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04 Dec2013 | Save the Children

LGBT 101: Embracing Diversity


Hender Gercio | UP Center for Women’s Studies | hender@gmail.com
Today’s Agenda
1. Basic concepts
2. Marginalization & well-being
3. Thinking games
4. Kwentuhan

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Tawagin natin itong well-being.

How do you feel about your


life as whole?

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Well-being includes both the objective (e.g.,
economic, health, rights) and the subjective
(e.g., happiness, life satisfaction).

How do you feel about your


life as whole?

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Advocates and community workers have a common
goal -- promoting the welfare & well-being of all
Filipinos.

How do you feel about your


life as whole?

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Including Filipinos of diverse experiences &
expressions of gender, sexuality, intimate
partnerships, and families.

How do you feel about your


life as whole?

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LGBT 101
Ano ang L? ang G? B? at T?
Thinking Game
List 5 words (characteristics, ideas,
people, places, concepts, etc.) that
come to mind when we say “LGBT”.

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Kwentuhan
1. Are there any similarities or patterns?
2. Any positive or negative ideas?
3. Where do these ideas come from?

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Take-home point
We all have personal beliefs about LGBT
culture, experiences, and people
(whether accurate or not).

These beliefs can have an effect on how


we engage LGBT issues & serve LGBT
people.

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Today’s alphabet: “LGBT”
1. When you were born, what did the
doctor / attendant announce?

“It’s a boy!”

“It’s a girl!”
2. Right now, how do you see
yourself?

“I’m a man/lalake po ako”

“I’m a woman/babae po ako”


3. How do you look, dress, talk, act,
carry, and fashion yourself?

Mostly MASCULINE / Mas sa panlalake

Mostly FEMININE / Mas sa panbabae

Blend of MASCULINE & FEMININE / Halong panlalake & pambabae


4. Who do you have crushes on & find
attractive, sexy, do-able?

Men, boys, mga guapo

Women, girls, mga magaganda


Both men & women
Now some answers

1. When you were born, what was


announced?

“Boy!”
ASSIGNED
“Girl!” SEX
2. Right now, how do you see
yourself?

LALAKE/MAN/BOY
GENDER
IDENTITY
BABAE/WOMAN/GIRL
3. How do you look, dress, talk, act,
carry and fashion yourself?

Mostly masculine / Mas sa panlalake

GENDER
Mostly feminine / Mas sa pambabae
EXPRESSION

Blend of masculine and feminine / Halo


4. Who do you find attractive?

Men, boys, gwapo


SEXUAL
Women, girls, maganda
ORIENTATION

Both men & women


ASSIGNED
SEX
Warning!
SEXUAL GENDER
Not necessarily IDENTITY
ORIENTATION
linked
GENDER
EXPRESSION
MALE FEMALE

Lalake ako Babae ako

Masculine Feminine

Likes girls Hetero Likes boys


MALE FEMALE

Lalake ako Babae ako

Masculine Feminine

Gay / Likes girls


Likes boys
lesbian
MALE FEMALE

Lalake ako Babae ako

Masculine Feminine

Likes girls & boys Bi Likes boys & girls


MALE FEMALE

Babae ako Lalake ako


Trans
Feminine Masculine
Ano itong “LGBT”?

LGB T
Mga babae at lalake na iba ang
assigned gender sa kanilang
internal sense of gender
We are born into gender. And get
assigned into a gender box at birth.
Gender Identity
Gender identity refers to
a person’s internal sense of
being male, female, or something else.

GI resolves itself independent of a person’s


birth assigned sex, physical characteristics,
initial gender role and sexual orientation.
Definition from the American Psychological Association
Photo from http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/13410692-transgender-101
Gender Expression
Gender expression
refers to the way
a person communicates
gender identity to others
through behavior, clothing,
hairstyles, voice, or
body characteristics.

Gender expression may or may


not conform to norms and
stereotypes
Definition from the American Psychological Association
Photo from http://loosegarments.com/tag/gender/
TRANSGENDER
trans + gender
To change (as in transform) gender.

- The term is credited to Virginia Prince, a cross-


dresser from the US who coined the term in the 70s to
describe her desire to be a woman without changing
her sex.

To cross or go across (as in transit) the genders.

To go beyond or be beyond (as in transcend) gender.

Taken from the "TG 101" presentation of the


Society of Transsexual Women of the Philippines.
TRANSGENDER

Gender-variant or gender-diverse people


or those whose gender identity and/or
expression are not traditionally associated
with their birth assigned sex/gender.

Taken from the "TG 101" presentation of the


Society of Transsexual Women of the Philippines.
Transgenderism in History
Only the term transgender is new although
transgender people have existed in almost every
culture, race and class since the beginning of time.
There is also preference for it as the term is not
clinical and came from the community.

kathoey
asog/bayoguin two-spirit people fa-a-fa-fine
transgender shamans travesti newhalf

Galli kothis fakaleiti


hijras mahu

Taken from the "TG 101" presentation of the


Society of Transsexual Women of the Philippines.
Transgenderism Across
Cultures

fa-a-fa-fine
kathoey hijras

mahu newhalf xanith


Transition

- A process undergone by some trans people to resolve their


gender incongruence

- Changing one’s gender expression and/or anatomy


through hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and various
surgeries
What is Transition Like?
Mga Tanyag na Transpinay
Ano itong “LGBT”?

LGBT
Mga babaeng umiibig,
nagkakagusto, at
bumubuo ng intimate
relationship sa kapwa-
babae
Ano itong “LGBT”?

L GBT
Mga lalakeng umiibig,
nagkakagusto, at bumubuo
ng intimate relationship sa
kapwa-lalake
Ano itong “LGBT”?

LG BT
Mga babae at lalakeng
umiibig, nagkakagusto, at
nakikipagrelasyon sa
babae o lalake
Heterosexual

Men attracted to women;


Women attracted to men
So what is “LGBT”?

Being trans is about a person and his or her


experience of gender -- especially one’s identity
(GI) as a gendered person living in a gendered
society.
So what is “LGBT”?

Being LGB (and straight) -- is about your partner,


and your romantic & erotic attractions, crushes,
and relationships. In other words, your sexual
orientation (SO).
Who are LGBT Filipinos?
Not all LGBT Filipinos will
identify themselves as “LGBT”.

The term “LGBT” is just a


convenient way to refer to
gender minorities (e.g., trans) &
sexual minorities (e.g.,
lesbians, gay men, bisexuals).

What LGBT people have in


common is their experience of
marginalization – because of
society’s preference for
heterosexuality.
LGBT 101
Problema ba ang pagiging LGBT?
Noong sinaunang panahon

“Homosexuality” =
psychological problem

Implications
• Tanong-tanong tungkol sa rason
• Pag-aalala na baka “nakakahawa”
• Interes sa “gamot” o “lunas”
• Dagdag na stigma
Nagbago ang lahat noong
1973

"Being Miss Universe is like


having a birthstone, you may lose it.
Being a Filipina is like
having a birthmark, it's forever.”

-19-year-old Maria Margarita “Margie” Moran


Miss Universe 1973
Nagbago ang lahat noong 1973

“Homosexuality” was
officially removed
from the APA’s list
of mental disorders
Low prevalence?
Actually, bahagi ng buhay ang pagiging LGBT 
• Sa iba’t ibang kultura (Beach & Ford, 1951)
Low prevalence?
Actually, bahagi ng buhay ang pagiging LGBT 
 Sa kulturang Pinoy
Low prevalence?
At pati sa nature!
 Nasa mahigit na 500 species, tulad ng dolphins,
penguins, sheep, bonobo monkeys, at koalas (Bagemihl,
1999; Roughgarden, 2004)
More Change
Latest updates (2013)

Gender Identity Disorder


has also been removed
from the DSM.
Professionals are called
upon to provide sensitive
care for trans people (e.g.,
support them through
transitioning).
Sa madaling salita…

“This love is ok. Our love is ok. This is love.”


Summary-summary muna

Once upon a time, being


“homosexual” was considered
a psychological problem.
Summary-summary muna

Nowadays, modern research


has shown being LGBT are just
healthy, happy forms of life &
love 
Summarizing so far

The question is no longer


“Is this a psychological
problem?” but
“How can serve and
support our LGBT fellow
Filipinos, friends & family?”
LGBT 101
Ano ang isang malaking isyu para sa mga
Pilipinong LGBT?
Anti-LGBT
stigma
Anti-LGBT stigma
Sa mahigit na 70 bansa,
pwede kang makulong
kung ikaw ay LGBT.

Sa 5 bansa -- Iran,
Mauritania, Saudi Arabia,
Sudan, at Yemen -- ang
parusa ay death penalty.
Minsan pati gobyerno ginagamit pang-
marginalize sa mga LGBT
O kaya pananampalataya
Kaya sa maraming lugar, hindi
pantay-pantay ang karapatan
May mga nagbukas na ng isip
Pero meron pa ring hahabol pa

“I am against gay
marriage – but I'm not
condemning gays. I
have family — a cousin
— who's gay, and
friends too.”
-Rep. Manny Pacquiao
Masidhing stigma – hate speech at violence
• 144 deaths by
anti-LGBT
violence since
1996
• 32 LGBT
Filipinos violently
killed in 2011
• Hate motivation
– 58 deaths from
multiple stab wounds
– 25 deaths from
multiple gunshots
– 6 deaths from torture
(Labilles, 2011)
O kaya “opinyon lang”

1 of 4 Filipinos do not want gay or


lesbian neighbors (Manalastas & del Pilar, 2005)
Legal Situation sa Pilipinas
Hindi makukulong? ✔
Protektado sa diskriminasyon sa
education? ✗
Protektado sa diskriminasyon sa
employment? ✗
Kinikilala ang mga trans legally? ✗
Kinikilala ang same-sex partnerships? ✗
Puedeng mag-adopt bilang couple? ✗
Protektado sa hate crime? ✗
Thinking Game
Dear Ate Charot..

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Letters from Women’s Journal

Hi! I’m Benny, 24 I’m Annie, 22 years old,


years old. Mayroon me and my girlfriend
bang magmamahal just broke up. I’m still in
sa isang bading na the closet kaya
tulad ko? Kung wala, nahihirapan. Wala
bakit? Kung mayroon, akong makausap since
paano ko malalaman we broke up, kaya I’m
kung mahal niya ako? having a really hard
time.
Stigma  “Minority stress”
(Hatzenbuehler, 2009; Meyer, 1995, 2003)

1. Discrimination – being treated


unequally, without dignity,
being target of violence,
harassment & bullying
2. Concealment – being
closeted, maintaining
separate lives
3. Internalized hate – feeling
ashamed of being LGBT
4. Fear of rejection – feeling
anxious, worrying, behavioral
narrowing
Minority Stress Model: Key Ideas

• SOGI, per se, does not lead


to negative outcomes.
• Rather, experiences of
stigma and marginalization
are those that reduce well-
being.

Ilan Meyer PhD


University of California Los Angeles
LGBT psychologist
Psychologist: "Normal po ang inyong anak.
Tinatrato lang siyang abnormal ng mga
taong nasa paligid niya."

My Husband’s Lover (19 Aug 2013)

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63
Summarizing so far

LGBT people are affected by the general


challenges of life, as well as the specific
difficulties related to being a stigmatized
minority (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbeuhler, 2009).
As culturally
competent
advocates and
community
workers, we can
do something
about stigma,
discrimination,
and
marginalization.
Developing LGBT-friendly services
The 3S Model
(Ofreneo, 2013)
Developing LGBT-friendly services
1. SELF
(Ofreneo, 2013)
06 Nov 2013 | DSWD Iloilo City

Kwentuhan
1. Have you ever experienced handling
LGBT-related issues in your work?
2. How would you rate (0-10) your
knowledge of LGBT issues?
3. How would you rate (0-10) your
comfort level regarding LGBT issues?

79
06 Nov 2013 | DSWD Iloilo City

Thinking Game
Sensitivity exercise

80
Tanong-tanong
Basahin ang sumusunod na
tanong na naririnig ng mga
Pilipinong LGBT.

Anong message ng mga


tanong tungkol sa mga
Pilipinong LGBT?
Tanong #1
Tanong #2
Tanong #3

84
Que

Tanong
#4
Tanong
#5
• All photos from the book
Anong Pangalan Mo sa
Gabi? At Iba Pang Tanong
sa mga LGBT (2013)

• Edited by Tetay Mendoza


& Joel Acebuche.
Photography by Rod
Singh.

• Published by the UP
Center for Women’s
studies. Orders welcome!
Developing LGBT-friendly services
2. STORIES
(Ofreneo, 2013)
06 Nov 2013 | DSWD Iloilo City

Thinking Game
If you were the social worker
assigned to this case, what would
you do?

89
Developing LGBT-friendly services
3. SAFE SPACES
(Ofreneo, 2013)
Gender Mainstreaming
“The strategy of making
women's, as well as
men's, concerns and
experiences an integral
dimension of the
design, implementation,
monitoring, and
evaluation of policies
and programs in all
spheres”

- RA 9710
Magna Carta of Women
LGBT Inclusion

Make LGBT voices,


concerns, and
experiences part of
the design,
implementation,
monitoring, and
evaluation of policies
and programs.
The big barrier
The big barrier
Heteronormativity
The ideology that says
heterosexuality is ‘normal’,
‘natural’, and ‘default’

Heteronormativity
LGBT Inclusion

Involves recognizing &


removing
heteronormative and
anti-LGBT bias in the
design, implementation,
monitoring, and
evaluation of policies
and programs.
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Policies
• UP All-Workers Union CNA:
nondiscrimination based on
SO (but not GI)

• Initiatives at UP CWS:
LGBT inclusion in UP’s draft
IRR for gender equality &
equity
Policies
• No national anti-discrimination law =(
• But we have local Anti-Discrimination Ordinances
– Quezon City (1990s), Cebu City (2012), Bacolod City
(2013)
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Training & Capacity-building
• Need to integrate LGBT
issues in regular
gender-sensitivity
programming
• Targets
– For new faculty
– For administrators
– For student orgs seeking
accreditation
– For staff like HRDO
Training & Capacity-building

• Initiatives at UP CWS:
– LGBT 101 module
– Trans 101 module
– Training of Trainers
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Services
• Affirmative counseling for
LGBT concerns
• Support for LGBT student
& faculty organizing
• LGBT-friendly
communication practices
(e.g., trans-friendly
transcripts, non-
heterosexist language in
forms & websites)
Services

• Initiatives at UP
CWS:

– Meet & greet with


LGBT faculty &
LGBT student
leaders of UP
Diliman (March
2012)
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Curriculum &
Academics

• Initiatives at UP
CWS:

– Collaboration with
UP’s Dept of
Computer Science &
Gay Geeks
Philippines for Alan
Turing centennial
(June 2012)
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Community Engagement

• Partnerships with LGBT


community
• Linkages with LGBT
groups & organizations
• Many possibilities here!
Community Engagement
• Initiatives at UP CWS:
– Strong, regular presence in LGBT Pride
events
A Framework for LGBT
Mainstreaming

UNESCO, 2012;
Chesir-Teran, 2003
Facilities & Spaces
• Creating safe
physical and virtual
spaces
• Gender & LGBT
books & library
resources
• Basic yet
overlooked:
gender-neutral
bathrooms
Facilities & Spaces

• Initiatives at UP
CWS:
– Visible LGBT
symbols like
the rainbow
flag
Facilities & Spaces

• Initiatives at UP
CWS:

– Dedicated LGBT
Studies collection at
the CWS library

– The first in UP and


in the country
LGBT-friendly social services
Saan tayo pwedeng
magsimula?
Last question.

How are you feeling right now?

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