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- Most generically, is any body of written works.

restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to
be an art form or any single writing deemed to have
artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying
language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.
- Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself
from littera: letter or handwriting)
 Literature may very well be among the greatest gifts that you can
 Literature provides enjoyment.
 Literature will help you discover ideals, principles, and values
which form the foundation for good character.
 Literature can be so satisfying and inspiring so as to move you to
create and produce something of your own.
 You develop a critical mind that discovers the ethical values of
different creeds and races.
 You begin to appreciate and understand the problems of others.
 Literature extends and enriches your experience of the complex
ways of man’s living.
Literature is generally classified into two types: aesthetic and
- Aesthetic literature, is literature written and read for
- Utilitarian literature, is “useful” literature. That is literature
used for everyday purposes. Like advertisements, brochures,
recipes, reports.

Four questions will help your mind to track of the ideas as they unfold
 What is this piece of writing about? What is this leading theme or
main point? What it is trying to say?
 How does it say what it is trying to say? How does the writer get his
central point across? How does he tell his story or argue for his
conclusion to produce the effect that he is aiming at?
 Is it true in the whole part? Do you agree or disagree with the
author’s reasons? Why?
 What does it mean? What opinions or attitudes are we led to form
for ourselves as a result of reading this piece?
Fiction- are those works which are purely the product of imagination.
Non-fiction- are those prose works which are based on and deal with

In every piece fiction, the subject matter is generally men and

women. The imaginative writer approaches his subjects subjectively.
The language of imaginative literature is ambiguous. It is replete with
figures od speech such as metaphors and similes.

Mortimer J. Adler states three groups of rules for reading fiction.

 Structural

 Interpretative

 Critical
Under structural
1. You must clarify a piece of imaginative literature according to its kind.
2. You must grasp the unity of the whole work.
3. You must not only reduce the whole to its simplest unity, you must also
discover the whole is constructed out of all its part.
Under interpretative
1. First you have to know the elements of fiction.
2. The elements of fiction operate within a setting or background.
3. Now you must follow the characters through their adventures.
Under critical, the following questions are suggested
1. To what degree does the work have unity?
2. How great is the complexity of parts and elements which that unity
embraces and organizes?
3. Is it a likely story, that is, does it have the inherent plausi bility of the
poetic truth?
4. Does it elevate you from the ordinary semi-consciousness of daily life to
the clarity of intense wakefulness, by stirring your emotions and filling
your imagination?
5. Does it create a new world into which you are drawn and wherein you
seem to live with the illusion that you are seeing life steadily and whole?
Short story may defined loosely as a short novel.

Setting- the time and place in which the story occurs.

Characters- description of the characters in a story.
Plot- the action in the story which is usually based in some
conflict involving the character.
Dialogue- the language of a story.
Theme- the author’s meaning, intent, and purpose for
writing a story.