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In this sampling method,

everybody in a population
participates. All are given
equal opportunity or chance
to become a respondent.
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING-
is characterized by the idea
that the chance of selection is
the same for every member of
the population.
SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING- it
follows specific steps and procedures such
as:
1. Divide the number of elements in
the population by the desired sample size.
2. Choose a random number between
one and the value you obtained from Step
1
3. Starting with the number you
picked, you take every tenth (10th) from
step 1.
STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING-
the population is first divided into two
or more mutually exclusive categories
based on your variables of interest in
research study. The population is
organized into homogeneous subsets
before drawing the samples. With
stratified random sampling, the
population is divided into
subpopulation called STRATA.
STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING- is
preferred by researchers who want to study
subpopulations where categorization of
homogeneous characteristics of each stratum
is being considered.

STEPS TO FOLLOW:
1. Get the population of the school per
level and make a record of it.
2. Divide each number of students per
level by the total population and then multiply
by the desired sample size.
CLUSTER SAMPLING- is used when the target
respondents in research study is spread across a
geographical location. It is classified into:
SINGLE-STAGE CLUSTER- all members from
each of the selected clusters are used in the
sampling process.
TWO-STAGE CLUSTER- a subset of elements
within each selected cluster is randomly selected
for inclusion in the sample.
MULTI-STAGE CLUSTER- more than two steps
are taken in selecting clusters from clusters. It
takes a large population into account.
This sampling method are
not chosen randomly, but
purposely, that is why they are
susceptible to bias. It is used
if the researcher have no
choice and no available
respondents.
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING- This is
a method of selecting samples that
are available and are capable of
participating in a research study on a
current issue. It is sometimes called
haphazard or availability sampling. It
could be used in conducting a survey
or interview to obtain a quick
response of public opinion on an
issue.
SNOWBALL SAMPLING- is a technique
where the researcher identifies a key
informant about a research of interest and
then ask that respondent to refer or identify
another respondent who can participate in
the study. The identification of the samples
follows a multiplier effect, that is, one
person is asked to refer the researcher to
another respondents and so on.
This technique is applicable when
researchers find difficulty in locating special
numbers of a population.
PURPOSIVE SAMPLING-
sometimes called judgemental or
subjective sampling employs a
procedure in which samples are
chosen for a special purpose. It
may involve members of a limited
group of population.
QUOTA SAMPLING- is
gathering a representative
sample from a group based on
certain characteristics of the
population chosen by the
researcher. Usually the
population is divided into specific
groups.
VOLUNTARY SAMPLING-
is selecting people who are
very much willing to
participate as respondents
in the research project.
TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
Textual presentations use words, statements or
paragraphs with numerals, numbers or measurements to
describe data. They can be used independently to
describe the data when there are very few quantities or
numbers. They can also be used to compare data using
paragraphs for the discussion.
There are 42,036 barangays in the Philippines. The
largest barangay in terms of population size is Barangay 176 in
Caloocan City with 247 thousand persons. It is followed by
Commonwealth in Quezon City (198, 285) and Batasan Hills in
Quezon City (161, 409). Twelve other barangays posted a
population size of more than a hundred thousand persons.
TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DATA

Tables present clear and organized data. A table


must be clear and simple but complete.
A good table should include the following parts:
 Table number and title-These are placed above the
table. The title is usually written right after the table
number.
 Caption subhead- This refers to columns and rows
 Body- It contains all the data under each subhead
 Source- It indicates if the data is secondary and it
should be acknowledged.
TABLE 1
Ages of Individuals in Various Employment Sectors
AGE GROUP
Employment Sector
18-25 26-35 36-45
Agriculture 3 8 12
Education 10 15 15
Health 15 28 35
Law 3 5 6
Manufacturing 15 23 32
Retail 30 12 8
Others 25 16 10
TABULAR PRESENTATION WITH TEXTUAL
ANALYSIS

An information sheet is distributed to 300 junior


and senior high school students of a certain school to
gather data or background of students in terms of sex,
grade level and socio-economic status as measured by
monthly family income. A profile analysis of the
student’s background is provided for each tabular
presentation of profile variables to illustrate textual
analysis.
TABLE 2
Profile of Students According to Gender

GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


Male 120 40%
Female 180 60%
Total 300 100%

ANALYSIS: Among the 300 respondents, 120


(40%) are males and 180 (60%) are females
TABLE 3
Profile of Students According to Grade Level
GRADE LEVEL FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Grade 7 60 20%
Grade 8 54 18%
Grade 9 51 17%
Grade 10 45 15%
Grade 11 90 30%
Total 300 100%
ANALYSIS: Of the survey’s 300 respondents, 60 (20%) are grade
7, 54 (18%) are Grade 8, 51 (17%) are in Grade 9 and 45 (15%)
are Grade 10. This constitutes enrolment in Junior High School.
Enrolees entering Senior High School in Grade 11 constitute 90
m(30%) of the total school enrolment.
GRAPHICAL METHODS OF PRESENTING
DATA
A graph or chart portrays the visual
presentation of data using symbols such as
lines, dots, bars or slices. It depicts the trend
of certain set of measurements or shows
comparison between to or more sets of data or
quantities.
Charts and graphs are very useful in
simplifying the presentation of research
reports. They help students and researchers
LINE GRAPH

It is a graphical presentation
of data that shows a continuous
change or trend. It may show an
ascending or descending trend
DOUBLE LINE GRAPH
It has two lines connecting
points to show continuous change
in the data over time. A double
line graph includes a key, which
represents information, event and
situation being observed.
BAR GRAPH OR BAR
CHART
It uses bars to compare
categories of data. It may be
drawn vertically or horizontally.
PIE GRAPH OR CIRCLE
GRAPH
It is usually used to show
how parts of a whole compare to
each other and to the whole. The
entire circle represents the total,
and the parts are proportional to
the amount of the total they
Gives a picture of the relationship
between variables
• Perfect Positive Relationship
• Perfect Negative Relationship
• Low Negative Relationship
• Very High Positive Relationship
It is a relationship between two variables.
A. LINEAR CORRELATION- this
means that a change in one variable is at a
constant rate with respect to the change
in the second variables.
1. Direct- for every increase in one
variable, there is a corresponding
increase in the second variable.
2. Inverse- for every increase in one
variable, there is a corresponding
decrease in the second variable.
It is a relationship between two
variables.
B. CURVILINEAR CORRELATION-
this means that a change in one
variable is not at a fixed rate. It
may be increasing or decreasing
with respect to the change in the
other variable.
It is a relationship between dependent
variable and two or more independent
variables is usually measured.

A. NON-LINEAR CORRELATION-
same as with the curvilinear, the
only difference it that more than
two variables are involved.
It is a relationship between dependent
variable and two or more independent
variables is usually measured.

B. JOINT CORRELATION- the


variable and two or more variables
is changed with the addition of
another independent variable.
This is a relative measure of
relationship between dependent
variable and a particular
independent variable, without
considering the effect of the
other independent variables under
study.
It is necessary to obtain the
value of the extent of
relationship between to sets of
items. The values of the
coefficient of correlation ranges
between +1 to -1. Zero
represents no relationship.
This measure was first
derived by a British statistician
named Karl Pearson. It measures
the linear relationship between
two variables.
1. POSITIVE CORRELATION
COEFFICIENT- means that individual
obtaining high scores in the first variable
tend to obtain low scores in a second
variables.
2. NEGATIVE CORRELATION
COEFFICIENT- means that for every
increase in one variable, there is a
corresponding decrease on a second
variables. Or a decrease in one variable
brings about an increase on the second
variable.
3. ABSOLUTE VALUE OF THE
CORRELATION COEFFICIENT-
indicates the extent of the relationship.
 r of 0.7 and above indicates a very
high correlation
 r around 0.5 may be interpreted as
substantial
 r of 0.3 and below indicates a low
relationship between two variables being
measured.
It is the statistics being used
based on ranks or position. It
represents the extent to which
the same individuals or events
occupy the same relative position
on two variables.
Linear regression is the simplest
and commonly used statistical
measure for prediction studies. It
is a prediction when a variable (Y) is
dependent on a second variable (X)
based on the regression equation of
a given set of data.
It is concerned with finding an
equation that uses the known values
of one or more variables, called the
independent or predictor variables,
to estimate the unknown value of
quantitative variable called the
dependent or criterion.
General form of linear function
is Y=a+bX
a= is called the Y-intercept
of the line (the value of Y when
X is equal to zero)
b= is the slope of the line
called the regression (the rate
of change of Y per unit change
in X)
The line that describes the
statistical relationship between
X and Y is called the regression
line. It is a straight line that
attempts to predict the
relationship between points
also known as line of best fit.
 establishes the
possible causation of charges in one variable
by changes in other variables;
predicts or
estimate the value of a variable given the
values of other variables;

imposes a line of the best fit to time series


historical model (Mc Guigan, 2011)
 POSITIVE LINEAR RELATIONSHIP- when
b>0, Y increases as X increases. In thin case, we
say that Y is directly or positively related to X.
 NEGATIVE LINEAR RELATIONSHIP- when
b<0, Y decreases as X increases, and we say that
Y is inversely or negatively related to X.
 NO RELATIONSHIP- when b=0, Y is a
constant and is equal to the y-intercept a. This
implies that there is no change in Y whatever X
value is.