types of hypothesis test. The test is selected depending on

the type of data or the comparison required.

Continuos Data Discreet Data

1) 2 Variance Test : Compares Variances 3) Chi Square Test : Compares counts

• Levene’s Test • Goodness of Fit

• Bartlett’s Test • Contingency Table

2) t-test : Compares means

• 1 sample t-test • Paired t-test

• 2 sample t-test Population

Ho Ha

In this case the samples correctly

Correct Type 2 does not correctly represent

represent the Population Ho Decision

so sample mean = Population mean.

Error the Population so sample

β mean ≠ Population mean.

Sample

Incorrect Decision

In this case as the samples does not In this case as the samples

correctly represent the Population Type 1 Correct correctly represent the Population

Ha Error

so sample mean ≠ Population mean. Decision so sample mean = Population mean.

Incorrect Decision α Correct Decision

Analyze - Hypothesis Understanding Six Sigma

Hypothesis is accepted

• If the P value is > or = to a , then Null Hypothesis is accepted.

• If “ 0 ” falls within the confidence Interval, around the difference of the

two means, then Null Hypothesis is accepted.

The Conditions for the acceptability of Alternate Hypothesis are just the

converse of above conditions.

Analyze - Hypothesis Understanding Six Sigma

Important Terms

1.) Type 1 Error : This error gives us the probability of rejecting the Right Material .

This happens when a weird sample gets selected for the comparison of

mean/variance. It is also known as a - Error or Producer’s Risk. Generally It’s value

lies around 5 %.

2. ) Type 2 Error : This error gives us the probability of accepting the wrong

material. This also happens when a weird sample is selected for comparison. It is also

known as b - Error or Consumer’s Risk. It’s value generally lies around 10 %.

3 .) 1-α = Confidence of the Test

The probability that can be determined as a right thing when the Null Hypothesis is

correct.

It is the Probability of correctly rejecting Ho, when it is False. As the Probability of a

increases, the probability of b decreases. So the Power of the Test Increases.

It is not possible to simultaneously commit a Type 1 and Type 2 decision

error.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

1 Sample Z Test :This test compares the mean of the sample with some test Population

with known standard deviation of Population spop. It computes a confidence interval or

performs a hypothesis test of the mean when the population standard deviation, s is

known. This procedure is based upon the normal distribution.

Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets. You know that the distribution of

measurements has historically been close to normal with s = 0.2. Because you know s, and

you wish to test if the population mean is 5 and obtain a 90% confidence interval for the

mean, you use the Z-procedure.

Solution : Values

4.9

1 Open the worksheet enter the values.. 5.1

4.6

2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample Z.

5

3 In Samples in Columns, enter Values. 5.1

4.7

4 In Standard deviation, enter 0.2. 4.4

4.7

5 In Test mean, enter 5. 4.6

7 Click Graphs. Check Individual value plot. Click OK in each dialog box.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

not lie within the CI p value < 0.05,

Test of mu = 5 vs not = 5 Hence Ha, alternate

Hypothesis

The assumed standard deviation = 0.2

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 90% CI Z P

Values 9 4.78889 0.24721 0.06667 (4.67923, 4.89855) -3.17 0.002

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

The test statistic, Z, for testing if the population mean equals 5 is -3.17. The p-value, or the

probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, is 0.002. This is called the attained

significance level, p-value, or attained a of the test. Because the p-value of 0.002 is smaller

than commonly chosen a-levels, there is significant evidence that m is not equal to 5, so you

can reject H0 in favor of m not being 5.

A hypothesis test at a error = 0.1 could also be performed by viewing the individual value

plot. The hypothesized value falls outside the 90% confidence interval for the population

mean (4.67923, 4.89855), and so you can reject the null hypothesis.

1 Sample t test : This test compares the mean of the sample with some test Population

when Population standard deviation spop is Unknown. This procedure is based upon the t-

distribution, which is derived from a normal distribution with unknown s.

Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets. You know that the distribution of

widget measurements has historically been close to normal, but suppose that you do not

know s. To test if the population mean is 5 and to obtain a 90% confidence interval for the

mean, you use a t-procedure.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Solution : Values

1 Open the worksheet enter the data. 4.9

5.1

2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t. 4.6

5

3 In Samples in columns, enter Values.

5.1

4 In Test mean, enter 5. 4.7

4.4

5 Click Options. In Confidence level enter 90. 4.7

Click OK in each dialog box 4.6

One-Sample T: Values

Test of mu = 5 vs not = 5

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 90% CI T P

Values 9 4.78889 0.24721 0.08240 (4.63566, 4.94212) -2.56 0.034

Result Interpretation :

The p-value < 0.01 , also the test mean does not lie within the Confidence Interval so Null

Hypothesis is rejected and Alternate Hypothesis is accepted. It confirms that the sample

mean is not euqal to Population Mean ).

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

2 Sample t test :. It computes a confidence interval and performs a hypothesis test of the

difference between two population means when s 's are unknown and samples are drawn

independently from each other. This procedure is based upon the t-distribution, and for small

samples it works best if data were drawn from distributions that are normal or close to

normal. You can have increasing confidence in the results as the sample sizes increase.

Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for

improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems. Energy consumption in houses was

measured after one of the two devices was installed. The two devices were an electric vent

damper (Damper=1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper=2). The energy

consumption data (BTU.In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper)

containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. Suppose that you performed a

variance test and found no evidence for variances being unequal .Now you want to compare

the effectiveness of these two devices by determining whether or not there is any evidence

that the difference between the devices is different from zero.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

BTU.In Da mpe r

7.87 1

9.43 1

Solution : 7.16

8.67

1

1

12.31 1

9.84 1

1 Open the worksheet , enter the data. 16.9

10.04

1

1

12.62 1

7.62 1

13.43

1

1

9.07 1

6.94 1

9.37

1

1

7.93 1

13.96 1

8.58

4

1

1

1

8 1

5.98 1

5 In Subscripts, enter Damper. 15.24

8.54

1

1

11.09 1

11.7 1

6.78

1

1

9.82 1

12.91 1

10.35 1

9.6 1

9.58 1

9.83 1

9.52 1

18.26 1

10.64 1

6.62 1

5.2 1

12.28 2

7.23 2

2.97 2

8.81 2

9.27 2

11.29 2

8.29 2

9.96 2

10.3 2

16.06 2

14.24 2

11.43 2

10.28 2

13.6 2

5.94 2

10.36 2

6.85 2

6.72 2

10.21 2

8.61 2

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Minitab Output :

Two-Sample T-Test and CI: BTU.In, Damper

Two-sample T for BTU.In

Damper N Mean StDev SE Mean

1 40 9.91 3.02 0.48

2 50 10.14 2.77 0.39

Difference = mu (1) - mu (2)

Estimate for difference: -0.235250

95% CI for difference: (-1.450131, 0.979631)

T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T-Value = -0.38 P-Value = 0.701 DF = 88

Both use Pooled StDev = 2.8818

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Result Interpretation :

Minitab displays a table of the sample sizes, sample means, standard deviations, and

standard errors for the two samples.

Since we previously found no evidence for variances being unequal, we chose to use the

pooled standard deviation by choosing Assume equal variances. The pooled standard

deviation, 2.8818, is used to calculate the test statistic and the confidence intervals.

A second table gives a confidence interval for the difference in population means. For this

example, a 95% confidence interval is (-1.45, 0.98) which includes zero, thus suggesting that

there is no difference. Next is the hypothesis test result. The test statistic is -0.38, with p-

value of 0.701, and 88 degrees of freedom.

Since the p-value is greater than commonly chosen a-levels, there is no evidence for a

difference in energy use when using an electric vent damper versus a thermally activated

vent damper.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

ANOVA: ANOVA determines if the variation between the average of the levels is greater

than the variation that occurs within the level

ANOVA= ---------------------

Observed Value Expected Value Avg SS within

(at present) (target)

ANOVA is a tool with which we can

compare several means. It is a tool

used to search for the significant X

Gap

factors that have an influence on the

Between group response variable Y. In effect,

variation (SSB) analysis of variance extends the two-

Delta (d)

sample t-test for testing the equality

Total

Variation of two population means to a more

Within group

variation general null hypothesis of comparing

(SSW) the equality of more than two means,

versus them not all being equal.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Example : You design an experiment to assess the durability of four experimental carpet

products. You place a sample of each of the carpet products in four homes and you measure

durability after 60 days. Because you wish to test the equality of means and to assess the

differences in means, you use the one-way ANOVA procedure (data in stacked form) with

multiple comparisons. Generally, you would choose one multiple comparison method as

appropriate for your data. However, two methods are selected here to demonstrate Minitab's

capabilities. Durability Carpet

18.95 1

12.62 1

Solution : 11.94 1

14.42 1

1 Open the worksheet enter the data 10.06 2

7.19 2

2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > One-Way. 7.03 2

14.66 2

3 In Response, enter Durability. In Factor, enter Carpet. 10.92 3

13.28 3

4 Click OK in each dialog box. 14.52 3

12.51 3

10.46 4

21.4 4

18.1 4

22.5 4

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Minitab Output :

One-way ANOVA: Durability versus Carpet

Source DF SS MS F P

Carpet 3 146.4 48.8 3.58 0.047

P Value < 0.05, so Ha , Alternate

Error 12 163.5 13.6 Hypothesis

Total 15 309.9

The Co relation coefficient

S = 3.691 R-Sq = 47.24% R-Sq(adj) = 34.05% is also very poor, because

R2 & R2 (adj) < 64 %

Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on

Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ---------+---------+---------+---------+

1 4 14.483 3.157 (-------*-------)

2 4 9.735 3.566 (-------*--------)

3 4 12.808 1.506 (-------*-------)

4 4 18.115 5.435 (-------*-------)

---------+---------+---------+---------+

10.0 15.0 20.0 25.

Pooled StDev = 3.691

Result Interpretation : The p < 0.05, indicating that the mean of the two samples

is not equal. The R2 & R2(adj) values < 64 % , indicating a poor Coorelation

between the Carpet and Durability.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Use 1 Proportion to compute a confidence interval and perform a hypothesis test of the

proportion. For example, an automotive parts manufacturer claims that his spark plugs are

less than 2% defective. You could take a random sample of spark plugs and determine

whether or not the actual proportion defective is consistent with the claim. For a two-tailed

test of a proportion:

H0: p = p0 versus H1: p ≠ p0 where p is the population proportion and p0 is the

hypothesized value.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Example : A county district attorney would like to run for the office of state district

attorney. She has decided that she will give up her county office and run for state office if

more than 65% of her party constituents support her. You need to test H0: p = .65 versus

H1: p > .65.

As her campaign manager, you collected data on 950 randomly selected party members

and find that 560 party members support the candidate. A test of proportion was

performed to determine whether or not the proportion of supporters was greater than the

required proportion of 0.65. In addition, a 95% confidence bound was constructed to

determine the lower bound for the proportion of supporters.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

95%

Lower Exact

The p-value of 1.0 suggests that the data are consistent with the null hypothesis (H0: p =

0.65), that is, the proportion of party members that support the candidate is not greater than

the required proportion of 0.65. As her campaign manager, you would advise her not to run

for the office of state district attorney.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

2 Proportion Test : Performs a test of

two binomial proportions.

Use the 2 Proportions command to

compute a confidence interval and perform

a hypothesis test of the difference

between two proportions. For example,

suppose you wanted to know whether the

proportion of consumers who return a

survey could be increased by providing an

incentive such as a product sample. You

might include the product sample with half

of your mailings and see if you have more

responses from the group that received

the sample than from those who did not.

For a two-tailed test of two proportions:

H0: p1 - p2 = p0 versus H1: p1 - p2 ≠ p0

where p1 and p2 are the proportions of

success in populations 1 and 2,

respectively, and p0 is the hypothesized

difference between the two proportions.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Example : As your corporation's purchasing manager, you need to authorize the purchase

of twenty new photocopy machines. After comparing many brands in terms of price, copy

quality, warranty, and features, you have narrowed the choice to two: Brand X and Brand Y.

You decide that the determining factor will be the reliability of the brands as defined by the

proportion requiring service within one year of purchase.

Because your corporation already uses both of these brands, you were able to obtain

information on the service history of 50 randomly selected machines of each brand. Records

indicate that six Brand X machines and eight Brand Y machines needed service. Use this

information to guide your choice of brand for purchase.

3 In First sample, under Trials, enter 50. Under Events, enter 44.

4 In Second sample, under Trials, enter 50. Under Events, enter 42. Click OK.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Sample X N Sample p

1 44 50 0.880000

2 42 50 0.840000

Difference = p (1) - p (2)

Estimate for difference: 0.04

95% CI for difference: (-0.0957903, 0.175790)

Test for difference = 0 (vs not = 0): Z = 0.58 P-Value = 0.564

two machines are equal

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Since the p-value of 0.564 is larger than commonly chosen a levels, the data are consistent

with the null hypothesis (H0: p1 - p2 = 0). That is, the proportion of photocopy machines that

needed service in the first year did not differ depending on brand. As the purchasing

manager, you need to find a different criterion to guide your decision on which brand to

purchase.

You can make the same decision using the 95% confidence interval. Because zero falls in

the confidence interval of (-0.096 to 0.176) you can conclude that the data are consistent

with the null hypothesis. If you think that the confidence interval is too wide and does not

provide precise information as to the value of p1 - p2, you may want to collect more data in

order to obtain a better estimate of the difference.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Observed & expected frequencies. Chi

Square test is a statistical test which

consists of three different type of Analysis.

1) Goodness of Fit

2) Test for Homogeneity

3) Test for Independence

The test for Goodness of fit determines if

the sample under analysis was drawn from

a population that follows some specified

distribution .

Test for Homogeneity answers the

proposition that several populations are

homogenous with respect to some

characteristic.

Test for Independence is for testing Null

hypothesis that two criteria of Classification

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Example : You are interested in the relationship between gender and political party

affiliation. You query 100 people about their political affiliation and record the number of

males (row 1) and females (row 2) for each political party. The worksheet data appears as

follows:

28 18 4

22 27 1

3 In Columns containing the table, enter Democrat, Republican and Other. Click OK.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Session window output

Chi-Square Test: Democrat, Republican, Other

Expected counts are printed below observed counts

Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts

Democrat Republican Other Total

1 28 18 4 50

25.00 22.50 2.50

0.360 0.900 0.900

2 22 27 1 50

25.00 22.50 2.50

0.360 0.900 0.900

Total 50 45 5 100

Chi-Sq = 4.320, DF = 2, P-Value = 0.115

2 cells with expected counts less than 5.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Session window output

Chi-Square Test: Democrat, Republican, Other

Expected counts are printed below observed counts

Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts

Democrat Republican Other Total Observed Frequency

1 28 18 4 50 Expected Frequency

25.00 22.50 2.50

0.360 0.900 0.900 Chi Square Values

2 22 27 1 50

25.00 22.50 2.50 Row Totals

Total 50 45 5 100 Grand Total

Chi-Sq = 4.320, DF = 2, P-Value = 0.115

Column Totals

2 cells with expected counts less than 5.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Interpreting the results

No evidence exists for association (p = 0.115) between gender and political party affiliation.

Of the 6 cells, 2 have expected counts less than five (33%). Therefore, even if you had

a significant p-value for these data, you should interpret the results with caution. To

be more confident of the results, repeat the test, omitting the Other category.

Formulae’s :

Grand Total

Expected Value

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

hypothesis tests for equality, or

assumption.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for

improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems. Energy consumption in houses was

measured after one of the two devices was installed. The two devices were an electric vent

damper (Damper = 1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper = 2). The energy

consumption data (BTU.In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper)

containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. You are interested in comparing

the variances of the two populations so that you can construct a two-sample t-test and

confidence interval to compare the two dampers.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

F-Test If the data

Test Statistic 1.19

1 P-Value 0.558

is Normal

Damper

Levene's Test

Test Statistic 0.00

If the data is

P-Value 0.996 not Normal

2

95% Bonferroni Confidence Intervals for StDevs

1

Damper

5 10 15 20

BTU.In

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

1 40 2.40655 3.01987 4.02726

2 50 2.25447 2.76702 3.56416

Test statistic = 1.19, p-value = 0.558

Test statistic = 0.00, p-value = 0.996

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Result Interpretation

The variance test generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the

population standard deviation at both factor levels. The graph also displays the side-by-side

boxplots of the raw data for the two samples. Finally, the results of the F-test and Levene's

test are given in both the Session window and the graph. Note that the 95% confidence level

applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of

the chi-square distribution.For the energy consumption example, the p-values of 0.558 and

0.996 are greater than reasonable choices of a, so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the

variances being equal. That is, these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the

two populations have unequal variances. Thus, it is reasonable to assume equal variances

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Test for Equal Variance is used when comparing the variance of two or more than

two populations

potato rot by injecting potatoes with bacteria

that cause rotting and subjecting them to

different temperature and oxygen regimes.

Before performing analysis of variance, you

check the equal variance assumption using

the test for equal variances.

2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > Test for Equal

Variances.

3 In Response, enter Rot.

4 In Factors, enter Temp Oxygen. Click

OK.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

Temp Oxygen

Bartlett's Test

2 Test Statistic 2.71

P-Value 0.744

10 6 Lev ene's Test

Test Statistic 0.37

P-Value 0.858

10

16 6

10

95% Bonferroni Confidence Intervals for StDevs

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

10 2 3 2.26029 5.29150 81.890

10 6 3 1.28146 3.00000 46.427

10 10 3 2.80104 6.55744 101.481

16 2 3 1.54013 3.60555 55.799

16 6 3 1.50012 3.51188 54.349

16 10 3 3.55677 8.32666 128.862

Test statistic = 2.71, p-value = 0.744

Test statistic = 0.37, p-value = 0.858

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma

The test for equal variances generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence

intervals for the response standard deviation at each level. Bartlett's and Levene's test

results are displayed in both the Session window and in the graph. Note that the 95%

confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is

For the potato rot example, the p-values of 0.744 and 0.858 are greater than reasonable

choices of a, so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. That is,

these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the populations have unequal

variances.

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

and “X’s”

→Creating a Model of process

350

There appears to be a linear

relationship 300

Annual Sales

between floor space and annual

sales… 250

200

That is, Is the Annual sales reducing or

increasing according to change floor 50 100 150

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

between a response variable and one or more predictors.

response variable is continuous.

Use partial least squares regression when

your predictors are highly correlated or

outnumber your observations..

Use logistic regression when your

response variable is categorical.

Both least squares and logistic regression

methods estimate parameters in the model

so that the fit of the model is optimized. Least

squares regression minimizes the sum of

squared errors to obtain parameter

estimates,

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

Example : Do regression and residual analysis for yield as shown in the table.Interpret the

output results. Please note that A,B,C are factors & yield is response.

S.No. A B C Yield

1 2 3 5 85

2 2 1 10 71

3 8 3 15 3129

4 6 4 20 1384

5 5 5 25 875

6 8 3 30 3159

7 5 1 35 823

8 3 2 40 254

9 2 2 45 150

10 1 8 50 298

11 9 7 55 4631

12 5 6 60 978

13 3 5 65 367

14 2 6 70 296

15 1 7 75 303

16 4 2 80 556

17 2 4 85 266

18 1 6 90 294

19 2 5 95 313

20 5 6 100 1058

Solution :

1.) Enter the columns A, B, C (Factors ) and Yield ( response ) in minitab Excel

sheet.

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

A,B,C as Predictors by double

clicking on all.

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

4) Click OK.

Regression Analysis: Yield versus A, B, C

Yield = - 1277 + 458 A + 136 B - 1.54 C

R2 & R2 (adj) > 64 % indicating a strong

Constant -1277.3 360.6 -3.54 0.003 corelation between the Factors & the

A 457.70 47.64 9.61 0.000

B 135.72 61.28 2.21 0.042 Response (Yield)

C -1.544 4.579 -0.34 0.740

Analysis of Variance

Source DF SS MS F P

Regression 3 25308562 8436187 35.49 0.000

Residual Error 16 3803071 237692

Total 19 29111633

Source DF Seq SS

A 1 23966672

B 1 1314871

C 1 27018

Unusual Observations

11 9.00 4631 3707 308 924 2.44R

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

the Least square method. As shown in

the diagram the least square method

minimizes the sum of the squared

distances between the points and the

fitted Line.`

Predictors

Fitted Value : The predicted y or ; the mean response value for the given

predictor values using the estimated regression equation.

Residuals :The difference (ei) between the observed values and predicted or

fitted values (data minus fits). This part of the observation is not explained by the

fitted model. The formula for the residual of an observation is: ei = (yi - i)

Analyze - Regression Understanding Six Sigma

Linear Y = bo + b1X

Quadratic Y = bo + b11X2

Y is the response; X is the predictor; bo is the intercept; and b1, b11, and b111 are the

coefficients

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