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• Storage tanks have been widely used in many
industries particularly in the oil refinery,
chemical, and petrochemical industry which
are to store a multitude of different products
such as Crude Oil, Motor Spirit, HSD, Naphtha,
Aromatics, Water etc….

• OMPL has total 34 nos of tanks in 10 Dykes.
• Tanks in OMPL are classified as
a. DAY TANKS : There are 11 nos of day tanks in Dyke-08 tank farm. The purpose of
day tanks is to cater day to day demands of operation plants (Block-1/2/3).
Para-Xylene Day Tank 31-FB11A
Para-Xylene Day Tank 31-FB11B
Benzene Day Tank 31-FB12A
Benzene Day Tank 31-FB12B
Plant Inventory Storage Tank 31-FB17
Sulfolane Feed Tank 31-FB18
Heavy Reformate Tank 31-FB19
Clay Treater Charge Tank 31-FB20
Plant Solvent Tank 31-FB21
Wet Solvent Tank 31-FB22
Desorbent Storage Tank 31-FB23

b. STORAGE TANKS: There are 23 nos of storage tanks spread over 9 nos of dykes (01-07, 09
& 10) tank farm. The purpose of storage tanks is to store the raw material, end products
and hydrocarbon waste generated in the plant (dry slop & wet slop).


• Types of Storage tanks
1. Open Top Tanks: This type of tank has no roof. They shall not be used for petroleum product but may be
used for fire water, cooling water and effluent storage . The product is open to atmosphere.
2. Fixed Roof Tanks: Fixed roof tanks can be divided into cone roof and dome roof types. They can be self
supported or rafter/ trusses supported depending on the size.
Fixed roof are designed as
 Atmospheric tank (free vent)
 Low pressure tanks ( approx. 20 mbar of internal pressure)
 High pressure tanks (approx. 56 mbar of internal pressure).

3. Floating Roof tanks:
 Floating roof tanks is which the roof floats directly on top of the product.

 There are 2 types of floating roof:

Internal floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in a fixed roof tank.
External Floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in an open tank and the
roof is open to atmosphere.

Single Deck Floating Roof Tank

Double Deck Floating Roof Tank 7

• Single deck roof which is also called pontoon roof, the buoyancy is derived in the
pontoon, an annular circular pontoon radially divided into liquid tight
• Double deck roof consists of upper and lower steel membranes separated by a
series of circumferential bulkhead which is subdivided by radial bulkhead. The
outer ring of the compartments is the main liquid tight buoyancy for the roof.
• The air gap between the upper and bottom plates of the deck has insulation
effect which helps against the solar heat reaching the product during the hot
climate and preventing heat loss of the product during cold climate.
• Advantages of the floating roof storage tank
• As the roof floats directly on the product, there is no vapour space and thus
eliminating any possibility of flammable atmosphere.
• It reduces evaporation losses and hence reduction in air pollution. Vapour
emission is only possible from the rim seal area and this would mainly depend on
the type of seal selected and used.
• To protect the product inside the tank from evaporation to the atmosphere and
contamination from the rain water through the gaps between the outer rim of the
floating roof and the tank wall, the gaps will be closed or sealed up by mean of
flexible sealing system.
Single Deck External Floating roof tank


Flexible Roof drain

Technip Coflex Roof drain

The advantage of flexible roof drain pipe is that it gives repeatable

lay pattern which ensures no-fooling with the roof leg support.

Flexible Sealing System

• The floating roof there will be a 200 mm of gap between the inside of the tank shell and the
outer rim of the floating roof pontoon.
• The purpose of roof seal is close the gap between the pontoon and shell wall to prevent the
escape of HC vapour from the tank to atmosphere& to minimize the entry of moisture or
• The seals are also to allow irregularities of the tank & roof construction and to account for
lateral and radial movement due to wind, seismic and any turbulence during product filling
and draining.
• Therefore the seal has to very flexible enough to accommodate all the purposes.
There are two types of seals installed
1. Primary Seal: The function pf primary seal is to minimize vapour loss,
centralize the floating roof and exclude snow, rain from the rim gap.
The seal is able to provide rim space variation of ± 130 mm in a
nominal rim space of 200 mm.
2. Secondary Seal : The secondary seal is mounted over the primary seal
to enhance reduction in vapour loss, prevent rim fires, and
significantly reduces the ingress of rain water in case of external
floating roof tank.

• Roof Support Leg

i. Roof support legs are provided in the floating roof tank to support the roof when landed.
ii. There will be two type of roof support which is the pontoon support leg and the deck
support leg.
iii. There will be one pontoon support leg per 6 m of tank circumference.
iv. The deck support leg, for tanks diameter up to 60 m, one leg per 34 m² of centre deck area
and for tanks diameter larger than 60 m one leg per 26 m² of centre deck area will be
v. The supports legs are adjustment in height to provide both a low operating position (service
height) and a high cleaning position (maintenance height).
vi. Seamless pipe are used to design and fabricate the support legs and the pipe size used are
3” Schedule 80 which has a thickness of 7.62 mm.
Floating Roof Venting System
• Automatic Bleeder Vent
i. Automatic Bleeder Vent is the only venting fitting installed on the floating roof.

Operation of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Starting) Operation of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Starting)

Operation of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Finishing) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Finishing)

• Automatic bleeder vents only come into operation when the
floating roof is landed and tank is drained down or tank is
filled up.
• During in breathing it allows air to enter space under the roof
as the product drain from the tank hence avoid vacuum.
• Similarly during out-breathing, it allows the air under the roof
to escape when filled up, hence to avoid vapour pocket and
pressure formation.


• Pressure Vacuum Relief Valves (PVRV)
• The valves installed as a safety device to the fixed roof tanks to prevent either over pressure or the pulling
of vacuum.
• They are useful for limiting vapour emissions to atmosphere, limiting breathing loss during filling of the
• The PVRV’s also ensure the blanketing gas (Nitrogen) pressure of the tank.

• Pressure Setting- >14 mbar (140 mmWC)

• Vacuum Setting-< -3.5 up to -14 mbar (-35mmWC to -140 mmWC)
• Pressure vacuum relief valves have weight-loaded or spring-loaded pallets. Flow through the valve is
controlled by the weight of the pallet or the spring force acting on the pallet to keep the device closed.
• Once the pressure or vacuum in the tank reaches the pallet closing force, the pallet will start to lift off the
seat and allow flow through the valve.
• Due to its air-cushioned sealing technology, valves prevent emission losses until very close to the set
pressure, and prevents air intake until very close to the set vacuum.


• The operational tank venting system or pressure/vacuum relief valves handle

normal tank venting due to product import/export and ambient temperature
• In the event of fire engulfment, as the vapour pressure in the tank increases to a
point where normal venting equipment capacity is exceeded, the preloaded
weight 0r spring pallets will lift to cover and relieve the pressure and protecting
the tank from rupture.
• Emergency vents have weight-loaded or spring-loaded pallets.
• Pressure- 240mm WC
• Flat: For tanks less than about 6-9 m in diameter, the flat-bottom tank is used. The
inclusion of a small slope as describe above does not provide any substantial
benefit, so they are fabricated as close to flat as possible.
• Cone up: These bottoms are built with a high point in the centre of the tank.
Crowning the foundation and constructing the tank on the crown accomplish this.
The slope is limited to about 25 to 50 mm per 3 m run.
• Cone down: The cone-down design slopes toward the centre of the tank. Usually,
there is a collection sump at the centre. It is very effective for water removal from
tanks. This design is inherently more complex because it requires a sump,
underground piping, and an external sump outside the tank.
• Single slope: This design uses a planar bottom but it is tilted slightly to one side.
This allows for drainage to be directed to the low point on the perimeter, where it
may be effectively collected. Since there is a constant rise across the diameter of the
tank, the difference in elevation from one side to the other can be quite large.
Therefore, this design is usually limited to about 30 m.


• Dyke Enclosures: Petroleum storage tanks shall be located in dyked enclosures
with roads all around the enclosure. Aggregate capacity of tanks located in
one dyked enclosure shall not exceed following values:
 60,000 cum. for a group of fixed roof tanks.
 120,000 cum. for a group of floating roof tanks
• Dyked enclosure shall be able to contain the complete contents of the largest
tank in the dyke in case of any emergency.
• Grouping of petroleum products for storage shall be based on the product
classification. Class-A and / or Class-B petroleum may be stored in the same
dyked enclosure. Class-C petroleum should preferably be stored in separate
enclosure. However, where Class-C petroleum is stored in a common dyke along
with Class-A and/or Class-B petroleum, all safety stipulations applicable for Class-
A and/ or Class-B respectively shall apply.
• Class-A Petroleum: Liquids which have flash point below 23 Deg C.
• Class-B Petroleum: Liquids which have flash point of 23 deg C and above but
below 65 deg C.
• Class-C Petroleum: Liquids which have flash point of 65 deg C and above but
below 93 deg C.
• Excluded Petroleum: Liquids which have flash point of 93 deg C and above

• Fire Break Wall: In a dyked enclosure where more than one
tank is located, firewalls of minimum height 600mm shall be
provided to prevent spills from one tank endangering any
other tank in the same enclosure.

• General Arrangement Drawing of IFR Tank


Shell Wall thickness design

Maintenance of Tank 31FB-5C

Vacuum Box testing of Bottom plate