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PAD 102 INTRODUCTION TO

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
LESSON 1
INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS LESSON
After attended this lecture student should be
able to:-
1.Define public administration
2.Identify the importance and characteristics of
public administration
3.Explain what is policy and administration
4.Explain the difference of public and private
administration
5.Bureaucracy
6.The development of public administration in
Malaysia
INTRODUCTION
• Public –community having particular interest in common.
• Administration-coordination of men and materials within
organization for the accomplishment of identifiable purpose.
• P.A can be defined as a management of men and materials in
the accomplishment of the purpose of the state.
• It is a science of how a country can be ruled
• It is a government’s central instrument for dealing with
general, social problems.
• It is the management of resources to achieve government’s
goals and objectives.
INTRODUCTION
General statements on public administration
• Public administration is one of the most significance administrative
machinery in a particular state or country.
• Public administration play very important roles in determining the nation’s
affairs and progress.

The office of Public


administration is Public administration is
Public administration different with the government
work together with political office. machinery to carry out
private administration in Public certain objectives with a
variety of tools; such
managing the state or administration is
policy, regulation, direct
nation-building. consist of various and indirect services to
components. public.

Public administration refers to the activity of governmental unit in carrying out the
public policy declared in the law.
WHAT IS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION?

Definition of public administration


• Public administration is the branch of government that is responsible for
the execution or implementation of policy .
• Public administration is the set of organization, rules and laws that
ensure the intentions of the elected legislature are carried out through
their laws.
• Public administration - Establishments of federal, provincial and
municipal governments primarily engaged in activities associated with
public administration. This includes such establishments such as the
Federal Public Service, National Defense, RCMP and provincial and local
administrations.
• As an instrument of the state in assisting citizens . It is a medium
between government and mass
WHAT IS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION?

• Woodrow Wilson:-
Public administration is the detailed and systematic application
of law. Every particular application of law is an act of
administration

• ( H. A Simon)
Public Administration is meant, in common usage, the activities
of the executive branches of national, state and local
governments, government corporations and certain other
agencies of a specialised character. Specifically excluded are
judicial and legislative agencies within the government and non-
governmental administration
The Significance of Public administration
• Enhancing civil society, ensuring a well-run, fair, and
effective public service.
• Improving equality, justice, security, efficiency,
effectiveness of public services usually in a non-
profit, non-taxable venue.
• Maintaining law and order.
• Promoting peace and harmony.
• Protecting the interests of the state and of the
people .
• Practicing Good governance - transparency and
accountability in government policy decision making
and implementation process.
The characteristics of Public Administration
The characteristics of public administration in the democratic context are:-

Non-partisan or Neutrality – public administration is a non-political administrative


apparatus that is subject to policy direction but not partisan.

Structure - A set of laws or legally founded rules that create the structure of the
administrative apparatus of the state.

Power – public administration has given certain authority to draw and implement
policy to achieve the desired goal.

Activities – public administration carry out activities that related to the


government

Supervision - Continuing democratic supervision of administrative activities


through the executive which directs activities within public administration
apparatus.

Personnel – public administration is carried out by public servants who work in


public departments and agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a
wide range of tasks.
What is Policy and administration?
• The core of public administration is to generate policy
• Policy will guides every action

• Policy - is a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions


and achieve rational outcome(s). Policies can be
understood as political, management, financial, and
administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals.
Policy merely guides actions toward those that are most
likely to achieve a desired outcome.

• Administration – is described as the implementation of


government policy carried out by peoples who work in that
organization or agencies and perform various tasks.

• Policy and administration is two interconnected activities


that relevant to public administration and the government
administrative process. Public administration is working on
policy that decided by the government to achieve certain
desired goals.
What is Policy and administration?
Several example of Policies in Malaysia:-
1. National Economic Policy (1971-1990)
2. National Development Policy (1991-2000)
3. National Vision Policy (2001-2010)
4. New Economic Model (2011-2020)
5. National Integrity Plan
6. National Landscape Policy
7. National Sport Policy
8. National Environmental Policy
9. National Social Policy
10. And many other policies…..
The principles of political administrative
dichotomy
• a principle stating that politics and administration should remain separate
in the public sector.
• Politics is a process by which groups of people make decisions on political
interests. They are elected through election process which involves,
normally several political parties. It is achieved to satisfy political interests.
• Administration is a process by which groups of people make decisions on
public interests. They are appointed by the government to implement
political decisions of the lead government.
• The idea of separating politics and administration is to avoid conflict of
interest and maintaining neutrality (Max Weber)
• According to David H. Rosenbloom - the idea that public administration
can be separated from politics is strange. He believes that if politics and
public administration were separate, this approach would not work,
emphasizing their inevitable interconnection.
Public and private administration

Two different sectors or entities

Example :
Public administration – public school or hospital
Private administration – private school or
hospital

Both are providing same services to people and


aim to achieve same objective. However, there
are few differences of these two organizations.
The differences of public and private
administration

• Setting – how these two organizations was set up?


• Staffing– how the recruitment and training of the
personnel and their conditions of work?
• Mission/goal – What is the mission and goal?
• Operation/work procedures – How the procedures
used in these organizations?
• Funding – How the financing of the activities?
• Decision making process – How decisions are made?
• Visibility /accountability – subject to whom?
PUBLIC VS PRIVATE (FINAL MARCH2013)
KEY CHARACTERISTICS PUBLIC ORGANIZATION PRIVATE ORGANIZATION
OWNERSHIP BELONGS TO BELONGS TO PRIVATE
GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP, EG,
SHAREHOLDER
RESOURCES TAXES RESOURCES ARE LIMITED
TO ONLY THE OWNERS,
SHAREHOLDERS AND
STAKEHOLDER. Engage in
various business activities
OBJECTIVES TO SERVE PUBLIC OR TO MAXIMIZE PROFITS
PEOPLE IN THE SOCIETY
SYSTEM ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE SUPERIOR AND ACCOUNTABLE ONLY TO
ALSO TO THE PUBLIC THE OWNER AND
SHAREHOLDER
SIZE AND COMPLEXITY IT IS THE LARGEST IT OPERATES ON A
ORGANIZATION, AND NARROW AND SPECIALIZED
DOMINANT FORCE OF THE RANGE OF ACTIVITIES
COUNTRY
RULES AND GOVERNANCE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION COMPANIES ACT
SIMILARITIES PUBLIC ADMIN AND
PRIVATE ADMIN
1. Subject to government’s regulation.
2. Involve in administration.
3. Effective management.
4. Efficient utilization of resources.
5. Element of cooperation.
PUBLIC VS PRIVATE
PUBLIC PRIVATE
• Created by the • Owned by private/individual
government/public or group
• Constitution set the • Subject to company law
formation • Funded by investor
• Funded by taxes/public capital/share
budget. • Profits motive
• Not for profit motive. • Controlled by the board
• Controlled by legislative & • Pay taxes
judiciary. • Engage in various business
• Public services/Do not pay activities
taxes
SCOPE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
By the scope of Public Administration, we mean the major concerns of Public
Administration as an activity and as a discipline.

• Public administration covers every area and activity within the ambit
public policy. Thus, the scope of public administration is very wide in
modern state.
• Public administration is any kind of administration in the public interest
which has simply come to mean governmental administration.

There are many views regarding the scope and range of activities to be
included in public administration. Some thinkers take a broader view and
include all governmental activities having for their purpose, the fulfillment
of public policy, while other take a narrow view and consider only those
activities concerned with the executive branch of government as a part of
public administration.
The Role of Public Administration
Public administration plays very important role in any country.
The role of public administration is changing from being a major
provider of public services and development to promoter and
facilitator of development.
• Implementing government policies - Public administration has
important role to play in translating the ideas, wishes and
policies of politicians into reality.
• Providing Public services – public administration provide varieties
of services directly or indirectly through its agencies. Such
services including provision of water, education, health,
electricity, telephone, postal, transport, public housing,
immigration and security services.
• Improving Service delivery – improving service delivery in term of
timeliness, quality, availability, effectiveness, efficiency and
convenience. This can be achieved by considering citizens as
customer and success is measured in terms of citizens’
satisfaction.
• Promoting social change and economic
development – improving socio-economic
status of citizens and alleviating poverty.
• Maintaining peace and harmony - Public
administration is a major force for bringing
stability in society.
• Monitoring and control private sector
activities - Public administrationis also
regulate and control private economic
enterprises to meet the objectives of the
state.
• Protecting of the rights of workers in industrial sector
- it is imperative for public administration to
implement such laws in order to meet the
requirements of labour welfare.
• Scientific and technological developments – bringing
new techonologies for administration such as the
advancement of e-goverment.
• Economic planning - Centralised economic planning
has been pursued in many developing countries as a
method for socio-economic development. It requires
a large number of experts and elaborate
administrative machinery for plan formulation,
implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
BUREAUCRACY
ORGANIZATION
DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION
1. Thompson- a highly rationalized and impersonal
integration of a large number of specialists
cooperating to achieve specific objective.
2. Is a formal structure of power where small units of
work are arranged and coordinated for a stated
goal.
PUBLIC ORGANIZATION THEORY
Division of work and the structure of coordination are
required to ensure the functioning of an organization.
DEFINITION OF BUREAUCRACY
1. Bureaucracy is the collective organizational,
procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in
place to manage activity, usually in large
organizations and government.
2. Bureaucracy is a social mechanism that maximizes
efficiency and effectiveness in administration.
3. A bureaucracy is a form of organization in which
officeholders have defined positions and (usually)
titles. Formal rules specify the duties of the
officeholders. Personal distinctions are usually
discouraged by the rules.
CONCLUSION
The Concept of Public Administration
• is co-operative group effort in a public setting;
• covers all three branches-executive, legislative, and judicial,
and their inter-relationships;
• has an important role in the formulation and implementation
of public policy and is thus a part of the administrative
process;
• is different in significant ways from private administration;
• is closely associated with numerous private groups and
individuals in providing services to the community”.
• is the non-political public bureaucracy operating in a political
system;
• deals with the ends of the State, the sovereign will, the public
interests and laws;
• is the business side of government and as such
concerned with policy execution, but it is also
concerned with policy-making;
• covers all three branches of government, although it
tends to be concentrated in the executive branch;
• provides regulatory and service functions to the
people in order to attain good life;
• differs significantly from private administration,
especially in its emphasis on the public; and
• is interdisciplinary in nature as it draws upon other
social sciences like political science, economics and
sociology. to the community”.
Major ? Should be discussed in
tutorial
• What is public administration?
• What are the significance and characteristics
of public administration?
• What is the principle of political
administrative dichotomy?
• What is the difference of public and private
administration?
• What are the roles of public administration?
THAT ALL FOR TODAY
SEE YOU AGAIN NEXT LECTURE

LESSON 2
“HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION”

THANK YOU
PREPARED BY:
IRWANA NOORIDAYU MUHAMAD HAKIMI
UiTM CAWANGAN KEDAH