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Earthquakes may occur

naturally or as a result
of human activities.
Smaller earthquakes
can also be caused by
volcanic activity,
landslides, mine blasts,
and nuclear
• Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and
occasionally volcanic activity.
• A fault is a crack across which the rocks have
been offset first. Their sizes range from
micrometers to thousands of kilometers in
length and tens of kilometers in depth.
Parts of an Earthquake Fault
• The first part is
the area where
the fault
occurs, called
the fault plane.
Parts of an Earthquake Fault
• The second
part is the fault
trace, a line
that may be
visible or not
which occurs
on Earth’s
Parts of an Earthquake Fault
• The remaining
two parts are
the hanging
wall, which
refers to the
block of crust
above the
Parts of an Earthquake Fault
• The remaining
two parts are
the hanging
wall, which
refers to the
block of crust
above the
Cause & Effect of Earthquakes
Cause & Effect of Earthquakes
• Earthquakes are caused by the release of a
massive amount of energy at Earth’s crust
that allows seismic waves to propagate along
its surface.
• Earthquake happen due to the tension put on
the ground by the tectonic plates when the
latter gets jammed.
Cause & Effect of Earthquakes
• As the strain develops, the rocks give way and
the fault lines are created.

Earthquake pose great danger and the

destruction because they do not happen at
once. Oftentimes, they are felt in series.
Cause & Effect of Earthquakes
• Foreshocks are small earthquakes that
commonly precede a major earthquake.

• After the major earthquakes , smaller

earthquakes called aftershocks occur. These
tremors are felt in this are dangerous as they can
trigger the collapse of infrastructure.
What To Do Before, During,
and After An Earthquake
Before an Earthquake:
• Familiarize yourself with the location of fire
extinguishers, medical kits, exit routes, and your
building’s evacuation plan
• Have necessary house repairs fixed to avoid
further damage
• Store harmful chemicals and flammable
materials properly
• Secure heavy furniture and hanging objects
Before an Earthquake:
• Prepare your survival kit* (preferably one in your
house, car, and workplace)
• Participate in office and community earthquake
• Discuss a designated meet up location with
family in case you’re separated
• Learn simple first aid techniques
During an earthquake:
• Stay calm and stay put
• Duck, cover and hold under somewhere stable
(ex. desk or table)
• Stay away from glass windows, shelves, and
heavy and hanging objects
• Exit the building only once shaking stops via
stairs. Elevators are not to be used.
During an earthquake:
• Evacuate to an open area away from trees,
electric posts and landslide prone areas
• If you’re in a moving vehicle, step out and move
towards a safer area.
• Avoid overpasses, slowly stop in an open area,
and remain in your vehicle
After an earthquake:
• Stay alert in the event of aftershocks
• Check yourself and those in your surroundings are
injuries and provide first aid. Prioritize children,
pregnant women, PWDs, and senior citizens*
• For coastal locations, evacuate to higher ground
• Double check for toxic spills and flammable
After an earthquake:
• Stay out of buildings until advised
• Check for water, electrical, gas, or LPG leaks
and damages
• Stay updated through a battery-operated
• If signal is not down, message loved ones of
your state and where you are