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Medical Secrecy ;

(ancient to modern times )

AGYEI ENOCH
GROUP 204
The Oath of Hippocrates

• Its an ancient oath taken ones by new


physicians in their inauguration to work

• The central theme of the oath


emphasizes on the confidentiality and
non maleficence of patients.

• The oath further provide, “those things


which are sacred, are to be imparted
only to sacred persons”.
Medical secrecy
• It is the act of protecting data or
information as it is shared by limiting
access to it.
• The right of patients to seek for
privacy in the health facility
• Privacy is the ability of the patient to
control what is shared about them.
• Doctor-patient confidentiality
GHANA,
• Ghana is located in the western Africa with a
land size of about 227,533km/sq.

• It borders with Togo in the east, Burkina Faso


in the north, Cote D’Ivoire in the west.

• Currently Ghana has 28 million inhabitants,


with majority forming the youth.

• Orthodox medicine was introduced to the


now Ghana in the 19th century.
Ancient eye..
• In the precolonial Ghana, traditional
priest provided treatment for the sick.

• illness and misfortune were know to


originated from both natural and
supernatural sources.

• Western medicine was introduced into


the Gold Coast by Christian
missionaries in the 19th century .

• Priests disclosed patients information


based on his mood.
Ancient days cont.
• Monarchs decide what to tell his
people.
• They decide what to do to the
patient.
• No laws protected the patient
• Patients were devoid of privacy
The UK
• The principle of respect for autonomy carries great weight.
• The patient is the ultimate arbiter of what to tell the family.
• Stated in the GMFA, patients have the right to privacy of their medical
records.
• Patient consent may be explicit or implied.
Breach in medical secrecy
• A breach occurs when patient’s private information is disclosed to a
third party without their consent.
• Physicians can be prosecuted for a breach of patients information.
• Doctors can loose their license of practice.
Modern times.
• Unlike ‘the UK’ , guardians or parents is the ultimate arbiter to the
patients health information ( under 18 ).
• According to the NHIS code of ethics, patients in Ghana has the right
to privacy and confidentiality.
• Patient consent to disclose information maybe explicit or implied.
Medical rights,
• In GHANA a patient has legal rights to his/her
privacy
• There are laws that guide health service
providers in how they collect and record
patient information
• Doctors take consent from patients on when
and how they use and share their information.
Breach in medical secrecy
• A breach occurs when patient’s private information is disclosed to a
third party without their consent.
• Physicians can be prosecuted for a breach of patients information.
• Doctors can loose their license of practice in modern Ghana.
Criminal law and HIV/AIDS
• The Ghana Aids Commission act states that individuals
living with HIV/AIDS who deliberately spread to others shall
be prosecuted.

• Privacy and confidentiality is enforced by Article 32(1-8)


which guarantees HIV positive the right to privacy.

• Unlike the criminal code of Ukraine(2001), disclosure of an


HIV patient information by an authorized medical
personnel shall be restraint off liberty for up to three years.

• In the UK, the GMFA/HIV and law states clinicians who


breach HIV patient confidentiality must be brought to
court and face justice.
Exemptions to privacy laws

• Coma patients.
• Children.
• Patient with psychological problems.
• when the disease is capable of been epidemic.
• In court proceedings.
• Government functions, including national security.
International code of medical ethics
• Its goal is to establish the ethical principles of the physicians
worldwide, based on duties, his patients and colleagues.
• It states;
2. “A physician shall respect competent patient’s right to accept or
refuse treatment”.
7. “ A physician shall respect the rights and preferences of patients,
colleagues, and other health professionals”.
The wrap up;
• Medical privacy has protected the interests of people and valuable
benefit to society.
Thank you for you time…