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ROAD CONSTRUCTION

Traffic Management Plan

• Warning the road user clearly and sufficiently in


advance.
• Providing safe and clearly marked lanes for guiding
users.
• Providing adequate buffer and work zones.
• Providing sufficient measures that control driver
behaviour through construction zones.
• Providing diversion wherever necessary and
obtaining permission from regulating authority.
Road Construction Zone

 Traffic Control Zone

– Advance Warning Zone

– Transition Zone

– Working Zone
Basic Layout Showing Elements of Traffic Control Zone
Foot Path Foot Path

D
END Terminal
Terminal
Traffic
Cone/
Transition
Transition Zone
Barrier Zone

45°
S

Working Zone

Working
Working S Lateral Buffer
Zone
Zone Zone
L Longitudinal Buffer
zone

L D Minimum normal siting


Distance of first in
advance Warning Zone
45° Approach
Approach
Transition Zone
Transition
Zone

D Advance
Advance
Warning Zone
Warning
Zone
Road Construction Zone
 Advance Warning Zone

 The “advance warning zone”, shall provide


and inform the road users about the,

– Presence of the hazard through suitable


sign with distance to the hazard;
– Changes affecting traffic arrangements
(such as a reduction in the number of
lanes and/or in the speed limit) within the
traffic control zone.
– Extent and type of hazard
Road Construction Zone

 Approach Transition Zone


– Approach transition zone shall,

 Guide the traffic into the altered traffic flow


pattern around the working zone.
 Reduce the approach speed of the vehicles
and channelise them into the narrower and
/or restricted number of lanes or a temporary
carriageway.
Road Construction Zone

 Working Zone
– Working zone shall,
 Have adequate lateral and longitudinal
buffer zones.
 Continue to control speed of the plying
vehicles should
 Shall delineate to avoid vehicle intrusion in
the working area.
LAYOUT FOR TEMPORARY DIVERSION
Recommended Length of Traffic Control Zones

Length of Length of Length of


Average Advance Approach Working
Approach Warning Transition Zone
Speed Zone Zone (m)
(Km/h) (m) (m)
50 or less 100 50
51 – 80 100 – 300 50 – 100
Varies
81 – 100 300 – 500 100 – 200
Over 100 1000 200 – 300
Traffic Control Devices

 Road Signs
 Delineators
 Barricades
 Cones
 Flashing lights
 Reflectors etc.
Road Safety Signs

• Railway crossing sign board: 200


Meters & 100 Meters before the
crossing.
• For road sign boards: before 50 meters
each.
DEFENSIVE DRIVING

Two way road


Slow Medium High

Marking in the lane


Centre line
Road Safety Signs

Cautionary Informatory
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
Stop

Ready

Go
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
Delineators

 Delineators shall

 Include Guide Posts, Safety Cones, Drums, etc.


 Delineate and guide the driver to and along a safe
path
 Move traffic from one lane to another
 Be used in or adjacent to the roadway to control
the flow of traffic.
 Not be regarded as a substitute for warning signs
or barriers for out-of-control vehicles.
Rectangular White
White round reflector
Reflector 12 X 8 Cm
15 7.5 cm diameter 15 15

15 15 15

15 15
15

Painted Black and white ABOUT


ABOUT Stripes 15 cm wide
ABOUT
80 – 100 Cm
80 – 100 Cm 80 – 100 Cm

Guide Post with Guide Post with


Guide Post without Circular Reflector Rectangular Reflector
Reflector
DIVERSION
SOME CAUTION SIGNS ASPER THE INDIAN ROADCONGRESS
SPECIFICATIONS BEING FOLLOWED
NARROW ROAD AHEAD
Barricades
TYPES OF BARRICADES
This new
type
Barricade
Possess a
Longer leg
And a flat
Foot .
This can
withstand
30o-35oslope.
This will
come back to
its original
position due
to its self
weight even
up to 350
Slope due to
Its long legs.
PARABOLIC CRASH BARRIERS
CONES

Height : 750mm Height : 500mm


Base Square : 300x300mm Base Square : 265x265 mm
Reflective Sheet : White Reflective Sheet : White
Cone : Red Cone : Red
Traffic lights
Reflectors
NIGHT VIEW
NIGHT VIEW
DIVERSION SIGNS AT THE SIDES OF BARRICATION

CLAMPING SYSTEM AT TOP AND BOTTOM


BARRICADE WITH
REFLECTORS

ELECTRONIC SIGNAL
CONES LIGHT BATONS
ELECTRONIC SIGNAL
LIGHT BATONS

CONES BARRICADE WITH REFLECTORS


TRAFFIC SIGNALLING POSTURES
TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS:

• Every 8th minute, there is 01 road casualty in India.


• There are 11 accidents for every 1000 vehicles.
• Every year out of 01 lacs unnatural deaths in India,
nearly 68000 (more than 34%) are due to road
accidents.
• Mostly males, who are earning members in the
family, die.
SPOTS OF ACCIDENTS:

Narrow Roads 385 15.26


%
Turns 414 16.38
%
Slopes & climbs 296 11.71%
Straight Roads 1431 56.65
%
ACCIDENT BLACK SPOTS:

• Uncontrolled junction
• Bus stop
• Gaps within Road Dividers
• On street Parking places
• Building access (while reversing)
• Road Bend
• National Highway
Factors involved for causing road
accidents

Light

Defensive
Driving

Vehicle
ORDER OF THE DAY

• Jumping red lights


• Violating traffic rules
• Crushing an injury
DRIVER
• Inadequate training
• Easily obtained License
• Lack of knowledge of rules &
regulations
• Long working hours fatigue
• Health fitness is poor
DRIVER
• Drinking habits
• Emotional stress
• Over confidence in driving
• Seeing Ability:
-Colour blindness
-40% elderly drivers can not see road signs
at night.
-10 to 30 times more illumination level is
required to see at night.
DRIVER

• Physical stress
• Illumination
• Knowledge and skill
• Attitude
DEFENSIVE DRIVING

Defensive Driving: ?
It is the driving to save lives, time & money in-
spite of the conditions around you and the actions
of others.
Conditions: Roads, weather, traffic, light etc.
Actions of others: Violations, discourtesy, lack of
knowledge of other Drivers etc.
DEFENSIVE DRIVING
Factors affecting driving skills

• Fatigue (overworking hours)


Stop when you feel tired/ sleepy, take rest, tea
& arrange other driver to drive.
• Medicine (calmpose, avil, benadryl)
• Disturb mind
• Distraction (pet, children at back seat, loud
music, etc.)
• Drunken driving88
Sign of Fatigue
• Constant yawning
• Driving across the lane
• Eyes closing
• Difficulties in keeping head up
• Increase/ decrease of speed
TYRES & ROAD SAFETY

• Tyres form a vital link between vehicle and


road.
• Safe journey depends largely on the fitness
of tyres.
ALCOHOL & DRIVING

Effects of alcohol;
• Promotes risk taking
• Lower reflexes
• Vision and hearing capacity diminishes
• Reaction time increases
• No control over controlling devices
ALCOHOL & DRIVING

Driving errors:
• Fast & slow
• Wrong lane
• Running over the footpath
• Not signaling
• Quick & jerky start
• Changing lanes frequently
EMERGENCIES

• Bursting of tyres
• Accelerator sticks
• Skidding
• Brake failure
• Bonnet flies up
• Vehicle stalls
• Running off the road
• Fire
BREAKDOWN

• Inform supervisor
• Switch on warning lights
• Keep vehicle away from movement of traffic
• Display warning triangle
• Apply hand brake
• Convoy supervisor will inform to the control room
• Control room will inform emergency breakdown
control point.
MECHANICAL FAILURE

• Brake failure
What to do?
• Tyre burst
What to do?
• Sudden loss of acceleration
What to do?
• Bonnet flies up
What to do?
If vehicle lights go off

• Keep the vehicle straight on


the road, slowly
• Take to the shoulder
• Brake to stop
• Park
FIRE

Disconnect the battery.


Discuss, what to do?
COLLISION WITH PEDESTRIANS

Remedy;
• Be alert
• Blow horn
• Slow down
• Give them priority
TYPES OF RAILWAY CROSSINGS

• Manned
• Unmanned
• Indicators provided
• Collision is common
COLLISION

• Electrical poles/ walls etc.


• Many while reversing
COLLISION WITH ANIMALS

• Cows, buffalos, horses, cats, dogs, etc.

REMEDY

• Slow down
• Their behaviour is unpredictable
• Give them priority
COLLISION WITH BICYCLE

• It is a vehicle
• Expected to follow traffic rules
• Two wheelers are vulnerable to
death
Expecting collision with approaching vehicle

• Stay left
• Do not cross centre line.
Collision with an oncoming vehicle

Rule 1: Read the road ahead


Rule 2: Drive to the left
Never crowd the central line. Ride in the centre
of a lane & give the centre line plenty of room.
Make a habit of using the far left lane.
Rule 3: Reduce speed
Slow down, blow horn/ flash your lights to warn
the erring driver. Continue slowing down and be
prepare to stop until the hazard is gone.88
VEHICLE BEHIND

• You are equally responsible from a cross from


behind a vehicle.
• Keep watch through rear view mirror.
• Indicate them by indicator or by hand.
• Avoid sudden stop.
• Allow the vehicle to pass/ don’t increase your
speed.
• If the vehicle does not pass, slow down.
OVERTAKING

• Most accidents happen while overtaking/ being


overtaken.
• You may have head on collision & a side sweep or
run off the road.
DO NOT OVERTAKE

• On a marked NO OVERTAKING ZONE.


• On curves
• On hills
• 100 meters before & at railway crossing
or cross roads.
• A vehicle, slowing down to give way to
pedestrians
Avoid following too closely

• Reaction time: 3/4th of a second


• Gap between the vehicles: keep one
vehicle distance for every 10 kmph
speed.
Defensive Driving Good Habits

• Observation;
-Who, where, when & what to look for.
• Communication
• Coordination
• Consideration
DISCOURTESY

• Excess speed
• Reckless passing
• Crossing the lane
• Blocking the traffic
• Excessive horn
• Wrong signaling
These are in your hand.
COOPERATIVE DRIVING

• Not blocking the intersection


• Using signals while turning or changing the lane
• Not following too closely
• Smooth driving
• Changing the lane correctly

Keep your mind cool, Manage stress


ATTITUDE

• Willing to admit mistakes


• Tolerance towards the
mistakes of others
• Respect for the law
• Respect for other road users
• Courtesy
DAILY INSPECTIONS:
• Leakage of Oil, hydraulic oil & fuel
• Oil, hydraulic oils & water levels
• Lights & indicators
• Horn
• Reverse horn & lights
• Wipers
• Tyre pressure
• Jack, wooden plate & spare parts
DAILY INSPECTIONS:

• Presence of safety equipments


• Brakes
• Tyres
• Fire extinguishers
• Rear view mirrors
DEFENSIVE DRIVING

CONCLUSION
As a defensive driver, you must be always
alert on the road.
NARROW ROAD AHEAD
DIVERSION SIGNS AT THE SIDES OF BARRICATION

CLAMPING SYSTEM AT TOP AND BOTTOM