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Compressible Flow Introduction

Objectives:
1. Indicate when compressibility effects are important.
2. Classify flows with Mach Number.
3. Introduce equations for adiabatic, isentropic flows.

Larry Baxter
Ch En 374
Flow Classifications
V
Ma 
a
Flow Regime Density Shock Waves
Gradient
Incompressible Negligible None
Ma  0.3
0.3  Ma  0.8 Subsonic Small None

0.8  Ma  1.2 Transonic Significant First appear

1.2  Ma  3.0 Supersonic Significant Significant

3.0  Ma Hypersonic Dominant Dominant


Property Changes
dpdh dp
Tds  dh   ds  
 T T
2 2 2
dh dp
1 ds  1 T  R 1 p
2
c p dT p2
2
cv dT 2
s    R ln   R ln
1
T p1 1 T 1

For isentropic (Δs=0), constant-heat-capacity conditions


k /( k 1) k
p2  T2   2  cp
      ; k 
p1  T1   1  cv
Speed of Sound
C
p1, 1,T1,V1  0 p2, 2,T2,V2  0

p1, 1,T1,V1  C C p2, 2,T2,V2  C  V

pressure wave
Δx=nλ

1AV1   2 AV2  V  C
1  
 Fright  m V2  V1   1AC V   p1A  p2 A
 p   
p  1CV  1C 2
C 
2
1  
1     1 
Speed of Sound in Materials
1/ 2
p  p 
lim C  2
a 
 0    
 s

1/ 2
 kp 
a     kRT  Most (perfect) gas conditions
1/ 2

  
1/ 2
 p High frequency waves (isothermal
a     RT 
1/ 2
rather than isentropic expansion)


1/ 2
p K  Solids and liquids (actually gases
K  a   
 s  as well), where K is bulk modulus
Bulk modulus, not heat capacity ratio
Typical Sound Speeds (STP)
Gas ft/s mi/hr m/s
Air 1117 762 341 Solid ft/s mi/hr m/s
Ar 1038 708 316 Aluminum 16896 11520 5150
C 3H 6 1009 688 307 Beryllium 42290 28834 12890
Brass 11401 7773 3475
C 3H 8 810 552 247
Brick 13701 9341 4176
CH4 1447 987 441 Concrete 10600 7228 3231
CO 1136 775 346 Copper 12799 8726 3901
CO2 869 593 265 Cork 1312 895 400
H2 4236 2888 1291 Glass 12999 8863 3962
H 2O 1381 941 421 Gold 10630 7248 3240
Iron 19521 13310 5950
He 3280 2236 1000
Hickory 13189 8992 4020
N2 1136 775 346
Ice 10499 7158 3200
O2 1061 723 323 Lead 3799 2590 1158
238
UF6 299 204 91 Platinum 10696 7292 3260
Rubber 328 224 100
Liquid ft/s mi/hr m/s Steel 19554 13332 5960
Benzene 4340 2959 1323 Wood 12999 8863 3962
Carbon Tetrachloride 3080 2100 939
Ethanol 3810 2598 1161
Glycerin 6102 4161 1860 Generally, sound travels
Kerosene 4390 2993 1338
Machine Oil 4240 2891 1292
faster in solids than liquids
Mercury 4757 3244 1450 and faster in liquids than
Water, fresh 4888 3333 1490
Water, salt 4990 3402 1521 gases.
Sound Speed vs. Molecular Speed
Molecular theory of gases indicates that the average
molecular speed is
1/ 2
 3p 
c  c x  c y  c z c     3RT 
2 2 2 2 1/ 2

  
Therefore, the average velocity of a molecule (speed in any
specified direction) is
1 2
c  c  RT  c x  RT
2
x
3
In the case of a sound wave, molecules don’t have time to adjust
their temperatures to the rapid change in pressure, so their
temperature changes slightly inside the wave. If this change is
completely adiabatic – generally a good assumption – the specific
heat ratio accounts for the temperature change. Thus, the speed of
sound is identically equal to the speed at which molecules travel in
any one direction under conditions of a propagating wave.
Sound Travels in Longitudinal Waves

Light, cello strings, and surfing waves are transverse waves.

Sound travels in a longitudinal or compression wave.


Ideal and Perfect Gases
Ideal Gas
p  RT Good approximation for most conditions far
from critical points and at atmospheric
c p  cv  R pressure or lower.

Perfect Gas
c p  c p (T ) Reasonable approximation for many gases.
Generally also assume that the gas is non-
cp
k  k (T ) dissociating.
cv
Gas Flows
V12 V22
h1   gz1  h2   gz2  q  w v
2 2
V12 V22
h1   h2   const  h0  c pT0
2 2
Vmax  2c pT0 
1/ 2
Perfect Gas
V2 T0
1 
2c pT0 T
 k  a2
c pT   R T 
 k  1 k 1
V 2 k  1 T0
1 2

2a T
Mach-Number Relations
T0 k 1 2
 1 Ma
T 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
a0  T0   k 1 2
   1  Ma 
a T   2 
k /( k 1) k /( k 1)
p0  T0   k 1 2 Isentropic
   1  Ma 
p T   2  Expansion
1 /( k 1) 1 /( k 1)
 0  T0   k 1 2 Isentropic
   1  Ma 
 T   2  Expansion
Graphical Representation

20 T0/T
p0/2000T
rho0/100T
a0/a
stagnation/static property

15

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Mach Number
Critical Properties

T* 2
 0.8333 for k =1.4 (air)
T0 k  1
1/ 2
a*  2 
 0.9129 for k =1.4 (air)
a0  k  1
k /( k 1)
p*  2 

p0  k  1
0.5283 for k =1.4 (air)
1 /( k 1)
*  2 
 0.6339 for k =1.4 (air)
 0  k  1
Blunt Body Flows

Ma = 2.2
Sonic Flows
Ma = 1.7

Ma = 3.0
Compressible Flow Essentials
• Know what a Mach number is and the regimes of flow
as indicated by the Mach number. (Mach number is
ratio of velocity to the speed of sound at the same
conditions. Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.8, 1.2, and 3
separate incompressible, subsonic, transonic,
supersonic, and hypersonic regimes, respectively).
• Know how pressure, temperature, density, and velocity
change across a normal shock wave. (First three all
increase in direction of decreasing velocity, with
pressure increasing the most. Velocity decreases from
supersonic to subsonic value, with post-shock velocity
decreasing as pre-shock velocity increases).
Supersonic vs. Subsonic Flows

 ( x )V ( x )A( x )  const
d dV dA
  0
 V A
dp
 VdV  0

dp  a 2d
dV dA 1 dp
 
V A 1  Ma 2
V 2
Area Changes Differ with Ma
Critical Area

 ( x )V ( x )A( x )  const
A  V*

A*  * V
k 1
  k  1 2  2( k 1)

 1  Ma 
A

1
  2 

A * Ma   k  1 
   
  2  
Mass Flow Relationships
Choked flow
1/( k 1) 1/ 2
 2   2k 
m *max   * A * V *  0 
  A* RT0 
 k  1  k 1 
m *max (k  1.4)  0.6847 A * 0 RT0  
 1/ 2 0.6847 p0 A *
RT0 1/ 2

All flows
1/ 2
m RT0 
1/ 2  2k  p  2/k
  p ( k 1) / k
 
 
   1    
A p0  k  1  p0    p0   

Normal Shock Wave
Shock Waves
p2

1
p1 k  1

2kMa12  (k  1) 
Ma22 
k  1Ma12  2
2kMa12  (k  1)
2 (k  1)Ma12 V1
 
1 (k  1)Ma1  2 V2
2

T2

 (k  1)Ma1  2
2

2kMa12  (k  1)
T1 k  12 Ma12
T0,2
1
T0,1
k /( k 1) 1 /( k 1)
 0,2 p0,2  (k  1)Ma  2
 k 1 
  1
 0,1 p0,1  (k  1)Ma12  2  
 2kMa1
2
 ( k  1)


Normal Shock Wave
Nozzle Performance
Compressible Flow Essentials
• Be able to explain on a molecular level the
origin of the changes in pressure, temperature
and density. (Molecules collide into one
another or a surface, exchanging kinetic
energy for pressure or temperature. Ideal gas
law still applies to give relationship between
density, pressure, and temperature).
• Know how streamlining designs differ for
compressible flows compared to
incompressible flows. (Leading edges are
relatively sharp edges rather than rounded
corners and heat dissipation is a major issue).
Three Classes of CFD
• Finite Difference • Finite Element
• Original and still widely used • Most commonly used for heat
formulation for CFD describes transfer and stress
flow fields as values of calculations in solid bodies
velocity vectors at discrete rather than fluid mechanics
points. (because of stability issues).
• Finite Volume • Much easier to describe
• Close cousin to finite general/complex geometries
difference, but discrete points than FD/FV techniques.
represent average values of • Solves for dependent variable
velocities in a volume rather (velocity, temperature, stress)
than at a point. with variations across element
by minimizing an objective
function
First Derivative FD Formulas
ui 1  ui 1 ui 1  ui 1
 central O(Δx2)
x i 1  x i 1 2x
ui  ui 1 ui  ui 1
 backward O(Δx)
x i  x i 1 x
ui 1  ui ui 1  ui
 forward O(Δx)
x i 1  x i x
3ui  4ui 1  u j 2
backward O(Δx2)
2x
 3ui  4ui 1  u j  2 forward O(Δx2)
2x
First Derivative FV Formulas
ui 1/ 2  ui 1/ 2
General Formula
x
ui 1/ 2  ui  ui 1  / 2 central O(Δx2)
ui 1/ 2  ui , ui 1/ 2  ui 1 backward O(Δx)
ui 1/ 2  ui 1, ui 1/ 2  ui forward O(Δx)
3ui  ui 1
ui 1/ 2  ,
2 backward O(Δx2)
3ui 1  ui 2
ui 1/ 2 
2
3ui 1  ui  2
ui 1/ 2  ,
2
forward O(Δx2)
3ui  ui 1
ui 1/ 2 
2
Second Derivative FD Formulas

ui 1  2ui  ui 1
central O(Δx2)
x 2

ui  2ui 1  ui 2
backward O(Δx)
x 2
ui  2ui 1  ui  2
forward O(Δx)
x 2
First Derivative FV Formulas
ui 1/ 2  ui 1/ 2
General Formula
x

ui 1/ 2  ui 1  ui  / x,


central O(Δx2)
ui 1/ 2  ui  ui 1  / x

ui 1/ 2  ui  ui 1  / x, backward O(Δx)


ui 1/ 2  ui 1  ui 2  / x

ui 1/ 2  ui  2  ui 1  / x,


ui 1/ 2  ui 1  ui  / x
forward O(Δx)
Navier-Stokes: Cartesian Coord.

x component
 Vx Vx Vx Vx  p   2Vx  2Vx  2Vx 
   Vx  Vy  Vz       2     g x
2 
 t x y z  x  x y z 
2

y component
 Vy Vy Vy Vy  p   2Vy  2Vy  2Vy 
   Vx  Vy  Vz      2     g y
 
 t x y z  y   
2 2
 x y z 

z component
 Vz Vz Vz Vz  p   2Vz  2Vz  2Vz 
   Vx  Vy  Vz       2   2   g z
 t x y z  z  x y z 
2
Outline of CFD model
Stoker: Geometry and Surface
Areas

Super heater #2: 194 m2 / 2090 ft2

Super heater #1
Super heater #2
Super heater #1: 364 m2 / 3920 ft2

Boiler
Boiler Bank: 1181 m2 / 12700 ft2
Economizer: 330 m2 / 3550 ft2

Econo.
y Secondary air
~8 kg/s, 175 ºC

Secondary air
x ~8 kg/s, 175 ºC
z
Spreader stokers
~9 kg fuel/s Grate air
~24 kg/s, 175 ºC
Computational mesh
Cloud (Particle) Trajectories
Oxygen Mass Fraction Contours
Velocity and Heat Release Vary
Initial Deposition Rates Vary
Temporal Deposition Variation
Gas Temperature Field
CFD Essentials
• Know the distinguishing characteristics of finite
difference, finite volume, and finite element approaches
to numerical methods differ.
• Know where to find (in these notes) common algebraic
approximations for first and second derivatives for FD
and FV approaches and the accuracy of the
approximation.
• Know (conceptually) how the algebraic approximations
are substituted into the partial differential equations
and how these are then solved.
• Recognize that entire careers are dedicated to small
fractions of CFD problem solving because of issues of
convergence, stability, non-uniform grids, turbulence,
etc.